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Serbia-the autopsy report

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  • The timeline.

    1. The battle of Maritsa river, 1371

    The battle of river Maritsa, that happened on September 26th 1371, marks the beginning of the Ottoman conquest of Europe. The battle was a decisive and brilliant tactical victory for the Ottoman forces, as they were able to defeat the much larger and stronger force thanks to the bold tactics. The opposing forces consisted out of 50.000 to 60.000 army, lead by the Serbian King Vukasin Mrnjacevic and his brother Ugljesa Mrnjacevic and on the Ottoman side Lala Şahin Pasha whom commanded between 800-4000 men. The battle happened most likely at night or early dawn, when the Ottoman cavalry stormed the Serbian camp, whom were caught off guard and in the issuing panic and the attempt to save their lives, drowned in the river, due to their heavier armor. Ottoman sources also quote that the discipline and order was weak, which is most likely true because the overwhelming confidence of Serbian forces in a quick victory due to their superior numbers and weaponry. This event opened up the path to the next battle that is central piece of the Serbian history, the battle of Kosovo that happened on June 15th 1389.

    2. The battle of Kosovo field, 1389

    The battle of Kosovo field, marks the beginning of the end of the medieval Serbian state. The battle itself was a draw, as both sides suffered heavy loses and lost their leaders, Serbs lost their prince Lazar Hrebljanovic and the Ottomans lost the sultan Murad. Serbian forces were not the only ones at the battle field, the force opposing to the Ottoman was more of coalition of neighboring feudal lords and contingents of western knights, most likely knights hospitalers lead by Croatian lord Jhon of Palisna. After the battle, the Murad's son Bayazid killed his brother Yakub Celebi and became the next in line of sultans that will expand the Ottoman Empire further into the Europe. After that battle, what remained of Serbian feudal lands and lords, became the vassals to the Ottoman empire. This will became apparent in the next battle that can be marked as beginning of mistrusts and hostility towards Serbs by its neighboring countries and in Europe, the battle of Nicoplois, that happened on September 26th 1396.

    3. The battle of Nicopolis, 1396.

    The battle of Nicopolis, ended the second Bulgarian Empire and it is one of the last great crusade battles of that time. As the Ottoman empire expanded inland, its next target was Bulgarian lands. In 1393, Bulgarian tzar Ivan Shishman, lost its temporary capital, the city of Nicopolis. As the Ottoman empire was nearing the Hungarian border, concerns were raised both in Hungary but also in the Republic of Venice. Pope Boniface IX proclaimed the crusade against Ottoman empire in 1394 and the coalition force was assembled. It included forces from Holy Roman Empire, Bohemian Crown,Duchy of Savoy, Kingdom of France, Duchy of Burgandy, Kingdom of Hungary, Vojovodship of Transylvania, Kingdom of Croatia, Principality of Walachia, Knights hospitalers, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Polish Crown, Bulgarian Empire,Crown of Aragon, Teutonic order, Kingdom of Navarre and Byzantine empire. On the other side, there was an Ottoman empire with its vassal armies, out of which the Moravian Serbia will prove to be crucial in the upcoming battle. On the coalition side there was between 25.000 and 30.000 soldiers while the Ottomans had 15.000 to 19.000. The timeline of the events is a bit unclear, but the arrival of 1500 Serbian knights as reinforcements on Ottoman side, is accepted as pivotal for deciding the outcome of the battle. The battle was a massacre for the Western forces and ones whom survived were captured and later on executed or released with hefty ransom. The battle of Nicoplis prevented the buildup of further coalitions against advancing Ottomans and lead to them spreading further into the Balkans towards their next target, the Kingdom of Hungary. Needles to say, the participation of Serbian force on the side of the Ottoman empire was something that was not forgotten for a very very long time.

