View Poll Results: Do you think AGW is real? Please check the proper one for nationality.

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  • AGW is real-American member

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Thread: Global Warming...Fact or Fiction?

  1. #3706
    Senior Contributor Doktor's Avatar
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    If nothing else, we can all agree CO2 causes heavy breathing that leads to no breathing. Can we?
    No such thing as a good tax - Churchill

    To make mistakes is human. To blame someone else for your mistake, is strategic.

  2. #3707
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    Ship-to-shore Cranes Shipped via The Northern Sea Route

    by Michelle Howard
    January 4, 2017
    MarineLink.com

    HANSA HEAVY LIFT has transported the first-ever ship-to-shore (STS) cranes via the Northern Sea Route (NSR), relocating them from the port of St Petersburg to the port of Vostochny, spanning both the European and Far East regions of Russia.

    HHL Valparaiso is the first vessel to sail open hatch through the Northern Sea Route, which is covered by thick ice for most of the year and has a limited window of about two months open to cargo voyages.

    This allowed the two cranes, each weighing 820 metric tonnes and measuring 61 meters in height and 92 metres in width, to be shipped partially above and below deck.

    “The Northern Sea Route was the only viable option to complete this voyage in the required timeframe,” said Gleb Faldin, Commercial Manager, HANSA HEAVY LIFT.

    “In the Arctic there is no room for mistakes. During the passage, the vessel has limited connection and only a few points of shelter.

    “It is important to understand the legal framework to navigate the NSR, to plan carefully, to be prepared for the unexpected, and most importantly to have the right team on board the vessel and in the office.”

    Faldin added that a two-month delay in the cargo being ready meant that HHL Valparaiso had to be repositioned for the voyage, which was originally planned for HHL Tokyo.

    HHL Valparaiso travelled from Qingdao, China to St Petersburg via the NSR to load the cranes, and then went back through the NSR a second time to complete the mission, which was accomplished in record time.

    Crews had only a few weeks to complete the voyage, as the cargo was loaded in October and had to be delivered to its destination by late November before the route completely froze over.

    Other challenges included limited space aboard the HHL Valparaiso, which holds Ice Class E3 equivalent to Russian Arc.4 (Finnish- Swedish Ice Class 1A).

    Additionally, the cranes were not designed to be lifted, requiring careful planning from all parties involved in the move, as well as strong engineering expertise.

    “The Northern Sea Route is an important alternative that can save weeks from a voyage, but to be successful you need careful planning and engineering, the right equipment, capable vessels, and experienced crews,” said Heinrich Nagrelli, Project & Transport Engineer, HANSA HEAVY LIFT.

    “Due to the STS’s very high center of gravity (CoG) at 30 meters above deck and 70 meters air draft, as well as draft restriction of 7.7 meters, a careful and detailed plan was needed from the start.

    “This included a load spreading design and a structural analysis of the hatch covers and lower hold, a lifting stability assessment, a lifting simulation, fulfilment of Flag State requirements (open hatch, visibility, arctic weather conditions, COLREGs*), and the approval of the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, as well as the arranging of ice breaker assistance.”

    ZAO ‘SMM’, a leading manufacturer of heavy port handling equipment in Russia, was charterer of the HHL Valparaiso and in charge of overall project management as well as the transportation of the two STS cranes.

    “The high professionalism of ZAO ‘SMM’ and good mutual cooperation with HANSA HEAVY LIFT ensured the successful and timely implementation of this project,” said Mikhail Skripchenko, Project Manager at ZAO ‘SMM’.

    “Our company has proven expertise in the area of logistics for the transport of heavy cranes and other oversized equipment via Russian inland waterways, as well as the Northern Sea Route.


    All HANSA HEAVY LIFT vessels can travel along sea routes with an ice thickness of up to 0.8 meters.


    *International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea


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  3. #3708
    Global Moderator
    Dirty Kiwi
    Parihaka's Avatar
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    Wow. As Captain you'd be living on coffee
    In the realm of spirit, seek clarity; in the material world, seek utility

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  4. #3709
    Contributor
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    Quote Originally Posted by Parihaka View Post
    Wow. As Captain you'd be living on coffee
    They don't make enough coffee for that.

