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Thread: Future Battleship/Capital Ship Discussion

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    Future Battleship/Capital Ship Discussion

    I keep seeing all these threads about 21st century battleship designs, and you know what? It's crap. Why not just build a modern replacement for the Iowa? The following is put together from a large variety of sources. I kept thinking I already posted this here on WAB, but evidently that isn't the case. Well here it is!

    BB(X) Illinois Class (BB-71)
    Advanced Modern Battleship
    Length: 889’
    Beam: 108’
    Draft: 34'
    Cruise Speed: 33 kts
    Dash Speed: 35.1 kts
    Tonnage: 49,000 tons light/ 55,000 tons full/ 59,000 tons max war cap.
    Unit Price: 6.8- 7 B

    BB(X) will have a "tumblehome" hull form, i.e. a design in which hull slopes inward from above the waterline. This will significantly reduce the radar cross section since such a slope returns a much less defined radar image rather than a more hard-angled hull form.

    Requirements for the Integrated Deckhouse EDM is that it is fully EMC (Electromagetic Compatibility) shielded with reduced infrared and radar signatures. Measures to fulfill these conditions include an all-composite superstructure, low signature electronically steered arrays, an integrated multi-function mast and low radar and infrared signatures. Other measures to reduce the vessel's infrared signature include the development of an exhaust suppressor.

    Harris Corporation has been awarded a contract for the development of the Common Data Link (CDL) X/Ku-band phased array antenna systems, which will be integrated into the Integrated Deckhouse Assembly. The multi-beam electronically-steered antenna will allow connectivity with up to eight CDL terminals.


    Countermeasures:

    Torpedo Countermeasures:

    Ship Silencing Program:
    Reduction of sonar self noise over the frequency range of passive capable sonar is one goal of the Navy Ship Silencing Program. The other goal is a maximum reduction in the ship's radiated noise to obtain the best possible counter-detection posture relative to enemy submarines. Unwanted noise can severely limit a ship's overall USW capability, both active and passive. A lack of understanding or inattention on the part of ship's personnel can negate the effect of installed quiet ship features.
    Platform noise is that noise generated by own ship other than the sonar system.
    Platform noise consists of radiated noise and crew generated noise. Control of this noise is the purpose of the shipboard noise control program. Platform noise is a primary concern when operating in EMCON.
    Three classes of Sound Isolation Devices:
    Resilient Mounts - rubber shock devices used on machinery and piping.
    Typical Resilient Mount
    Distributed Isolation Material (DIM) - rubber type pads used on smaller equipment.
    Distributed Isolation Material
    Flexible Connections - used on pipes and hoses.
    Flexible Connection
    Sound isolation devices are most effective when properly matched to machine characteristics and when both the machine and device are properly maintained.

    Prarie/masker:

