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Parihaka
21 Jul 05,, 00:04
thought I'd start a thread specifically for great historical moments, feel free to add whatever you think significant :cool:

Parihaka
21 Jul 05,, 00:12
And as a first post: I realise that it's still the 20th in the States but here it's the 21st so I get to jump the gun.

1969: America lands man on the Moon
American Neil Armstrong has become the first man to walk on the Moon.
The astronaut stepped onto the Moon's surface, in the Sea of Tranquility, at 0256 GMT, nearly 20 minutes after first opening the hatch on the Eagle landing craft.

His colleague Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin watched from inside the lunar module and spoke the first words of man on the Moon: "Tranquillity base. The Eagle has landed."

As he put his left foot down first Mr Armstrong declared: "That's one small step for man but one giant leap for mankind."

He described the surface as being like powdered charcoal and the landing craft left a crater about a foot deep.

'We came in peace'

The historic moments were captured on television cameras installed on the Eagle and turned on by Armstrong.

Armstrong spent his first few minutes on the moon taking photographs and soil samples in case the mission had to be aborted suddenly.

He was joined by Aldrin at 0315 GMT and the two collected data and performed various exercises - including jumping across the landscape - before planting the Stars and Stripes flag at 0341 GMT.

They also unveiled a plaque bearing President Nixon's signature and an inscription reading: "Here men from the planet earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind."

After filming their experience with a portable television camera the astronauts received a message from the US President.

President Nixon, in the White House, spoke of the pride of the American people and said: "This certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made."

Many other nations - including the UK - sent messages of congratulation.

Moscow Radio announced the news solemnly in its 1030 GMT broadcast.

As Aldrin and Armstrong collected samples, Michael Collins told mission control in Houston he had successfully orbited the Moon in the mother ship Columbia, and take-off was on schedule for 1750 GMT this evening.

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/a11_h_37_5445.gif
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/a11_h_40_5875.gif

Bill
21 Jul 05,, 00:35
Battle of Tours, 732.

Charles The Hammer and his heavily outnumbered army of Frankish Infantry crush the Muslim horde in France, thereby saving the Western world from the terrible Islamic scourge that had raped and pillaged it's way across Asia and Northern Africa...forever changing history.

All we in the west are today, we are because of him.

http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/descent/photos/Karl.Martel.and.the.arabs.jpg

bigross86
21 Jul 05,, 11:04
July 19-21, 1977

Prime Minister Begin and President Carter confer in Washington and reach agreement on the need for Israel to negotiate with the Arab states in the framwork of a Geneva conference in the fall of 1977.

Confed999
23 Jul 05,, 01:00
July 22 2003

Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, wiped from the face of the Earth...

667medic
23 Jul 05,, 12:16
June 28, 1914, assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand which trigerred WW I.

Confed999
23 Jul 05,, 17:15
July 23 1957 Theo van Gogh was born. He was murdered by an Islamic terrorist November 2 2004...

667medic
23 Jul 05,, 18:37
July 24, 1969 . Completion of the first manned mission to the moon :cool:

667medic
23 Jul 05,, 18:44
july 24, 1534. :biggrin: Jacques Cartier, lands in Canada, claims it for France :biggrin:

Confed999
23 Jul 05,, 18:45
I like this thread :)

Bluesman
23 Jul 05,, 19:22
Battle of Tours, 732.

Charles The Hammer and his heavily outnumbered army of Frankish Infantry crush the Muslim horde in France, thereby saving the Western world from the terrible Islamic scourge that had raped and pillaged it's way across Asia and Northern Africa...forever changing history.

All we in the west are today, we are because of him.

http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/descent/photos/Karl.Martel.and.the.arabs.jpg

A French army against an Islamic one...talk about a coin toss. :rolleyes:

Confed999
25 Jul 05,, 03:15
July 24 1969 Apollo 11 safely returns to Earth

July 24 1980 Peter Sellers passed on... :(

Confed999
26 Jul 05,, 01:07
July 25 1861 The Crittenden-Johnson Resolution is passed by the U.S. Congress stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.

July 25 1943 Mussolini is forced out of office

July 25 1952 Puerto Rico becomes a commonwealth of the United States

Parihaka
26 Jul 05,, 01:31
I like this thread :)
You DO like it, don't you :)

Confed999
26 Jul 05,, 02:20
You DO like it, don't you :)
Yes I do! :) It's a good excuse to examine the day.

Samudra
26 Jul 05,, 04:53
1788 - New York ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the 11th state of the United States.