    4. Fall of Smederevo fort, 1439-1459

    The fall of Smederevo fort marks the official end of Serbian state. After the Kosovo battle, Serbian medieval territories were under constant pressure from two sides, the advancing Ottomans and the Hungarian Kingdom. Belgrade was handed over to Hungarian Kingdom so the capital city was moved to the city of Smederevo. The city experienced two sieges. It fell for the first time in 1439 after three months of siege. Before the siege began, the ruler of Serbian despotate, Djuradj Brankovic, went to Hungary in hope of gathering sufficient force to push back the advancing Ottomans. He was able to do it, trough it wasn't easy so in 1443, combined force of Hungarian and Polish Kings was formed, so called the League against Ottomans which was able to push back the Ottomans all the way to Sofia, Bulgaria. The peace treaty was signed in 1444 in the town of Szeged and the despot Djuradj reclaimed his lands and the city of Smederevo, where he entered on August 22nd 1444. However, the Ottomans regrouped and launched a new campaign, under the sultan Mehmet 2nd whom conquers the Smederevo again, in June 20th 1459. That date, marks the end of Serbian state and the period of full Ottoman rein. Their rein will be interrupted on two occasions until the First Serbian Uprising happen in 1804. Those two occasions are the First and Second Austro-Turkish war, which lead to the two Serbian exoduses and those exoduses proved to be pivotal events for the events that happened in the 19th and 20th century, because after they happened, the demographic and ethnic balance was shifted in favor of future Serbian enemies. However, after the fall of Smederevo and the destruction of Serbian state, the next kingdom to fall will be Hungary in the battle of Mohac, that happened on August 29th 1526.

    5. Battle of Mohac, 1526.

    Battle of Mohac is the event that lead to the end of Hungarian Kingdom. Advancing Ottoman army was between 50.000 and 60.000 men strong, lead by the sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The Hungarian forces had 26.000 men. For the battle, they picked up an open but uneven terrain with few swamp patches. The Hungarians formed a line in order to exploit the terrain advantage and with hope that it will be able to break the advancing Ottoman forces into smaller formations. At first,the Hungarians had the upper hand but the arrival of the bulk of Ottoman forces brought another surprise that will prove to be decisive for the victory. The Ottomans had 300 cannons and their fire decided the victory. After the battle of Mohac, the road was opened to the gates of Vienna.

    6. The Empire of Jovan Nenad 1526.- 1527.

    Following the destruction of Serbian state, many of the Serbs fled to the Hungarian Kingdom. Many of them joined the ranks of Hungarain armed forces as mercenaries. Such it was Jovan Nenad. In the vacuum created by the Hungarian defeat and the fleeing of Hungarian noble man, Jovan Nenad siezed their lands and continued the fight against Ottomans. Out of those lands, he created a state that he called the Jovan's empire and this state, although it lasted only one year, was the first attempt of rebuilding the lost Serbian state. However, its problem was, that it was created on the lands that were not Serbian, but since there was no one to claim them, simply by opportunistic chance, Jovan Nenad, created its own little bubble that he called an Empire. This "empire", however brought back the hope to the Serbs, that not all is lost. During that one year, Jovan Nenad was not in good terms with the remaining Hungarian noble men, whom saw him rightfully as an enemy and a lunatic and fought many battles with his army. However, after the break of the first siege of Vienna, in 1529, Ferdinand 1st was on the march and remaining Hungarian noble men, wanted to deal with Jovan Nenad before Austrians came to their lands. Jovan Nenad actually never wanted the Hungarian lands, but he needed a launch point before he could take on Ottomans and his main task was freeing the Serbian lands to the south. Of course,as any ruler he didn't want to give up the conquered possessions either and that cost him his life. The rightful owner of the first estate that Jovan took, Valentine Terek killed him in ambush. After that, the Ferdinan's army took the Hungarian estates in a series of small battles and with their arrival, the Empire of Jovan Nenad was gone. However, his army chief, Radoslav Celnik, fled and pledged his alliance to the Ottoman's whom rewarded him with the lands and the title of duke. Those lands were the basis for formation of duchy of Srem, which was an vassal region under Radoslav Celnik control. At the time, the bordering regions, were mostly populated by Serbs and fight for their alliance was sought by both blocks, Austrian and Ottoman. However, that was a short lived situation, because Radoslav Celnik sided with Ferdinand which automatically prompted the Ottomans to take his lands.

    7. 1st Exodus, 1690.