    Air bubbles can be employed to mask potential targets or to provide alternate targets. The large difference in characteristic impedance (c) between the air bubbles and the surrounding water make them very efficient as reflectors of acoustic energy. Very little sound will penetrate a curtain of air bubbles, making them very efficient as masking for noise sources. Prairie-Masker is used during both active and passive undersea warfare operations. Gas turbine ships routinely operate systems inport and at sea, to avoid marine growth from plugging holes in blade tips and masker belts. During ASW operations, there is no instantaneous way of determining if the airflow rates are accurate at any given time. Improper Prairie/Masker airflow rates are an ASW mission degrade. MACHALT Proposals Under Development will replace Prairie/Masker air system portable flow meters with an electronic airflow monitoring system.
    Masker air forms an air bubble screen around the hull of the ship, reducing transmission of machinery noise to the surrounding waters. Masker creates acoustic impedance mismatch between hull and water, by way of the masker belts located around the hull, putting a blanket of air bubbles between the hull's machinery noise and the water. Masker air disguises low frequency machinery noise that radiates through the hull and cools bleed air for use in engine starting and motoring. The Masker Air System uses air from the ship's bleed air system via the bleed air cooler for discharge through emitter belts located around the underwater girth of the ship. The masker regulator valve reduces masker air pressure from 75 to 28 psig. After leaving the reducing valve, the air supply divides into two branches supplying air to the forward and aft emitter belts. On the FFG-7 the Emitter Belts are located at frames 177 and 253. Each belt is divided into port and starboard halves. Each belt has a separate air connection. Each emitter belt uses a solenoid operated valve to control air flow. The ACC controls these solenoid valves. Masker air discharges through each connection at a rate of 425 squared cubic feet per minute (SCFM) at approximately 12 psig. Perforations in the emitters allow discharge of Masker air from the keel to the water line. An orifice plate in the port side emitter belt balances air flow.
    The Prairie Air System supplies air along the propeller blade leading edge to reduce the hydrodynamic noise originating at the propeller. This fills the vacuum left by the rotating blades as the water "boils," allowing cavitation bubbles to contract more slowly as area of underpressure is minimized. Prairie Air is drawn from the bleed air header, sent through a cooler then through the propulsion shafting to the propeller hubs where it is emitted from small holes on the propeller blades. Each engine room has its own prairie air system to supply air to its associated propeller. The air passes through a network of apertures along each stabilizer's leading edge, suppressing flow noise and cavitation. For instance, on the FFG-7 Prairie air flows at 400 SCFM from a branch of the bleed air system through the prairie air cooler. The cooler uses seawater from the Firemain system as a cooling medium. From the cooler, prairie air flows through a flow meter into the roto-seal at the Oil Distribution Box (OD Box) and into the prairie air tubing to the propeller. At the propeller hub after end, the air enters drilled passages in the hub body. The passages direct the air to the base of each propeller blade. Air reaches each blade through a bushing connection between the blade base and the hub body. Air then flows through an air channel in the blade leading edge and discharges through 302 orifices. Two check valves prevent entry of water when the air supply is secured. The Fin Stabilizers use prairie air supplied directly from the discharge side of the prairie air cooler.
    For example, on the FFG-7, customer bleed air extracted from the Gas Turbine Engine (GTE) compressor's 16th stage, provides gas turbine anti-icing, prairie and masker air, and start air for the other Gas Turbine Engine (GTE). Bleed air used for cross bleed starts, masker air, and prairie air passes through the bleed air reducing valve, reduceing bleed air pressure from 250 to 75 psig. Bleed air then passes through the bleed air cooler that uses sea water from the firemain to lower the bleed air temperature to below 400o F. After air passes through the bleed air cooler it splits off into two branches, one for starting air and the other for prairie/masker air.
    Surface Ship Torpedo Defense (SSTD):
    The US/UK Surface Ship Torpedo Defense (SSTD) Joint Project is be fitted on a wide range of USN/RN platforms. The program involves development of new acoustic sensors and countermeasures to detect, track, and divert incoming torpedoes; providing torpedo defense against all threat torpedos for surface ships (combatant, amphibious and auxiliary). SSTD will be installed on aircraft carriers, surface combatants, and amphibious ships during routine maintenance periods.
    The SSTD program is a defensive system development to counter specific undersea weapon threats to high value surface ships. The system consists of detection, control, and counter weapon subsystems. The counter weapon portion is comprised of a hardkill subsystem for outer layer engagement and a seduction subsystem (softkill) for inner layer defense. SSTD is the first undersea warfare program to use a layered-attrition approach for the defense of surface ships.
    The result of a joint US/UK program, the Multi-Sensor Torpedo Recognition Acoustic Processor (MSTRAP) integrated system will be able to counter the short-range undersea threat with a variety of countermeasures designed to screen the CVBG while evasion is in progress.
    The System Control Function (SCF) component of SSTD will control the startup and shutdown of SSTD, provide a continuous status of the SSTD system software, and support Fault Detection/Fault Localization diagnostics. SCF is being written using C on a TAC-3 in a UNIX/ X-Windows/Motif environment.
    The SSTD Launched Expendable Acoustic Device (LEAD) program experienced a continual stream of unrelated component failures during at-sea flight testing. From April 1996 to August 1997, the Navy's Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) Center of Excellence, part of the Navy's Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) program, developed a get well program based on a structured design methodology, which documented the fabrication and test experience of every component and subassembly in the test units. BMP and SSTD were able to reduce process variability, single out the processes which needed improvement, analyze failures, and identify necessary changes to achieve needed reliability. The success of this ManTech effort resulted in approval from the Program Executive Officer for Undersea Warfare for limited production and fleet introduction of the LEAD program.
    Following OPEVAL, the PEO convened a Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) to review the requirements and the design of SSTD. In essence, the TAP found the design concept to be valid. They recommended the installation of the fixes planned and the resumption of OPEVAL as soon as possible. Unfortunately, the resources necessary to implement the recommendation were not fully available and the program has since been restructured. SSTD today is a modular system comprised of the original detection and softkill sub-systems with capability to accommodate new hardkill systems in the future.
    AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE:
    The Torpedo Countermeasures Transmitting Set AN/SLQ-25A, commonly referred to as Nixie, is a passive, electro-acoustic decoy system used to provide deceptive countermeasures against acoustic homing torpedoes. The AN/SLQ-25A employs an underwater acoustic projector housed in a streamlined body which is towed astern on a combination tow/signal-transfer coaxial cable. An onboard generated signal is used by the towed body to produce an acoustic signal to decoy the hostile torpedo away from the ship. The AN/SLQ-25A includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities. The AN/SLQ-25B includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities, a fiber optic display LAN, a torpedo alertment capability and a towed array sensor.
    Modern acoustic towed decoys, such as the AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE and the older T-MK6 FANFAIR, employ electronic or electromechanical means to produce the required signals. The system provides an alternate target diversion for an enemy acoustic homing torpedo by stringing on cable a "noise maker", aft of the ship, which has the capability of producing a greater noise than the ship; thereby diverting the incoming torpedo from the ship to the "fish". The towed device receives the torpedoes ping frequency, amplifies it 2 to 3 times and sends it back to lure the torpedo away from the ship. They may be used in pairs or singularly.
    Operators are cautioned not to attempt MC transmission with less then 1000 feet of fiber optic tow cable (fotc) deployed, and MC transmission should be terminated before retrieval of FOTC commences. On below deck installations, the cable guide doors, if installed, must be closed whenever more than 50 feet of cable is paid out. Open doors mat cause the FOTC to ride out of the sheave and become caught between the sheave and keeper roller, seriously damaging the FOTC. Although the tech manual states the launch/retrieval speeds for the system are between 10-25 knots, it is strongly suggested not to exceed 15 knots. At speeds in excess of 15 knots damage to tow cable can occur on some platforms. (DD, DDG 994 class and CG 47 class). The emergency non-powered payout procedure should only be used when power is lost to the winch and the tactical situation dictates deployment of the torpedo countermeasures system. Winch speed must be carefully controlled by braking during non-powered payout operations. If not monitored the winch will rotate at an extremely dangerous rate.





    RADAR:
    The radar suite will consist of a dual band radar for horizon and volume search, an L-band volume search radar (VSR) integrated with the AN/SPY-3 multi-function radar already being developed by Raytheon for the US Navy. The two radars are to be integrated at waveform level for enhanced surveillance and tracking capability. The AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar (MFR) is an X-band active phased-array radar designed to detect low-observable anti-ship cruise missiles and support fire-control illumination for the ESSM and Standard Missiles.