1945 - Britain, China and the United States issued the Potsdam Declaration threatening Japan with "prompt and utter destruction" if it did not surrender unconditionally at the end of World War Two.

brownboi4eva
26 Jul 05,, 05:18
This Day In History | Cold War

July 26

1947 Truman signs the National Security Act

President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act, which becomes one of the most important pieces of Cold War legislation. The act established much of the bureaucratic framework for foreign policymaking for the next 40-plus years of the Cold War.

By July 1947, the Cold War was in full swing. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies during World War II, now faced off as ideological enemies. In the preceding months, the administration of President Truman had argued for, and secured, military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to assist in their struggles against communist insurgents. In addition, the Marshall Plan, which called for billions of dollars in U.S. aid to help rebuild war-torn Western Europe and strengthen it against possible communist aggression, had also taken shape. As the magnitude of the Cold War increased, however, so too did the need for a more efficient and manageable foreign policymaking bureaucracy in the United States. The National Security Act was the solution.

brownboi4eva
26 Jul 05,, 05:19
FBI FOUNDED:
July 26, 1908

On July 26, 1908, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is born when U.S. Attorney General Charles Bonaparte orders a group of newly hired federal investigators to report to Chief Examiner Stanley W. Finch of the Department of Justice. One year later, the Office of the Chief Examiner was renamed the Bureau of Investigation, and in 1935 it became the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

THL
26 Jul 05,, 05:39
President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947, which totally reorganizes the U.S. armed forces. The act establishes three separate services -- Army, Navy, and Air Force (the Air Force had previously been a branch of the Army) -- to be administered by secretaries appointed by the president. It also creates the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), to gather information on foreign powers, and the National Security Council, to advise the president; and transforms the Department of War into the Department of Defense.


http://news.fen.com/article/0,1120,1-7322,00.html

bigross86
26 Jul 05,, 10:19
1945 - Britain, China and the United States issued the Potsdam Declaration threatening Japan with "prompt and utter destruction" if it did not surrender unconditionally at the end of World War Two.

China wasn't there at the Potsdam conference. It was the Big Three, UK, US, USSR

THL
27 Jul 05,, 18:29
Today in:

1996 - A pipe bomb exploded in an Atlanta park during the Olympic Games

1837 - US Mint opens in Charlotte, NC

1844 - Fire destroys US Mint in Charlotte, NC

1944 - 1st British fighter jet used in combat (Gloster Meteor)

1976 - 8.2 Tangshan earthquake kills an estimated 240,000 in China

Parihaka
06 Aug 05,, 07:47
1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima
The first atomic bomb has been dropped by a United States aircraft on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
President Harry S Truman, announcing the news from the cruiser, Augusta, in the mid-Atlantic, said the device contained 20,000 tons of TNT and was more than 2,000 times more powerful than the largest bomb used to date.

An accurate assessment of the damage caused has so far been impossible due to a huge cloud of impenetrable dust covering the target. Hiroshima is one of the chief supply depots for the Japanese army.

The bomb was dropped from an American B-29 Superfortress, known as Enola Gay, at 0815 local time. The plane's crew say they saw a column of smoke rising and intense fires springing up.


The President said the atomic bomb heralded the "harnessing of the basic power of the universe". It also marked a victory over the Germans in the race to be first to develop a weapon using atomic energy.

President Truman went on to warn the Japanese the Allies would completely destroy their capacity to make war.

The Potsdam declaration issued 10 days ago, which called for the unconditional surrender of Japan, was a last chance for the country to avoid utter destruction, the President said.

"If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the like of which has never been seen on Earth. Behind this air attack will follow by sea and land forces in such number and power as they have not yet seen, but with fighting skill of which they are already aware."

The British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, who has replaced Winston Churchill at Number 10, read out a statement prepared by his predecessor to MPs in the Commons.

It said the atomic project had such great potential the government felt it was right to pursue the research and to pool information with atomic scientists in the US.

As Britain was considered within easy reach of Germany and its bombers, the decision was made to set up the bomb-making plants in the US.

The statement continued: "By God's mercy, Britain and American science outpaced all German efforts. These were on a considerable scale, but far behind. The possession of these powers by the Germans at any time might have altered the result of the war."

Mr Churchill's statement said considerable efforts had been made to disrupt German progress - including attacks on plants making constituent parts of the bomb.

He ended: "We must indeed pray that these awful agencies will be made to conduce peace among the nations and that instead of wreaking measureless havoc upon the entire globe they become a perennial fountain of world prosperity."

http://39th.org/39th/images/damagephotos/Damage13-hiroshima-c.jpg
http://www.atomicarchive.com/Photos/Hiroshima/images/Cloud.jpg
http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/36577000/jpg/_36577831_crew300.jpg

Parihaka
07 Aug 05,, 23:19
1974: President Nixon to resign from office
Richard Nixon has announced he is stepping down as president of the United States - the first man ever to do so.
He has announced his departure in the face of an imminent impeachment trial - and possible removal from office - over the Watergate affair.