    While the siege of Vienna was still in progress, Djordje Brankovic, a distant relative to the line of Brankovic family that took part in the battle of Kosovo and later on cursed for deserting the battlefield, which in the Serbian collective memory is marked as one of main reasons for the defeat, approached the Austrian Emperor Leopold the First with an idea of rebuilding the Serbian state, which will than serve as a protective shield against further Ottoman advances into Europe. Leopold agreed with the idea and gave Djordje a title of count, on September 20th 1688, aiming for him to be the ruler of future Serbian state. This idea reached the head of Serbian Orthodox Church, the patriarch Arsenije Carnojevic whom gave the blessings to Djordje for the upcoming mission. As the siege of Vienna was lifted, the "Holly alliance", the combined force of Austrian, Polish commonwealth, Russian empire and Republic of Venice, started a campaign against Ottoman Empire, with an aim to purge it form European continent. As this combined force advanced, Serbs and Albanians in the occupied territories rose to the arms at the time when the Holly alliance was entering Serbian lands and joined their ranks in 1689. In Kosovo, their combined number was 20.000. This combined force was able to reach all the way to Macedonia and than the problems started. The breakout of cholera lead to the burning of every city that was fried and such fate befell cities like Pristina,Pec,Skopje and Prizren. The military commander of joint forces, Enea Silvio Piccolomini contracted the disease and died in Skopje. The death of Piccolomini and the fast counter attack by the Ottoman forces, backed up by Crimean fast cavalry,the Tatars, lead to the defeat of the Holy alliance forces at the battle of Kacanik in January 1st 1690. The rapid defeat and even faster Ottoman advance in the counter attack, lead to the wide spread panic and started the chaotic and hasty wave of migrations. Those migrations were lead by the Serbian patriarch Arsenije Carnojevic and they included some 35.000 families both Serbian, Albanian Catholics.

    Now, the modern history, especially one that is presented by the good knight and the prime figure and the living breathing evidence of British hostile containment strategy towards Serbia since forever, Sir Malcom Noel, dispute this fact, since 35.000 families mean around 350.000 to 400.000 people and the Austrian records show that Arsenije Carnojevic brought to Austria between 30.000 and 45.000 souls, meaning people. This number is also confirmed by the Arsenije Carnojevic himself. The fact is that the good knight is right, Arsenije did brought 30.000 to 40.000 people to Austria. What good knight fails to grasp is the difference between LEAD and BROUGHT. Arsenije was leading between 350.000 and 400.000 people from Kosovo to Austria but only 10 percent of those people actually made it to Austria and that number matches the good knight math. It took 3 months for the first exiles to reach Belgrade from Kosovo, but those three months were January,February and March, they were moving during the winter, without any supplies,clothes and were exposed to constant Ottoman ambushes whom were chasing them along the way and killing them or taking them to slavery. The number one cause of death was hunger, according to the Serbian sources, while exposure to cold and disease was second and the Ottoman attacks third. Belgrade was covered up with corpses whom were lying all around without anyone to give them the proper burial. Now, some of those refugees didn't take the path that Arsenije took, they were moving in other directions. One group reached the city of Nis, where it was massacred by the advancing Ottoman forces. Also not all refugees were from Kosovo, the exodus lasted for 10 years, leaving the Serbian lands empty and changing the ethnic balance forever. Because as the matter settled down, the Albanians from the mountains started to descend and re populate the empty lands expanding their territory. The good knight is a very special figure in this essay and I will dedicate a very special part to his role in the 90es and 2000, but now its not the time.

    As for the unfortunate ruler of future free Serbia, Djordje Brankovic, his ego was so pumped up that, as Holly Alliance was victorious, he good really cooky and started to present himself as the ruler of Serbia. As this wasn't the part of the deal, he was arrested and placed in jail in the city of Kladovo, on October 29th 1689. He died in house arrest, in the city of Heb in 1711.

    8. 2nd Exodus 1740.

    Following the breakout of the Second Austro-Russian-Turkish war (1737-1739), Serbs and others did the same thing and, again suffered the same fate. This time the exodus was lead by Arsenije IV Jovanovic. This time, the exodus claimed the lives of 80.000 people as the migration column was intercepted by the Ottoman forces whom either killed them on the spot or took them to slavery. The second exodus, permanently sealed the ethnic balance not only for Kosovo but for the rest of the Serbia. Refugees from the second exodus were settled both in Austria but also in Russia, in the regions that today belong to Ukraine ( This period is actually very important because in it, there was a short lived "Kingdom of Serbia" that lasted from 1718-1739, which served as form of a buffer zone between Ottoman and Austrian Empire.