    The AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar (MFR) is an X-band active phased-array radar designed to meet all horizon search and fire control requirements for the 21st-century Fleet. MFR is designed to detect the most advanced low-observable anti-ship cruise missile (ASCM) threats and support fire-control illumination requirements for the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM, see separate program summary), Standard Missiles (SM-2/SM-3, see separate program summaries), and future missiles required to support engagement of the most stressing ASCMs. MFR also supports new ship-design requirement for reduced radar cross-section, significantly reduced manning (no operators), and total ownership cost reduction. MFR is planned for introduction in CVN-77 and next-generation CVNX aircraft carriers and the now-refocused DDX surface warship programs (see separate program summaries).
    Engineering and Manufacturing Development unit build is underway for development, testing, and follow-on production of MFR to support equipment delivery schedules for CVN-77, CVNX, DDX, and potentially future LPD-12 class ships. DT/OA is planned for early FY 2003. First production radar is scheduled for delivery to Newport News Shipbuilding for installation in CVN 77 in June 2006. IOC is expected in 2008.
    In June 2003 Raytheon Company's Integrated Defense Systems completed integration, test and delivery of the first SPY-3 multifunction radar to the U.S. Navy's Surface Combat System Center at Wallops Island. The SPY-3 radar has been designed for the Navy's newest amphibious warfare ships, the next generation aircraft carrier, CVN-77 and the DD(X) class of surface combatant ships.
    This delivery is tangible evidence of the progress we've made in the development of next-generation radars that will serve the fleet in the 21st century. SPY-3 represents the first of the full-range of Raytheon technologies that will revolutionize the Navy's capabilities in the years to come.
    The SPY-3 is an active phased array X-band radar designed to meet all horizon search and fire control requirements for the 21st century fleet. The Multi Function Radar combines the functions provided by more than five separate radars currently aboard Navy combatant ships. SPY-3 supports new ship-design requirements for reduced radar cross-section, significantly reduced manning requirements and total ownership cost reduction.

    The Multi-Function Radar (MFR) is a focal point for DD 21's Integrated Topside Design and embedded aperture technology. The Multi-Function Radar is an X-band active phased array radar designed to meet all horizon search and fire control requirements for the 21st-century fleet. The solid-state active arrays will be carefully engi-neered to preserve the ship signature requirements of DD 21 and require new topside technologies to incorporate embedded phased arrays into a composite superstructure.

    The Navy expects the radar to perform such functions as horizon search, limited above-the-horizon search, and fire control track and illumination. One of the most significant design features of the radar is to provide automatic detection, tracking, and illumination of low-altitude threat missiles in adverse environmental conditions routinely found in coastal waters. Supplemented with a Volume Search Radar (VSR), being developed within the DD 21 competition, the radar suite will provide capabilities including situational awareness, air control, track identification, and counterbattery detection.

    The Navy intends for the MFR to replace legacy radars currently found on CVN 68 class carriers including the SPS-67, Mk 23 TAS with Mk 95 illuminator or SPQ-9B, and the SPN-41/46 radars, which provide glide slope for approach control on aircraft carriers. Current Navy plans call for inclusion of the MFR on CVN 77, which is expected to enter service in December 2007, and the DD 21 ship class. Other installation candidates are LHD 8, CVN 70−76 (as a backfit), and CVN(X) and LH(X) future ship classes. Additionally, the Navy will review the LPD 17 combat system in 2001 to determine if changes in configuration are warranted. The costs and benefits of including the MFR/VSR suite in the LPD 17 combat system suite will be considered in this review.

    This solid-state, active array radar system will not only scan the horizon for high-speed, low-level cruise missile threats, but also provide fire-control illumination for DD 21 air defense weapons. MFR is designed to detect the most advanced low-observable anti-ship cruise missile (ASCM) threats and support fire-control illumination requirements for the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile, Standard Missile, and future missiles required to support engagement of the most stressing ASCMs.

    In June 1999, the Navy awarded a contract to develop an MFR prototype. MFR is being designed and developed as an Engineering Development Model (EDM) by Raytheon Systems Company, Sudbury MA. Based on current program plans, the initial MFR prototype will be available in fiscal year 2002 to support land-based and sea-based testing.

    MFR supports new ship design requirement for reduced radar cross-section, reduced manning and total ownership cost reduction. MFR is planned for introduction in CVN-77/CVNX and DD-21 warships. Development, testing, and subsequent production will support equipment delivery schedules for both CVN-77 and DD-21. Initial Operational Capability is expected in 2008 with the delivery of DD-21.

    Like the integrated propulsion system, DD 21's radar suite will have broad applications for other future naval platforms. The preeminent among these is CVN 77, which will be the first ship to field the Mult-Function/Volume Search Radar suite. Currently, both the DD 21 and CVN 77 Program Offices are working closely together to ensure requirements for both platforms are being incorporated into the radar suite design. This technology should also interest the designers of JCC(X) and LHD(X), as well as platforms currently in construction (such as LPD 17).






    Sonar:
    At the heart of the ship's Integrated Undersea Warfare System will be a dual (high frequency/medium frequency) frequency bow array and a multi-function towed array. The US Navy has already set up the IUSW-21 program to develop technologies including multifunction hull array, mine avoidance and shallow water ASW.



    Combat Control Suite:
    Mk 7 AEGIS combat system
    Mk 34 Gun Weapon System (GWS)



    AEGIS Weapon System MK-7, baseline 7 phase 2

    Aegis, which means shield, is the Navy’s most modern surface combat system. Aegis was designed and developed as a complete system, integrating state-of-the-art radar and missile systems. The missile launching system, the computer programs, the radar and the displays are fully integrated to work together. This makes the Aegis system the first fully integrated combat system built to defend against advanced air, surface, and subsurface threats. The AEGIS Combat System is highly integrated and capable of simultaneous warfare on several fronts -- air, surface, subsurface, and strike. Anti-Air Warfare elements include the Radar System AN/SPY-1B/D, Command and Decision System, and Weapons Control System.