The president broke the news of his resignation in a television broadcast from the White House on Thursday at 2100 local time. It will take effect from noon tomorrow.

Mr Nixon, 61, said initially he had believed it was his duty to complete his term of office despite the Watergate charges.

"In the past days, however, it has become evident that I no longer have a strong enough political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort," he said.

"As president I must put the interests of America first."

Successor

Mr Nixon has been charged by the House Judiciary Committee with "high crimes and misdemeanours".

The charges stem from a 1972 break-in at the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate complex.

The break-in, during that year's election campaign, was traced to members of a Nixon-support group, the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP).

Tape recordings have shown the president subsequently tried to influence the police investigation into the crime.

Mr Nixon is leaving office with more than two years of his second term left to run.

In his address Mr Nixon said he would be succeeded by US vice-president Gerald Ford.

Mr Ford will be sworn in as the 38th president of the United States tomorrow.

Confed999
07 Aug 05,, 23:51
August 7, 1998 - U.S. embassy bombings: Bombing of the United States embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya kills 224 people and injures over 4,500.

August 7, 2004 - Red Adair passed on :(

magic-spaceship
09 Aug 05,, 04:22
August 7, 2004 - Red Adair passed on :(


:frown: Not every man is man enough to have John Wayne portray him

FlyingCaddy
12 Aug 05,, 07:23
1985 - Japan Airlines Flight 123, a Boeing 747 jumbo jet, crashes into Mount Ogura in Gunma Prefecture Japan killing 520 in the world's worst single-plane air disaster. Four people miraculously survive.

Parihaka
13 Aug 05,, 13:36
To all my cac-handed, dexter sinister, southpaw lefty brethren out there, happy International Left Handed Day :biggrin:

Confed999
13 Aug 05,, 17:17
August 12

1997 - The popular, controversial animated series South Park debuts on Comedy Central.

1860 - Annie Oakley, sharpshooter, born

1926 - Fidel Castro, dictator of Cuba, born

1946 - H. G. Wells, English writer, passed on

Confed999
15 Aug 05,, 03:22
August 14

1945 - Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender. Happy VJ day! It's also National "Code Talkers" Day!

1851 - Doc Holliday, American gambler and gunfighter, born

Parihaka
17 Aug 05,, 00:09
President of the United States Bill Clinton has admitted having an inappropriate relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
In a televised address Mr Clinton told the American people that he took full responsibility for his actions.

He said: "Indeed I did have a relationship with Ms Lewinsky that was not appropriate. In fact, it was wrong."

Aides close to the president now hope the confession will bring an end to the investigation into Mr Clinton's affairs, brought by independent prosecutor Kenneth Starr.

Mr Starr's four-year inquiry began as an investigation into land deals by Hillary and Bill Clinton when he was governor of Arkansas.

It moved onto his personal life when Mr Starr began to investigate allegations that Mr Clinton had had sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky and then lied about it under oath in a sexual harassment case brought by Paula Jones in 1994.

'I misled the people'

The president's confession follows months of denial. On 26 January this year, Mr Clinton categorically denied having sexual relations with Miss Lewinsky.

Appearing serious and contrite, Mr Clinton told the American people: "I misled people, including my wife. I deeply regret that.

He concluded: "This matter is between me, the two people I love most - my wife and my daughter - and our God."

He said he had not come clean earlier because he was embarrassed but he denied he had asked anyone to lie about the relationship.

He also criticised Mr Starr and the investigation, which so far has cost £25m.

On 6 August this year Ms Lewinsky told the jury that she had an 18-month sexual relationship with the President and that the pair had discussed ways of concealing the relationship.

She also presented one of her dresses as evidence, stating it had been stained with Mr Clinton's semen during one of their sexual encounters.

If it is proved that he lied he faces possible impeachment hearings on Capitol Hill.

http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/01/24/clinton/clinton.monica.hug.story.jpg

Parihaka
18 Aug 05,, 05:53
Thousands of young people are heading home after three days and nights of sex, drugs and rock and roll at the Woodstock music festival.
An estimated 400,000 youngsters turned up to hear big-name bands play in a field near the village of Bethel, New York state in what has become the largest rock concert of the decade.

About 186,000 tickets were sold so promoters anticipated that around 200,000 would turn up. But on Friday night, the flimsy fences and ticket barriers had come down and organisers announced the concert was free prompting thousands more to head for the concert.

Traffic jams eight miles long blocked off the area near White Lake, near Bethel, some 50 miles from the town of Woodstock.