    9. The fall of Moscopole, 1769.

    The city of Moscopole is located in the south-eastern Albania and it was the center for Aromanian population in the region. The city was super advanced for its time and is today considered as the Balkan version of Atlantis. It was the home of some 80.000 Aromanians, had 20 orthodox monasteries, huge library and the printing press. In 1769, the Muslim Albanians with the full authorization of Ottoman rulers and as a punishment for the Aromanian support to Greek rebels, wiped the city from the face of the earth, prompting the exodus of Aromanian population all over the Balkans. Many of them settled in the north Macedonian city of Bitolj where they continued their trade and made the city prosperous. Being above average intelligence, witty and rich, Aromanians made it where ever they were able to get a hold. Their importance for the future is pivotal as thanks to their traits, many of Aromanains reached the very top of Serbian political and economic elite. Also, it was their money that funded the weapons and ammunition purchase for the first Serbian uprising. However, being an ancient folk, Aromanians didn't had the same view at the world as the rest of the people in the Balkan peninsula. They were more cosmopolitan and not nationality oriented, so once they reached the very tops of the Serbian politics in the 19th and 20th century, that lack of sense for the land, will make them make decisions that will be very beneficial for the short run, but spell disaster on the long run for Serbia as the state.

    10. American revolution 1775. - 1783.

    In the war of independence British Empire loses its biggest colonial asset in the West. Its attention turns East and its focus is on India as the primary colony and strategic interest. In the East, the Russia becomes the main threat and all efforts are converged in containing its influence, by any means necessary. This sets the permanent stance of England towards Serbia as hostile. Paradox is, that this stance has nothing to do with the Serbs, England would behave the same with any other nation that is judged by them to be dominant or has a potential to be dominant in the Balkans.

    11. Iceland volcanic eruption 1783.

    On 8th of June 1783, a 25 km long fissure with 130 vents opened up in the event known as phreatic eruption. In that event the water came into direct contact with the basalt magma and was instantly vaporized, causing the instant explosion. In the chemical reaction an immense amounts of Hydrofluoric acid acid were created with accompanying sulfur dioxide and other chemical compounds. Hydrofluric acid is a nasty chemical compound as it is an acid that can dissolve glass and when it comes in contact with skin it can penetrate the skin with almost no damage while dissolving the tissue and bones underneath it. It also dissolves bones and teeth. This meant that the cattle that drank the water lost its teeth first, which lead to mass loss in cattle funds, all across Europe and Middle east. The ash cloud caused climate change leading to droughts during the summer and extremely cold winters. Crop failures lead to mass hunger and losses among human population and severely endangered feudal system. In Ottoman empire, this lead to the increased taxation in order to cover the economical losses caused by the aftermath of the eruption. Also the sulfuric acid caused widespread religious panic. With the crops failing, hunger and poverty rising and prayers not being answered, created a volatile mood was created within the population of Europe and with it, the perfect conditions for the revolution.

    12.Austro-Turkish war 1788. - 1791.

    The war began as the Russo-Turkish war, headed by the Cathrene the Great. The Austria joined the war in 1788 but in a slow paste, leading to the Ottoman buildup of forces in Belgrade. This build up stroke a fear among Serbian population and sent some 50.000 refugees to Austria across the Danube river. Out of that 50.000 refugees a "free Serbia corps" was established, a military force tasked with liberating Serbia and its unification under the Austrian rule. Those corps defended the territory that got the name "Kocina krajina" or Koca's frontier located in today's Vojvodina province in the area called Banat.

    After the war ended, with the Austrian defeat, Serbs fighting under the Austrian command, felt betrayed, because they were left behind. After almost two centuries of fighting on the side of Western powers and after suffering a second national disaster in two exoduses, Serbs changed their stance and started looking at Russia as their ally and protector.

    One of the commanders in that war, later became the leader of the First Serbian Uprising and his name was Karadjordje Petrovic.

    13, French revolution .1789

    Although the historians blame the Ancien Regime and its failed policies as the main cause for the rising social unrest, I strongly believe that the Laki eruption was the main triggering event. The birth of the Republic, created the main threat on European soil and lead to the formation of several blocks to counter it, each with common and secret goals. As the French troops conquer Dalmatia, that sets in motion a migration of Serbian population from Hercegovina,Montenegro and today's Croatia towards Serbia. This population replenishes the population in Serbia and gives it the man power for the First uprising.

    Last edited by Versus; 19 Dec 21,, 18:33.