    For more than 40 years, the US Navy has developed systems and tactics to protect itself from air attacks. Since the end of World War II, several generations of anti-ship missiles have emerged as the air threat to the fleet. The first combatant ship sunk by one of these missiles was an Israeli destroyer in October 1967, hit by a Soviet built missile. The threat posed by such weapons was reconfirmed in April 1988 when two Iranian surface combatants fired on US Navy ships and aircraft in the Persian Gulf. The resulting exchange of anti-ship missiles led to the destruction of an Iranian frigate and corvette by US built Harpoon missiles. Modern anti-ship missiles can be launched several hundred miles away. The attacks can be coordinated, combining air, surface and subsurface launches, so that the missiles arrive on target almost simultaneously.

    The US Navy's defense against this threat has continued to rely on the winning strategy of defense in depth. Guns were replaced in the late fifties by the first generation of guided missiles in our ships and aircraft. By the late sixties, these missiles continued to perform well, but it was recognized that reaction time, firepower, and operational availability in all environments did not match the threat. To counter this, an operational requirement for an Advanced Surface Missile System (ASMS) was promulgated and a comprehensive engineering development program was initiated to meet that requirement. ASMS was re-named AEGIS (after the mythological shield of Zeus) in December 1969.

    The sophistication and complexity of the AEGIS combat system were such that the combination of engineering with AEGIS/AEGIS equipped ship acquisition demanded special management treatment. This "marriage" was effected by the establishment of the AEGIS shipbuilding project at Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA PMS-400) in 1977. The special management treatment combined and structured hull mechanical and electrical systems, combat systems, computer programs, repair parts, personnel maintenance documentation, and tactical operation documentation into one unified organization to create the highly capable, multi-mission surface combatants that are today's AEGIS cruisers and destroyers. The charter for NAVSEA PMS-400 represented a significant Navy management decision, one which had a far-reaching impact on acquisition management, design and life-time support of modern Navy ships. For the first time in the history of surface combatants, PMS-400 introduced an organization that has both responsibility and authority to simultaneously manage development/acquisition, combat system integration and life-time support.

    The AEGIS weapon system is the most capable surface launched missile system the Navy has ever put to sea. It can defeat an extremely wide range of targets from wave top to directly overhead. AEGIS is extremely capable against anti-ship cruise missiles and manned aircraft flying in all speed ranges from subsonic to supersonic. The AEGIS system is effective in all environmental conditions having both all-weather capability and demonstrated outstanding abilities in chaff and jamming environments. AEGIS brings a revolutionary, multi-mission combat capability to the US Navy. AEGIS equipped ships are capable of engaging and defeating enemy aircraft, missiles, submarines and surface ships.

    AEGIS equipped ships are key elements in modern carrier and battleship battle groups.

    The surface Navy's AEGIS system provides area defense for the battle group as well as a clear air picture for more effective deployment of F-14 and F/A-18 aircraft. AEGIS enables fighter aircraft to concentrate more on the outer air battle while cruisers and destroyers assume a greater responsibility for battle group area defense. Technological advances in missile and computer battle management systems make it possible for AEGIS equipped ships to join carrier air assets in outer air defense. The highly accurate firing of AEGIS weapon systems results in minimizing the expenditure of assets.

    The Aegis system was designed as a total weapon system, from detection to kill. The heart of the AEGIS systems is an advanced, automatic detect and track, multi-functional phased-array radar, the AN/SPY-1. This high-powered (four megawatt) radar is able to perform search, track and missile guidance functions simultaneously with a capability of over 100 targets. The first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship, USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973.

    The system's computer- based command and decision element is the core of the Aegis combat system. This interface makes the Aegis combat system capable of simultaneous operation against a multi-mission threat: anti-air, anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare.


    Baseline 7 will also be developed in two phases. Baseline 7 Phase I is planned for the last ship in FY 1998 and Phase II is planned for the last ship in FY 2002. Major Baseline 7 upgrades include but are not limited to: AN/SPY-1D(V) radar upgrade, integration of Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) and Tactical Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) capability (first forward fit implementation), advanced computer architecture, ID upgrades Phase II, Cueing Sensor, STANDARD Missile-2 Block IIIB full integration, Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS) Phase I and II, Light Airborne Multipurpose System (LAMPS) helicopter Mark III Block II, Advanced Tactical Support, integrated Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS), and Mark 50 torpedo with Periscope Depth Attack.


    Mk 34 Gun Weapon System (GWS)

    The MK 45 5"/54 Caliber Gun Mount, in conjunction with the MK 34 Gun Weapon System (GWS), is used against surface ship and close hostile aircraft, and support forces ashore with Naval Gunfire Support (NGFS). The MK 34 GWS consists of the MK 160 MOD 4 Gun Computing System and the MK 45 MOD 2 Gun Mount. The GWS accepts engagement orders, designation orders, controls, alerts, and doctrine from command and decision, and target data from shipboard sensors and off ship sources. The GWS uses standard 5" ammunition. The GWS is integrated with the DDG 51 combat system. The MK 34 GWS was developed to improve the DDG 51 class’s capability against air, surface, and NGFS threats.

    The Gun Weapon System (GWS) Mk 34 Mod 0 consists of a fully automated gun mount and the associated equipment required for mount movement and loading ammunition. The gun mount is a fully-automated, single-barrel, 5"/54 caliber, lightweight gun mount that provides anti-air, anti-surface, and shore bombardment capabilities. The Gun Mount is capable of firing singularly or continuously at a rate of 16-20 rounds per minute depending on gun barrel elevation and ammunition type. The Gun Mount automatically loads single rounds of 5-inch ammunition, completes the firing circuit, and ejects empty cases from the mount. The Gun Mount Loader Drum can hold either 20 conventional rounds, 10 guided projectile rounds, or a mixed complement of both in ready service. For anti-surface and gunfire support missions requiring pinpoint accuracy, the guided projectile provides a high first round hit probabitity and selective targeting capability. Against hostile surface combatants, the Gun Mount is capable of firing semi-active laser guided projectiles to defeat small or low-priority threats, selectively reserving missiles for high-priority, high-value targets. The Gun Mount is able to fire chaff rounds, illuminating, white phosphorus, and other specialized rounds, fuzes, and powder cases with round-to-round selectivity. The Gun Mount is normally controlled by the Multi-Function Computer Plant (MFCP), which provides gun train, elevation, and firing orders to position and fire the gun. The Multi-Function Workstation required by this system is a part of the Multi-Function Display System.