    I am not a mariner, but it seems reckless to operate with open hatches in Arctic water without employing some other means of displacing most of the water that might enter if they encounter unavoidable foul weather, maybe use some sort of air bladders captivated by heavy netting.
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  5. #3710
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    Retreating Arctic Coasts Cause Drastic Changes

    By Joseph R. Fonseca
    January 4, 2017
    Marine Technology News


    The thawing and erosion of Arctic permafrost coasts has dramatically increased in the past years and the sea is now consuming more than 20 meters of land per year at some locations. The earth masses removed in this process increasingly blur the shallow water areas and release nutrients and pollutants. Yet, the consequences of these processes on life in the coastal zone and on traditional fishing grounds are virtually unknown.

    Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) urge to focus our attention on the ecological consequences of coastal erosion in the January issue of the journal Nature Climate Change. According to the scientists, an interdisciplinary research program is required, and must involve policy-makers as well as inhabitants of the Arctic coasts right from the onset.

    The difference could hardly be greater. In the winter, when the Beaufort Sea is frozen around the Canadian permafrost island of Herschel Island (Qikiqtaruk), the sea water in the sample bottles of the AWI researcher Dr. Michael Fritz looks crystal clear. In summer, however, when the ice floes are melted and the sun and waves start to wear the cliff away, the water sample of the Potsdam geoscientist contains a cloudy broth.

    "Herschel Island loses up to 22 meters of coast each year. The thawed permafrost slides down into the sea in the form of mud slides and blurs the surrounding shallow water areas so much that the brownish-grey sediment plumes reach many kilometers into the sea," reports the polar researcher.

    His observations of Herschel Island can now be transferred to large parts of the Arctic. 34 percent of the coasts around the world are permafrost coasts. This means, especially in the Arctic, that its soil contains a large amount of frozen water, which keeps the sediments together like cement. If the permafrost thaws, the binding effect fails. The sediments as well as animal and plant remains, which are frozen in the permafrost, are suddenly released in the water and are washed away by the waves.

    In this process, greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are released and lead to even greater global warming. The eroded material also contains a lot of nutrients and pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus or mercury. These substances enter the sea, where they are further transported, degraded or accumulated and permanently alter the living conditions in the shallow water area. "We can until now only guess the implications for the food chain. To date, almost no research has been carried out on the link between the biogeochemistry of the coastal zone and increasing erosion and what consequences this has on ecosystems, on traditional fishing grounds, and thus also on the people of the Arctic," says Michael Fritz.

    For this reason, Michael Fritz, the Dutch permafrost expert Jorien Vonk and AWI researcher Hugues Lantuit call on the polar research community to systematically investigate the consequences of coastal erosion for the arctic shallow water areas in the current issue of the journal Nature Climate Change. "The processes in the arctic coastal zone play an outstanding role for four reasons. Firstly, the thawed organic material is decomposed by microorganisms, producing greenhouse gases. Secondly, released nutrients stimulate the growth of algae, which can lead to the formation of low-oxygen zones. Thirdly, the addition of organic carbon increases the acidification of the sea, and fourth, the sediments are deposited on the seabed or are transported to the open ocean. This has direct consequences for the biology of the sea," the authors say.

    The urgency of the topic also increases with the warming of the Arctic: "We believe that the erosion of the Arctic coasts will increase drastically as a result of rising temperatures, the shrinking of the protective sea ice cover, and the rising sea level," says AWI permafrost expert and co-author Professor Hugues Lantuit. He adds that “during the ice-free season the waves can hit the coast higher and affect more land”. An erosion of that magnitude will without a doubt alter the food web in the coastal zone, and will affect those people who depend on fishing and who cultivate their traditional way of life along Arctic coasts.

    The main reason why research on this topic has not been carried out so far is linked to logistics. Much of the arctic coastal and shallow water zones are not accessible either by car or plane, or by large icebreakers. There is also no arctic-wide station network at the coast that could be used by researchers to collect reliable data. “Politics and science must find common solutions here, for example within the framework of the EU research program Horizon 2020. In order to make concrete statements on the consequences of erosion, we need an interdisciplinary research program that includes policy-makers and the Arctic population from the beginning,” says Michael Fritz.


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