    • Click image for larger version

Name:	Serbia from 1385-1804.jpg
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ID:	1579334 Serbia from 1385-1804.jpg Maps for the events described in the previous post
      Last edited by Versus; 19 Dec 21,, 11:41.


      • Timeline part 2:

        14. Selim III decrees and the assassination of Hacı Mustafa Şinikoğlu Paşa 1793.1796, 1801, 1804.

        Ottoman sultan, Selim III, abolishes the former Serbian Freikorps (Serbian militia loyal to Hapsburg crown, but in essence a Austrian mercenaries) and eases the grip on Serbian territory, in 1796.
        Also he withdrew the unpopular janissaries from most critical part of Serbian lands. Selim III believed that if he can maintain the peace with the Serbs that will overall reduce a chance for further Austrian incursion into the Ottoman territories. In addition Ottoman empire had a Russia on its back so keeping the things at relative peace was pivotal for them. Belgrade's Ottoman administrator, Hacı Mustafa Şinikoğlu Paşa, was supportive of the Selim 3rd decisions and was praised by the Serbian population whom nick named him " Serbian mother". However, the withdrawn janissaries found the refuge with Osman Pazvantoğlu, the renegade lord and the administrator of sanjak of Vidin ( in today's Bulgaria) and the opponent to the Selim III. He was unsatisfied with the Selim III decision and decided to take the matters in his own hands. After organizing the assassination of Belgrade's administrator in 1801, he returned with the banished janissaries and began a rein of terror. Under the Haci Mustafa Pasa, Serbs were granted freedom of religion and the ability for the local provisional governors to collect taxes, local chiefs called "knez". After the return of the janissaries, all the benefits were nullified. This stirred fears in the Serbian population, as the memories of past slaughters were not forgotten. The situation was getting close to unbearable with each passing day. When the Serbs made complaints to the Selim III, the janissaries feared that the Selim III will use the Serbs against them so in order to prevent this, they started slaughtering the Serbian local chiefs and Ottomans loyal to the Selim III. This was one thing too much for the Serbs and the preparations for the uprising were set into motion. Serbs than sent a letter to Austria, informing them that the uprising will happen, but that letter was intercepted by the men loyal to the janissaries and the slaughter began. The plan of the janissaries was to kill everyone above the age of 7. Realizing that this is the end, Serbs prepare to flee to Austria. Among the ones whom were preparing to flee was the family of Karadjordje Petrovic, whom after having an argument with his father, kills him and decides to stay and fight the Ottomans. Now, there are some indicators that actually, the whole uprising was planned in Austria and that huge shipments of gunpowder and weapons were steadily streaming into Serbia prior this event but that needs to be checked. Anyhow, in 1804, the Uprising breaks out.

        15. First Serbian uprising 1804-1813.

        Fought in the shadows of the Napoleonic wars, First Serbian uprising and the free territory that existed from 1804-1813, for many Serbian historians, marks the beginning of re emergence or rebuilding of Serbian state or statehood. However, this stance is questionable and in many regards, echoes the Russian influence during the 19th century. The fact is that prior to the 19th century, Serbs were fighting on the side of Hapsburg monarchy and were in line with the western strategies and plans. Their fate was bound to the will of Vienna not Moscow. But after catastrophes of the First and Second Austro-Turkish war and especially after the demise of Kocina Kraina and the nearing of Russian empire to the Serbian lands, their stance started to shift. The big role in this narrative was belongs to the Serbian Orthodox Church, which, for the most part, was serving as proto state structure within Serbian population. With the land occupied by the Ottomans and their vicious rule, Serbs as non believers were reduced to the status of dhimmī under Sharia law. Regardless of what nonsense the good knight and other alike spew in the writings, (they serve British policies but they are not the truth), Ottoman empire was a caliphate, or to put it bluntly they were the ISIL. So everything that can be seen in the ISIL videos today, was Serbian reality during those times.

        Those times were much more brutal than the realities of Europe. The main issue is that, unlikely in the rest of Europe, when the wars broke out, the civilian population was mostly spared. This wasn't the case with the Ottomans, simply because according to sharia law, they went on full on genocide and extermination campaigns.

        This brought an permanent existential fear in Serbian collective mindset as any fight was do or die fight. This hue was painted over everything.