    Propulsion:
    X5 36 MW Rolls-Royce MT30
    It is envisaged that the BB(X) would have an all-electric drive with an integrated power system, (IPS) based on in-hull permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMMs) with Advanced Induction Motors (AIM) as a possible backup solution. The provision of electric drive eliminates the need for drive shaft and reduction gears and brings benefits in acoustic signature reduction, an increase in available power for weapon systems and improvements in the quality of life for crew.
    The IPS would supply power to other ship systems such as the combat systems and allow the rapid reconfiguration of power requirements.
    DRS Technologies Power Technology unit has received development contracts for the PMM motors, electric drive and control system for the IPS. The Rolls-Royce MT30 36MW gas turbine generator set has been selected to power the IPS EDM and Rolls-Royce delivered the first set in February 2005. The MT30 has 80% commonality with the Rolls-Royce Trent 800 aero engine and Rolls-Royce states that it is the most powerful marine gas turbine in the world. CAE will supply the integrated platform management system.



    Alternate Propulsion Concept:


    Modern Steam
    X4 BOILERS 890 psi
    X4 50 MW Backpressure steam turbine setup using the SIEMENS SST-800 geared turbine
    X6 20 MW Azipods or
    IMS PMMs setup listed above as far as electric geared drives.

    = 288,000 HP

    In the backpressure turbine configuration, the turbine does not consume steam. Instead, it simply reduces the pressure and energy content of steam that is subsequently exhausted into the process header. In essence, the turbo-generator serves the same steam function as a pressure-reducing valve (PRV)—it reduces steam pressure—but uses the pressure drop to produce highly valued electricity in addition to the low-pressure steam. Shaft power is produced when a nozzle directs jets of high-pressure steam against the blades of the turbine’s rotor. The rotor is attached to a shaft that is coupled to an electrical generator.

    In a backpressure steam turbine, energy from high-pressure inlet steam is efficiently converted into electricity and low-pressure exhaust steam is provided to a plant process. The turbine exhaust steam has a lower temperature than the superheated steam created when pressure is reduced through a PRV. In order to make up for this heat or enthalpy loss and meet process energy requirements, steam plants with backpressure turbine installations must increase their boiler steam throughput (typically by 5%-7%). Every Btu that is recovered as high-value electricity is replaced with an equivalent Btu of heat for downstream processes.
    Thermodynamically, steam turbines achieve an isentropic efficiency of 20%-70%. Economically, however, the turbine generates power at the efficiency of the steam boiler. The resulting power generation efficiency (modern steam boilers operate at approximately 80% efficiency) is well in excess of the efficiency for state-of-the-art single or combined cycle gas turbines. High efficiency means low electricity generating costs. Backpressure turbines can produce electrical energy at costs that are often less than 3 cents/kWh. The electricity savings alone—not to mention ancillary benefits from enhanced on-site electricity reliability and reduced emissions of CO2 and criteria pollutants—are often sufficient to completely recover the cost of the initial capital outlay in less than 2 years.



    Weapons:

    X9 16”/60 AGS guns in 3x3 turrets, 2 Fore/ 1 Aft
    X12 6.1”/62 AGS guns in 3x3 turrets, sidelines-centered-low deck
    X18 3”/62 Mk. 75 guns in 18x1 turrets, sidelines-centered-mid deck
    X8 35mm MDG-351 guns in 18x1 turrets, sidelines-centered-high deck
    x5 20mm Mk. 15 CIWS guns in x18 locales, distributed

    X200 PVLS cells, Peripheral Vertical Launch System
    X500 PVLS GMRLS Cells

    X4 533mm torpedo tubes, submarine style submerged-flush with hull

    (note- AGS stands for advanced gun systems which was developed for the DD(X) program)

    x 916"/60 AGS Mk-200 guns in 3x3 turrets, 2 Fore/ 1 Aft

    turret crew: 5

    Rate of Fire: 5 rds a min per gun
    Range unassisted ammo: 49 NM
    Range Assisted ammo: 302 NM
    Range Extended Assisted ammo: 396 NM

    Accuracy unguided: CEP= 70 to 85 meters
    Accuracy guided: CEP= 7 meters

    Turrets use hydraulic automated loading, all gunnery systems are AEGIS and SPY-3 Integrated for automatic targeting and vectoring. Rounds used can consist of 16"/50 ammo originally designed for Iowa class battleships, however new ammo would need to be developed. The Mk-200 is a smoothbore gun, as such all ammunition must be saboted or have guidance fins to maintain stable trajectory.

    I envision a general purpose shell design, that includes GPS and Intertial corrective guidance as well as assisted propulsion modules.

    x12 6.1"/62 AGS guns in 12x1 turrets, sidelines-centered-low deck
    Rate of Fire: 9 rds/min per gun

    Range unassisted: 41 NM
    Range Assisted: 100 NM
    Turret Crew: 2

    AEGIS and SPY-3 Integrated for automatic triangulation of firing, also permits as in the 16" guns automatic targeting.

    The Advanced Gun System (AGS) AGS is a 155mm Gun Weapon System planned for installation in the DD-21 Land-Attack Destroyers to provide high-volume, sustainable fires in support of amphibious operations and the joint land battle. AGS is a fully integrated gun weapon system that will include at least two separate gun systems for each DD-21 warship. Each gun system will be capable of independently firing up to 12 rounds per minute from an automated magazine storing as many as 750 rounds. The 155mm rounds are about 6.1 inches in diameter, versus the 127mm diameter of the standard 5-inch projectile. The AGS program also includes development of a 155mm version of the Extended-Range Guided Munitions (ERGM) as the first of a family of AGS munitions. AGS is being designed to meet the reduced manning and low radar-signature requirements of DD-21.