These people are really beautiful


Dr William Abruzzi, chief medical officer


Local police estimated a million people were on the road yesterday trying to get to Woodstock. They were overwhelmed by the numbers but were impressed by a good level of behaviour.

The festival's chief medical officer, Dr William Abruzzi told Rolling Stone magazine: "These people are really beautiful. There has been no violence whatsoever which is really remarkable for a crowd of this size."

Those who made it to the makeshift venue were treated to performances by Janis Joplin, The Who, Grateful Dead, Canned Heat, Crosby-Stills-Nash & Young, Jimi Hendrix, Joan Baez and Ravi Shankar.

High and naked

Rainstorms failed to dampen the spirits of the revellers, many high on marijuana, some dancing naked in the now muddy fields.

The main organiser, 49-year-old dairy farmer Max Yusgur, who provided $50,000 and 600 acres of his land, addressed the crowds on the last day of the event.

"You have proven something to the world ... that half a million kids can get together for fun and music and have nothing but fun and music."

There were however two deaths - a teenager was killed by a tractor as he lay in his sleeping bag and another died from a drugs overdose.


http://img.stern.de/_content/52/83/528328/Woodstock18_600.jpg
http://www.peacefence.com/twomuddyhippieswoodstock1969M.jpg

Parihaka
19 Aug 05,, 00:46
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev has been overthrown after a coup by Communist hardliners.
Mr Gorbachev is reported to be under house arrest at his holiday home in the Crimea.

News of the coup was broken in an announcement on state radio earlier on Monday.

It said Mr Gorbachev was "unable to perform his presidential duty for health reasons".

Soviet television has since been broadcasting regular condemnations of Mr Gorbachev's policies.

The new leaders, headed by former vice-president Gennady Yanayev have declared a state of emergency.

In a televised broadcast, the eight coup plotters, who include the heads of the army, the KGB and the police, said they were saving the country from a "national catastrophe".

'New reign of terror'

Tanks are now patrolling the streets of Moscow but in spite of their presence thousands of people have come out to demonstrate against the takeover.

They included the president of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin.

Mr Yeltsin climbed on to a tank outside the Russian parliament building to confront the troops and appeal to the army not to turn against the people.

He said the coup was a "new reign of terror" and called for civil resistance.

Despite a ban on demonstrations, several hundred demonstrators gathered outside the Kremlin calling for the reinstatement of the legal government.

Nearby troops made no move to break up the demonstration but the army is reported to have warned hospitals to be ready for "casualties".

US President George Bush has called the coup a "disturbing development" and cut short his holiday to return to the White House.

Parihaka
19 Aug 05,, 00:47
Allied troops have pulled back after nine hours of heavy fighting on the French coast at Dieppe, northwest of Paris.
The withdrawal brings to an end the largest operation yet to include the army, navy and air force at the same time.

Combined Operations Headquarters have issued a statement from London saying the raid had been completed as planned.

"Vital experience has been gained in the employment of substantial numbers of troops in an assault, and in the transport and use of heavy equipment during combined operations," it said.


Every tank that landed was lost, and over 65% of the 5,000 Canadians involved were either captured or killed.


People's War memories »


The plan, codenamed Operation Jubilee, was to open a front 11 miles (18km) long centred on the port of Dieppe.

The area was known to be heavily fortified and defended by the Germans, and strong resistance was expected.

Most of the 6,000-strong force was made up of Canadians, seeing front line action for the first time, as well as British, American and French soldiers.

The raid began when the troops set off in Royal Navy ships on the perilous journey across the Channel to the coast of occupied France.

One of the convoys was spotted by German naval convoy and attacked shortly after leaving.

Anti-aircraft shore batteries and patrol ships opened fire, sinking two German ships.

The troops arrived, along with the Royal Air Force, just before dawn.

Once the landings began on the beaches at Dieppe, troops met fierce resistance.

There was a constant bombardment from gun emplacements in the cliffs above, and casualties are described as "heavy" on both sides.

In the air, British pilots had a fierce confrontation with the Luftwaffe.

Several planes were lost in low-flying attacks on the German gun emplacements, and in all the RAF lost 95 aircraft - the most in a single day's fighting since the war started.

In a communiqué this evening, Combined Operations Headquarters pointed out that Operation Jubilee was not an invasion attempt - a message it repeated in a broadcast to France in the early hours of this morning.

The German account of the attack, issued from Hitler's headquarters, called the German defence a "great success", and said, "The enemy has suffered a devastating defeat in this landing attempt, which served only political purposes but defied all military reason."

Parihaka
19 Aug 05,, 00:59
The United States pilot, Francis Gary Powers, has been sentenced to 10 years in prison by a Soviet military court.
Powers had pleaded guilty to spying for the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) after his plane was shot down on 1 May at an altitude of about 68,000 ft (20,760 m), south of Sverdlovsk, 850 miles (1,368 km) east of Moscow.