        In other words, same events that happened for the same reason, like for example tax rebellion in Europe and in Serbia, had two completely different outcomes. In Europe, the dominant law enforcement forces would simply enforce the law, remove the most prominent leaders, either by putting them to jail or killing them, but the population would be left intact. Not so in Serbia. The tax rebellion in Serbia, would mean wiping out the entire village or region and their lands re populated by the more loyal population that could be brought from any place within Ottoman empire.

        So what is considered to be reckless or over reaction in the European mindset, is actually, completely normal in Serbia.

        When the First Serbian Uprising started, Serbian rebels were vicious towards Muslim population and they didn't show any mercy, regardless of the age or sex. As they were freeing the territory from the Ottoman rule they were also cleansing the territory of Muslims. Parallel with the military campaign, there was building up the institutions and the systems of governance.That is the place where the first problems accrued, the fight for power between the leader of the First Serbian Uprising and the council that can be loosely understood as the ministry. The inner struggle was than fueled by the interests of agents whom were representing the Austria and Russia. After it was concluded that the Russian interest group has prevailed, the Austria backed up from supporting the rebels. Russia on the other hand was able to send some help in arms and men, but all that was not enough to maintain a steady line of defense. The territory was slowly crumbling and when the Napoleon invaded Russia, troops had to be withdrawn from Serbia. Russians concluded the peace treaty with the Ottoman empire in the city of Bukorest, that grants amnesty to the rebels and assumes the return of Serbian lands back to the Ottoman rule. Since the rebels were excluded from this deal, learning about it from the Ottoman's brought the sense of Russian betrayal. Torn between emotions and the general disposition of the Serbs in the freed territory and the total loss of support from all sides, Karadjordje was in a desperate state. Serbs belief in the Russians was so great and so pumped up, that, when the Karadjdordje and the council announced the agreement between Ottomans and Russia, the gathered crowd and the public in general rejected the deal and pledged to continue the fighting. Ottomans saw this as the violation of their contracts with Russia and decided to destroy it once for all. They gathered the overwhelming force, close to 240.000 soldiers and cannons and moving from three directions they attacked the free territory. Backed up by French artillery and engineers, they crushed the rebels and re took the free territory. Ottomans from Bosnia lead approximately 100.000 troops and from the south there was a second contingent of 60.000 and from the east there was a third with equal strength of 60.000 men. Total opposing force was 60.000 men on the Serbian side. The battles fought than were ones among most fierce ones but it was too little to stop Ottoman advance. After re taking the territory, Ottomans began campaign of genocide and only emergence of a plague stopped them for completing their goal. However, with the Napoleonic defeat, the idea of a new uprising was brewing up and it will accrue after two years, this time lead by much more pragmatic and intelligent leader, Milos Obrenovic.

        Last edited by Versus; 20 Dec 21,, 08:24.


        • It's nice to know that nothing has been changed since the 19th century...Ah, these two, same old story over and over again. Its time to continue the autopsy.


          • Originally posted by Versus View Post
            It's nice to know that nothing has been changed since the 19th century...Ah, these two, same old story over and over again. Its time to continue the autopsy.
            Has anyone told them Britain also has a nuclear deterrent? OK, it's not as large as Russia's true, but then does it really have to be? So fine, vaporize London if you want! It's not much of a consolation if Moscow and St Petersburg end up going the same way!
            If you are emotionally invested in 'believing' something is true you have lost the ability to tell if it is true.


            • Originally posted by Monash View Post

              Has anyone told them Britain also has a nuclear deterrent? OK, it's not as large as Russia's true, but then does it really have to be? So fine, vaporize London if you want! It's not much of a consolation if Moscow and St Petersburg end up going the same way!
              Hm, I must admit that they both lost touch with this game, last time it was more artistic than today. Maybe style fades with time. Anyhow, I don't think that they will go full on "Charge of the light brigade part 2" just yet but they will go full on proxy mind bending fu..ery. There are indications that they are re heating Balkans again, according to recent developments.

              Last edited by Versus; 01 Jun 23,, 14:42.


              • But at the end...
                Attached Files


                • Yesterday's speech at the UN, by our President was a spectacle. The only thought I had after watching that "event" can be summarized in Act 5 from Macbeth.
                  "Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
                  Creeps in this petty pace from day to day
                  To the last syllable of recorded time,
                  And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
                  The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
                  Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
                  That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
                  And then is heard no more: it is a tale
                  Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
                  Signifying nothing."

                  Cold is the void...