    AGS will employ 155mm caliber munitions capable of hitting targets accurately up to a distance of 100 nautical miles. One of the most amazing weapons of the First World War was the Kaiser Wilhelm Geschuetz, known to the Allies as the "Paris Gun". At a time when the best artillery of the day had a range of about 23 miles, it reached nearly 80. From March through August of 1918, three of the guns dropped 351 shells on Paris from the woods of Crepy, killing 256 and wounding 620 more. The Paris Gun's payload was only 15 pounds of explosive, accuracy was non-existent (it could hit Paris but not a specific target in Paris), and the barrels had to be rebored after 65 firings.

    The program started in FY 1999. The first gun system is scheduled for delivery to DD-21 in FY 2006, with an IOC of 2008. The AGS and its associated family of munitions are being developed under constrained affordability. The Developer/Manufacturer is United Defense Limited Partnership, Minneapolis, Minnesota, in partnership with the two DD-21 industry teams. United Defense began the design of the AGS in 1999 under a Section 845 Agreement with Bath Iron Works, the lead contractor for the DD 21 Shipbuilding Alliance. During 1999 United Defense conducted detailed analysis and trade studies for the AGS and recommended using a conventional single-barrel 155-mm Naval gun. With the acceptance of the Alliance and the Navy, United Defense began preliminary design of the AGS in November 2000.

    In the mid-1990s the Navy planned to address its surface fire support capability deficiencies in two phases, near- (scheduled completion by fiscal year 2001) and long-term (time frame to be defined). In the long-term phase, the Navy planned to develop a 155-millimeter vertical gun for advanced ships (VGAS) with an extended range guided munition. The Navy planned to equip the class of surface combatants, the DD-21 class, with the vertical guns beginning about the year 2008. The extended range guided munition technologies being developed within the near-term phase, along with the technologies being examined by several separately funded Advanced technology demonstration projects, were expected to be applicable in the long-term phase to develop other guided projectiles, including 155-millimeter and larger versions.

    The development of the conceptual 155 millimeter gun focused on both a pointing gun or a fixed, vertical gun [VGAS] -- the pointing gun was selected. The heart this gun will be an automated, ammunition magazine to reduce manning and increase the magazine capacity for rounds. With two VGAS guns on DD-21 it would be possible to carry as many as 1400-1500 rounds in a CESB module no bigger than the current VLS launcher.

    With fully automated magazines, Extended Range Guided Munitions (ERGM), and the equivalent of two USMC M198 155mm Howitzer Batteries in firepower, the two Advanced Gun Systems (AGS) in DD 21 will radically influence future naval gun developments. The vision for a littoral warfare strategy requires a system capable of providing effective and sustained Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) for amphibious operations and joint land battles. AGS will provide the needed accuracy, range, responsiveness, and volume of fire to fully meet the Navy's NSFS requirements.

    Associated with the gun are gunfire control functionality integrated into the DD 21 Total Ship Computing Environment (TSCE), an automated magazine, and low-radar and IR signatures for the gun and barrel. AGS design includes a family of 155mm extended range guided projectiles with warheads matched to the projected land attack target set. Efforts are underway to achieve as much commonality as possible with U.S. Army 155mm projectiles.

    Beyond its role on DD 21, AGS may someday serve as a model for future large caliber naval gun systems. Indeed, AGS requirements demand the most capable naval gun system ever produced, its extended range dwarfing the range of the 5"/54 Mark 4 mod 2 guns currently found on U.S. surface combatants. In addition, the expected projectile weight for the AGS munitions is much larger than that of current guns. Other revolutionary capabilities being developed in conjunction with AGS include state-of-the-art materials, and advanced barrel cooling methods. Finally, future lethality enhancements may include a penetrating capability that will certainly improve the warfighting capability of DD 21 and any other 21st century combatant.


    X18 3”/62 Mk 75 guns in 18x1 turrets, sidelines-centered-mid deck
    Turret crew: 0
    -Aegis and SPY-3 integrated

    The MK-75 is a fully automated, remotely controlled gun mount that stows, aims, and fires 76mm 62-caliber ammunition. The Mark 75 three-inch gun is a capable gun in between the Mark 45 and Mark 38. It can fire up to 80 rounds in 60 seconds without reloading to a range of 10 nautical miles. Because of performance, lightweight and low manning requirements, the the lightweight, rapid-fire MK 75 is suited for installation on small combat vessels.
    The Mark 75 was provisionally approved for service use in September 1975.
    The Naval Systems Division (NSD) of FMC Corporation and General Electric Co. (Ordnance Systems Division) were both licensed by the gun's designer, OTO Melara of La Spezia, Italy, and competed for the right to manufacture the MK-75 in the United States. In 1975, FMC/NSD won the competition. Since 1981, however, all MK 75 buys have been competed for by FMC/NSD and OTO Melara.
    The first United States produced gun mount was delivered in August 1978. Current usage includes one gun mount each for FFG-7 Perry Class Guided Missile Frigatesf and some Navy hydrofoils, and for one gun mount each for the larger Coast Guard Hamilton and Famous Class cutters.



    x8 35mm MDG-351 Millenium guns in 18x1 turrets, sidelines-centered-high deck
    turret crew: 0
    -AEGIS and SPY-3 integrated