The charge sheet said the route taken by Powers "left no doubt that it was a deliberate intrusion into the air space of the Soviet Union with hostile purposes".

Powers told the court the U-2 was designed and built for high-altitude flights. He had been told it could fly beyond the reach of anti-aircraft fire.

Summit called off

He described the moment the plane was hit: "I felt a hollow-sounding explosion. It was behind and there was a kind of orange flash."

In the wreckage of the U-2 were found films of Soviet airfields and other important military and industrial targets. A tape recording was found of the signals of certain Soviet radar stations.

Powers was asked why he made the 1 May flight. He said he assumed he was looking for rocket launching sites.

The court heard Powers was equipped with emergency gear, including money and gold, and there was a mechanism on the plane for destroying it to avoid capture. He also carried a poisoned pin to enable him to commit suicide in case of torture.

Powers told the court he was offered a well-paid job with the CIA after leaving the US Air Force.

He was told his work would involve flying along the borders of the Soviet Union with the purpose of picking up any radio or radar information.

Powers was asked if he now regretted making his last flight. He replied, "yes, very much".

He also apologised for the damage to US/Soviet relations. His plane was shot down on the eve of a superpower summit in Paris, which was subsequently called off. A visit by President Dwight Eisenhower to the Soviet Union was also cancelled.

In his final speech to the court, prosecutor Roman Rudenko outspokenly attacked the United States as inspirers and organisers of what he called "monstrous crimes" against peace.

He said the US had demonstrated "the real intention of making use of the provocative incursion of the U-2 plane into the Soviet air space as a pretext for wrecking a summit meeting, plunging the world again into the state of cold war, aggravating the tensions in international relations and putting a brake on the Great Powers' talks on disarmament".

Powers' wife Barbara and parents have been in court since the trial began three days ago. They are hoping to appeal against the sentence.

Dreadnought
19 Aug 05,, 17:16
I saw the Enola Gay the plane that dropped the bomb in the Air & Space Museum not long ago.Despite the act itself, shes really something to behold as far as her size and restoration is concerned talk about blinding wow she looks even better then brand new i felt like a child again looking at the latest military plane which in my days would have been the "Delta darts". I think its also remarkable that we still use the U2 to this day not very often but we do. And you figure that technology is 60's and yet we retired the SR71 Blackbirds in the 90's when they were'nt even used until the mid 70's. Funny how they can still urge the use of the U2 in this day and age over the SR71 and the goverment follows along but yet when it comes to the Iowa class battleships they turn a deaf ear and run for the cover of the DDX programs saying they are to old and costly for service. How ironic. :rolleyes:

Parihaka
02 Sep 05,, 02:48
German forces have invaded Poland and its planes have bombed Polish cities, including the capital, Warsaw.
The attack comes without any warning or declaration of war.

Britain and France have mobilised their forces and are preparing to wage war on Germany for the second time this century.

Just before dawn today, German tanks, infantry and cavalry penetrated Polish territory on several fronts with five armies, a total of 1.5 million troops.

Soon afterwards German planes bombarded the cities. They have been making swift progress in penetrating Polish defences which are heavily outnumbered in artillery, infantry and air power.

The cities of Katowice, Krakow, Tczew and Tunel were attacked with incendiary bombs. Air raids on Warsaw began at 0900 local time.

Communications to Katowice have been broken but earlier reports said German planes were coming over in squadrons of 50, every half-hour, and there have been many casualties.

The German Army struck from Slovakia, East Prussia and from Pomerania into the Polish Corridor and the port Danzig, which has declared itself part of the Reich.

The 4th Army came in from East Prussia at Deutsch-Eylau supported by air raids on cities north of Warsaw. There is heavy fighting reported along the whole of the East Prussian border.

Poznan was attacked from the main body of the German Reich and border towns occupied.

The 8th and 10th armies are moving north-east from Silesia towards Warsaw; and the 14th Army struck from Slovakia towards Krakow.

Warning sent to Germany

The Times newspaper reports that when the air raid sirens in the capital first sounded at 0600 inhabitants reacted calmly and some even ran out onto the streets to look up at the sky and had be driven back inside by air raid wardens.

The unprovoked attack follows yesterday's report on German radio that the border town of Gliwice had been raided by a group of Polish soldiers, who had all been shot dead.

German radio broadcast a list of "demands" never submitted to the Polish Government.

The Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, held a meeting with King George today in Downing Street.

Later this evening Mr Chamberlain told a packed House of Commons that British and French Ambassadors in Berlin had given German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop an ultimatum.

He was to tell Berlin that unless the Nazis withdraw, Britain and France would fulfil its promise of support to Poland.

Von Ribbentrop said he would refer the message to Adolf Hitler.

US President Roosevelt of the United States has sent an appeal to the governments of Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Poland urging them to announce publicly their determination not to launch air attacks on civilians.

In reply the British and French governments say they intend to confine their bombing to military objectives, so long as their opponents do the same.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39899000/jpg/_39899172_01_09_1939hitler238.jpg

Parihaka
02 Sep 05,, 02:52
Japanese officials have signed the act of unconditional surrender, finally bringing to an end six years of world war.
In the presence of 50 Allied generals and other officials, the Japanese envoys boarded the American battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay to sign the surrender document.

Within half-an-hour of the signing, a convoy of 42 US ships entered Tokyo Bay and landed 13,000 American troops.

The Supreme Commander of the Allied powers, US General Douglas MacArthur, briefly addressed the dignitaries on the deck of the battleship urging them to comply with the terms of the surrender "fully, promptly and faithfully".

He continued: "It is my earnest hope and, indeed, the hope of all mankind, that from this solemn occasion a better world shall emerge out of the blood and carnage of the past; a world founded upon faith and understanding, a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfilment of his most cherished wish, for freedom, tolerance and justice."

He also referred to the nuclear bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, saying they had "revised the traditional concept of war". The world had had its last chance, he said, and if it did not devise some greater and more equitable system Armageddon would be at its door.

Under the terms of the ceasefire, Japan has agreed to end all hostilities, release all prisoners of war, and comply with the terms of the Potsdam declaration, which confines its sovereignty to the four main islands which make up Japan.

It has also agreed to acknowledge the authority of the US supreme commander. Although Emperor Hirohito will be allowed to remain as a symbolic head of state.

From today the occupying force will be rapidly increased to about 500,000. British landing forces are expected to be relieved by US Army troops within a few days. Some will return home to Britain, others may be deployed for the reoccupation of surrendered ports.

The Japanese Prime Minister, Prince Higashi Kuni, broadcast an appeal to his people to obey the terms of the surrender.

He said the Japanese had to face defeat squarely and "suffer even the insufferable" in seeking to comply with the Emperor's surrender proclamation.

Marshal Joseph Stalin has welcomed the unconditional surrender of Japan.

Under the terms of the agreement the disputed southern Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands will pass into Soviet hands. The islands have been occupied by Japan since the Russo-Japanese war of 1904.


http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39982000/jpg/_39982163_japansurrender_getty_238.jpg

Dreadnought
02 Sep 05,, 17:37
A huge salute for ALL of our vets! We will never forget your sacrifices! :)

Jay
06 Sep 05,, 09:52
1901: Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots U.S. president William McKinley at the Pan-American exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley dies eight days later.

1926: The Kuomintang Chinese nationalist forces led by Chiang Kai-shek reach Hankou at the confluence of the Han and the Yangtze rivers; Hankou becomes the Kuomintang capital.

1941: The Nazi government requires that all Jews in German-occupied territories wear the yellow star of David for identification.

1954 : ground breaking took place at Shippingport, Pennsylvania, for the first U.S. full-scale atomic electricity generating station devoted exclusively to peaceful uses. Televised from Denver, Colorado, President Eisenhower remotely signalled a radio-controlled bulldozer. On 2 Dec 1957, the reactor reached critical power. It produced its full rated net capacity of 60 megawatts about 3 weeks later on 23 Dec. This would be sufficient to supply a city of 250,000 homes. The plant consisted of a single pressurized water-type reactor which heated steam to drive an electrical turbine-generator. The plant was formally dedicated by the same president on 25 May 1958, by remote control from Washington, D.C.* It operated until 1982.

1947: the airplane carrier Midway became the first U.S. vessel from which a long-range rocket was launched. A captured German V-2 rocket was fired from the flight deck from a position at sea several hundred miles of the east coast of the U.S. the rocket travelled about 6 miles. The Midway was commanded by Captain Albert Kellogg Morehouse, and was the flagship of the task group commanded by Rear Admiral John Jennings Ballentine.*

bull
06 Sep 05,, 10:28
1972:September 6: Olympic hostages killed in gun battle

All nine of the Israeli athletes kidnapped on Tuesday from the Olympic Village in Munich have been killed in a gun battle at a nearby airport.

Dreadnought
07 Sep 05,, 17:32
September 7,1940: London blitzed by German bombers
The German air force has unleashed a wave of heavy bombing raids on London, killing hundreds of civilians and injuring many more.
The Ministry of Home Security said the scale of the attacks was the largest the Germans had yet attempted.

"Our defences have actively engaged the enemy at all points," said a communiqué issued this evening.