    In March 2002 Lockheed Martin, Akron, Ohio, and Oerlikon Contraves, Zurich, Switzerland, joined forces to produce and market the rapid-fire Millennium Gun. The Millennium Gun is the only multi-mission close-in weapon system capable of engaging fast-attack surface craft and near-shore land targets in littoral and riverine waters, as well as defending against anti-ship missiles and aircraft in all environments.
    The gun's highly effective inner layer defense capability extends ship self-protection to ranges greater than any other close-in weapon systems. Creating a "wall of steel," the Millennium Gun fires 35-mm ammunition, including the advanced Ahead round, at 1,000 rounds per minute. Each Ahead round dispenses 152 subprojectiles that form a cone-shaped pattern. The subprojectiles destroy a target's control surfaces, seeker and other vital components as it moves through the wall of steel.
    The Millennium Gun is a low-cost, unmanned, remotely controlled gun mount. It is compatible with all modern and legacy sensors and fire control systems. It fits on a number of ship classes, including such advanced designs as the U.S. Coast Guard National Security Cutter and the Littoral Combat Ship. Oerlikon Contraves has received expressions of interest from several navies for mounts on frigates and corvettes.
    The Millennium Gun will give navies a multimission-capable deck gun, defending against sea-skimming cruise missiles and other air threats in the open ocean and against the asymmetric threat of small surface craft in littoral and riverine waters.
    The gun's kill radius varies according to the type of threat it engages. Testing has shown it to be lethal against aircraft and helicopters at 3.5 km, against cruise missiles at 2 km, and against anti-ship sea-skimming missiles at 1.5 km. These distances extend the close-in defensive perimeter and the time available for a ship to engage and destroy an imminent threat
    The Millennium Gun's versatility and modularity was demonstrated during the U.S. Navy's Fleet Battle Experiment-Juliet, scheduled for July and August 2002. Lockheed Martin's Sea SLICE, an advanced technology demonstrator vessel participating in the exercise, was fitted with the Millennium Gun on its bow. The exercise highlighted the gun's adaptability to fit on a number of ship classes. Its low weight, small footprint and easy loading of ammunition make it ideal for new ship construction and existing ships earmarked for modernization.

    X5 20mm Mk.15 CIWS block 1B baseline 2C guns in x18 locales, distributed
    -Aegis and Spy-3 integrated
    The MK 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapons System (CIWS - pronounced "sea-whiz") is a fast-reaction, rapid-fire 20-millimeter gun system that provides US Navy ships with a terminal defense against anti-ship missiles that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Designed to engage anti-ship cruise missiles and fixed-wing aircraft at short range, Phalanx automatically engages functions usually performed by separate, independent systems such as search, detection, threat evaluation, acquisition, track, firing, target destruction, kill assessment and cease fire. Phalanx underwent operational tests and evaluation onboard USS Bigelow in 1977, and exceeded maintenance and reliability specifications. Phalanx production started in 1978 with orders for 23 USN and 14 Foreign Military Sales (FMS) systems.
    Phalanx is a point-defense, total-weapon system consisting of two 20mm gun mounts that provide a terminal defense against incoming air targets. CIWS, without assistance from other shipboard systems, will automatically engage incoming anti-ship missiles and high-speed, low-level aircraft that have penetrated the ship primary defense envelope. As a unitized system, CIWS automatically performs search, detecting, tracking, threat evaluation, firing, and kill assessments of targets while providing for manual override. Each gun mount houses a fire control assembly and a gun subsystem. The fire control assembly is composed of a search radar for surveillance and detection of hostile targets and a track radar for aiming the gun while tracking a target. The unique closed-loop fire control system that tracks both the incoming target and the stream of outgoing projectiles gives CIWS the capability to correct its aim to hit fast-moving targets, including ASMs. The intent is to destroy the warhead on incoming missile. As a secondary measure, should it fail to hit the warhead, CIWS's rate of fire is intended to blow holes in the missile body, causing it to break up in air.
    The gun subsystem employs a gatling gun consisting of a rotating cluster of six barrels. The gatling gun fires a 20mm subcaliber sabot projectile using a heavy-metal (either tungsten or depleted uranium) 15mm penetrator surrounded by a plastic sabot and a light-weight metal pusher. The gatling gun fires 20mm ammunition at either 3,000 or 4,500 rounds-per-minute with a burst length of continuous, 60, or 100 rounds.
    As a defensive weapon, the Close In Weapons System (CIWS) has special significance for Navy ships and their crews. Battle tested by the British during the Falkand War in the early 1980's, CIWS proved remarkably effective. Navy ship crews routinely test and operate CIWS to ensure the system is working correctly. While most testing involves tracking and firing at a simulated target, the real excitement starts when the fire control teams can fire at a real target.
    CIWS has been a mainstay self defense system aboard nearly every class of ship since the late 70’s. It was originally designed to defeat low altitude antiship cruise missiles (ASCMs). As antiship cruise missiles became more complex in maneuvers and ability to be detected, and warfare areas moved from open ocean to littoral environments, CIWS has evolved to meet the threat.
    Block 1B Phalanx Surface Mode (PSUM) upgrade allows engagement of small, high-speed, maneuvering surface craft and low, slow-moving aircraft, and hovering helicopters. This upgrade incorporates a thermal imager, an automatic acquisition video tracker, and a stabilization system for the imager, providing both day and night detection of threats. The thermal imager improves the system's ability to engage anti-ship cruise missiles by providing more accurate angle tracking information to the fire control computer. Additionally, the FLIR assists the radar in engaging some ASCM’s bringing a greater chance of ship survivability. The thermal imager Automatic Acquisition Video Tracker (AAVT) and stablilization system provide surface mode and electro-optic (EO) angle track. Operational evaluation of Block 1B, conducted aboard USS Underwood (FFG-36) and the Self-Defense Test Ship, was completed in August 1999. According to Phalanx Program Office plans, Block 1B will be installed in 11 other FFG-7 CORT ships between June 2000 and July 2002.
    Baseline 2C improvements provide an integrated multi-weapon operations capability. During integrated operations, the command system controls CIWS sensors, target reports, mode employment, and doctrine. The sensors are utilized to provide 360 degree search and track coverage, while providing track data to, and receiving designations from, the Command system. This CIWS installation includes a conversion kit for each weapon group to facilitate ease and safety of maintenance; the "maintenance enclosure" kit installs the below-deck equipment for a gun mount in a prefabricated enclosure with the mount located above it.