"The civil defence services are responding admirably to all calls that are being made upon them."

The first raids came towards the end of the afternoon, and were concentrated on the densely populated East End, along the river by London's docks.

About 300 bombers attacked the city for over an hour and a half. The entire docklands area seemed to be ablaze as hundreds of fires lit up the sky.

Once darkness fell, the fires could be seen more than 10 miles away, and it is believed that the light guided a second wave of German bombers which began coming over at about 2030 BST (1930 GMT).

The night bombing lasted over eight hours, shaking the city with the deafening noise of hundreds of bombs falling so close together there was hardly a pause between them.

One bomb exploded on a crowded air raid shelter in an East London district.

In what was described as "a million to one chance", the bomb fell directly on the 3ft (90cm) by 1ft (30cm) ventilation shaft - the only vulnerable place in a strongly-protected underground shelter which could accommodate over 1,000 people.

About 14 people are believed to have been killed and 40 injured, including children.

Civil defence workers worked through the night, often in the face of heavy bombing, to take people out of the range of fire and find them temporary shelter and food.

An official paid tribute to staff at one London hospital which was hit, saying, "They showed marvellous bravery, keeping on until bomb detonations and gunfire made it absolutely impossible."

In the air, a series of ferocious dogfights developed as the German aircraft flew up the Thames Estuary.

The Air Ministry says at least 15 enemy aircraft crashed into the estuary, and in all, the Ministry said, 88 German aircraft were shot down, against 22 RAF planes lost.

Parihaka
11 Sep 05,, 23:09
US rocked by day of terror
The United States is in a state of shock after a day of attacks which have left thousands dead and New York's World Trade Center destroyed.
The Pentagon was also severely damaged by one of the three civilian airliners which hijackers turned into flying bombs. A fourth plane crashed in a field near Pittsburgh.

A state of emergency has been declared in Washington D.C. and the US has closed its airspace and its borders with Mexico and Canada.

American forces are on one of their highest states of alert and the Pentagon has deployed a naval battle group off the country's east coast to bolster air defences.


American Airlines Flight 11 was hijacked at 0825 Eastern Daylight Time (1225 GMT) and 18 minutes later crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center.

United Airlines Flight 175 - which had been hijacked within minutes of the first plane - was flown into the south tower at 0903 EDT (1303 GMT) causing another devastating explosion.

The second crash was captured live on news cameras trained on the burning north tower.

At 0940 EDT (1340 GMT) a third hijacked airliner - American Airlines Flight 77 - was flown into the side of the Pentagon in Washington.

An hour after the Boeing 767 slammed into the south tower of the World Trade Center the 110-storey building collapsed.

The north tower followed minutes later, compounding the destruction and loss of life.

Witnesses reported seeing people jumping from the towers just before they collapsed.


President Bush was reading to pupils at a Florida school when his chief of staff whispered news of the attacks to him.

He was flown to the US Strategic Command Centre at Nebraska - where the country's nuclear weapons are controlled - but is now on his way back to Washington.

He is expected to address the nation later this evening.

New York mayor Rudy Giuliani said the final number of dead may be "more than any of us can bear".

http://www.stevequayle.com/News.alert/04_Terror/04_Terror_pics/040910.jumpers.jpg

ZFBoxcar
07 Oct 05,, 01:00
Heavy fighting has erupted between Arab and Israeli forces along two fronts.

To the south, Egyptian armoured forces have broken the Israeli line on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal.

In the north, Syrian troops and tanks are battling with Israeli defences along the Golan Heights seized by Israel from Syria in 1967.

Both sides have accused each other of firing the first shots, but UN observers have reported seeing Egyptian and Syrian troops crossing into Israeli-held territory.

Israeli defence minister, General Moshe Dayan has told the nation in a televised address: "We must realise this is war. We are engaged in heavy battles on both fronts against numerically superior forces."

Yom Kippur

The attacks have come on the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, and the holiest day in the Jewish calendar.

Most Jews had been observing strict religious rules of fasting and prayer, but with the outbreak of fighting, Israel's civilian reserve force is now rushing to mobilise.

The heaviest fighting has been reported along the Suez Canal and the adjoining Sinai peninsula, seized by the Israelis from Egypt in 1967.

Israel's Prime Minister, Mrs. Golda Meir, claimed in a radio address that heavy losses have been inflicted on both Egypt and Syria.

But an Egyptian military communiqué has stated the Canal is now almost entirely under their control.

Damascus radio said Syrian forces on the northern frontier have captured Israeli positions on the Golan Heights, notably Mount Hermon.

But the claims are being countered by the Israelis, who say the situation in the border region remains "adequate".