    X200 PVLS Cells, in 4 cell units
    DD(X) is the U.S. Navy's Future Surface Combatant program for research, development and testing of transformational technologies for a "family" of surface warships, including the next-generation destroyer, DD(X). Specific technologies or engineering development models being developed for DD(X) include an advanced gun system, radar suite, integrated power system, vertical launch system and signature management/reduction, as well as optimal manning with emphasis on reduced crew size, high quality of life and minimal total ownership costs.
    Ship Systems proposed a Peripheral Vertical Launching System [PVLS] alternative to the traditional VLS configuration of centralized missile magazines. The DD(X) team's launcher concept consists of a PVLS that distributes the missile launchers in separate four-cell launcher compartments along the ship's hull starting at the forward gun and ending just aft of midships. The PVLS launcher configuration was chosen due to the significant enhancement in ship survivability.
    The four-cell missile launcher housed in the PVLS launcher compartment is called the advanced vertical launching system (AVLS). The AVLS is the actual mechanical and electrical subsystem associated with storing and launching missiles, while the PVLS is the shipboard launcher compartment in which the AVLS is installed.
    In November 2002 the DD(X) system design team led by Northrop Grumman Corporation executed a major risk reduction test on its peripheral vertical launching system (PVLS) magazine within three months after work began on the contract. The PVLS test article is a full-scale assembly that was fabricated at Northrop Grumman's Ship Systems' facility in Pascagoula, Miss. Once built, the article was transported to a facility in Aberdeen, Md., to be staged, instrumented and loaded with representative ordnance. This successful test marked the first major milestone in the DD(X) PVLS development path.
    Preparations for the Aberdeen test included design and construction of a fixture that simulated the ship's external structure. The PVLS test helped validate Northrop Grumman's proposed magazine protection system concept and provided valuable data that will be used to optimize the magazine and overall ship design.
    The 162-ton full-scale peripheral vertical launch system (PVLS) test article constructed at Northrop Grumman Corporation's Ship Systems sector in Pascagoula, Miss., underwent a live-fire test at Aberdeen Test Center in Maryland Oct. 22, 2002. The test verified the DD(X) magazine protection system, which is designed to relieve pressure from exploding ordnance while forcing blast damage away from a ship.
    The successful completion of this PVLS test represented a significant milestone in confirming the transformational DD(X) design. The magazine protection system is configured to relieve pressure from exploding ordnance, while forcing blast damage away from the ship and maximizing crew protection.

    X500 PVLS GMRLS cells
    X4 533mm submerged torpedo tubes, flush with hull
    Last edited by Defcon 6; 04 Mar 07, at 10:26.

  2. #2
    joey2
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    pics please is it BBx or DDx ?

  3. #3
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    ?

    it's not real.

    it's a concept i've had for what a next gen battleship platform should look like.

  4. #4
    joey2
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    holy crap you mean next gen of DDX?

  5. #5
    Patron Michigan_Guy's Avatar
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    The DD(X)? You mean that ship that's cost us taxpayers millions and doesn't even exist?
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    -General George Patton Jr.

  6. #6
    Defense Professional Dreadnought's Avatar
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    I see they have stopped work on LCS3 due to cost run over. Hopefully they will finish her before they get caught in the web of political funding red tape.
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  7. #7
    Regular reve893's Avatar
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    you know this new battleship is not such a bad idea, but i say we take the guns to 18 inchers, for an extra kick, this will allow the range to be even more than the 16 inchers. We should also allow the guns to have tactical nukes, so one hit can really know down a ship. Hey with Aegis protecting it there is nothing that can stop a 2000 pound shell.

  8. #8
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    reve 893, don't you think it would be more polite if you introduced yourself in the right place ( Introductions ) and then completed your public profile before you start making statements on WAB?
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  9. #9
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    A picture paints a thousand words, got a bit lost in all that techy stuff

  10. #10
    Contributor pdf27's Avatar
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    Have you run this through something like Springsharp, or is it just a set of cut-and-paste systems thrown together? The speed for instance looks far too high for the installed power - the UK CV(F) design uses IIRC 4 of the same engines, and with 10,000 tonnes less displacement goes around 10 knots slower.
    Right now that design looks highly implausible.
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  11. #11
    JBG
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    Hi pdf27.

    I agree, Springsharp is not perfect but it will winnow out many errors and provide some balance and sense of reality. It won't do the graphics though!

    Jonathan

  12. #12
    -{SpoonmaN}-
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    lol why bother making the ship L/O? WHY DOES EVERYTHING HAVE TO BE STEALTHED? With a ship like this, the only value added as I see it would be as a massed NGFS platform, since the USN has plenty of VLS cells to go around. Generally speaking, you wouldn't be conducting NGFS against an opponent who was still in shape to attack your ships from the shore with anything, because if they can hit this thing then they could do a lot more damage to a transport which would in all likelyhood be even closer inshore to disembark troops. Seems to me like the 'designer' has simply decided to put as much of every concievable gadget onto this thing as they can, and stealth is the gadget of today.

  13. #13
    Regular reve893's Avatar
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    i agree with -{SpoonmaN}- such a ship wouldn't have to be stealthed, it would still be located by submarines, and it would already be a huge target(its a huge ship), and once it fires it will be located, no matter how far it is.
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  14. #14
    -{SpoonmaN}-
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    Yeah, I think pretty much every body knows how to do sounding and, y'know, maths. That and the composite hull is probably unessecary, since the Iowas are pretty much impenetrible as I understand it, and it would probably be cheaper to make a massive armoured steal hull than a massive armoured composite hull. Anyway thats my two cents, just stating the obvious really.
    If this thing were to survive on a modern conventional hull, it would have to rely on active defences and the best of ECM. Which the USN has in spades so I guess that's doable, but then again it would really be a floating gun platform, which is exactly what BBs are useful for. That's all they've been any good for since Midway.
    Last edited by -{SpoonmaN}-; 05 Jun 07, at 15:07.

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    The cost of building the ship, including R&D, would equal or surpass building another carrier. Why not just build another carrier?

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