Israel is outnumbered three to two in immediately available man-power, three to two in tanks and two to one in combat aircraft against the combined forces of Egypt and Syria.

British Foreign Office officials say there is a risk neighbouring countries may become involved.

Algeria, Libya, Kuwait, Jordan and the Lebanon have all pledged their support for the Arab offensive.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
In Context

Early in the conflict, Egyptian and Syrian forces retook key positions lost in the 1967 'Six Day' war.

Many Arab states contributed troops and financial support, and the USSR also provided assistance.

But ultimately the Arabs buckled under a sustained Israeli counter-attack strengthened by US airlifts.

Saudi Arabia then orchestrated an Arab oil embargo which threatened to extend the conflict into a full-scale superpower confrontation.

Most hostilities ended on 22 October. Both sides suffered heavy losses. An estimated 8,500 Syrian and Egyptian soldiers died, while Israel lost about 6,000.

In 1974 agreements negotiated by then US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger gave Egypt control of the Suez Canal. Syria regained some of its pre-1967 territory.

Bulgaroctonus
07 Oct 05,, 01:11
476 A.D. - Western Rome falls
632 A.D. - Muhammad dies, Arab armies sweep out of Arabia
1969 A.D. - Led Zeppelin forms.

Parihaka
13 Oct 05,, 04:52
At least six American sailors have been killed in what is thought to have been a suicide bomb attack on a US Navy destroyer in the Yemeni port of Aden.
Eleven others are missing and at least 36 wounded after a massive explosion left the USS Cole badly gashed along one side.

US President Bill Clinton said if the explosion was an act of terrorism it was "despicable and cowardly".

"We will find out who was responsible and hold them accountable," he told reporters.

Buildings shook

Witnesses to the explosion described it as being so powerful that buildings near the port shook.

It is thought an inflatable raft, packed with high explosives, rammed the USS Cole as it was apparently helping to moor the warship to a buoy.

The explosion left a gash up to 40 feet (12 metres) long in the left side of the destroyer, which is now listing badly.

No-one has claimed responsibility, however, and the Yemeni authorities say the explosion was not deliberate.

The attack on the USS Cole is the worst on an American target since the bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania two years ago, in which 224 people died.

Analysts believe the man believed to be behind those attacks, Saudi-born Osama Bin Laden, could also be behind the bombing of the warship.

The ship was heading to the Gulf to join the US-led maritime interception operations in support of UN sanctions against Iraq.

Parihaka
13 Oct 05,, 04:53
2002: Dozens killed in Bali nightclub explosion
Reports from the Indonesian holiday island of Bali say more than 50 people have been killed in two explosions.
At least 10 foreigners died and more than 120 people were injured - including tourists from Australia, the US, Britain and Europe.

One of the bombs exploded at a nightclub in Kuta Beach, the island's main tourist resort.

Another smaller explosion occurred in nearby Denpasar, Bali's capital, close to the United States Honorary Consulate.


It was horrendous - total carnage


Richard Poore, witness


Local police say bomb squad officers are investigating, although the cause of the explosions has not been confirmed.

The explosion in Kuta occurred at about 2330 local time when the bars would have been packed with tourists.

Witnesses say the blast destroyed the Sari Club and the resulting fire then engulfed a neighbouring bar, Paddy's Irish Club.

Other buildings and several cars were also damaged in the blast and ensuing fire.

One witness, Richard Poore, a cameraman for a New Zealand TV company, said the force of the explosion was so strong it severely damaged his hotel nearly 1km away.

"The windows of the hotel blew out, the upper floors have lost their ceilings and dropped in and there was an incredible amount of smoke in the sky."

Mr Poore explained that his "first instinct was to run up the road with a camera" to film the scenes of devastation.

"I have just never seen anything like it. It was horrendous. Total carnage," he said.

The US embassy in Jakarta has issued a series of warnings in recent weeks that its nationals could be targeted by Islamic militants linked to the al-Qaeda terror group.

The embassy itself closed for several days last month after intelligence reports indicated militant groups were planning car bomb attacks.

Indonesian officials have in the past denied that militants linked to al-Qaeda are active in the country.

Known as the Island of the Gods, Bali is a popular holiday resort - 1.5 million tourists visited in 2001.

Parihaka
13 Oct 05,, 04:54
There has been a direct bomb attack on the British Government at the Conservative party conference in Brighton.
At least two people have been killed and many others seriously injured, including two senior Cabinet ministers.

The blast tore apart the Brighton Grand Hotel where members of the Cabinet have been staying for the Conservative party conference.

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her husband Dennis narrowly escaped injury.

The IRA has issued a statement claiming it had placed a 100lb bomb in the hotel.

The statement read: "Today we were unlucky, but remember, we only have to be lucky once; you will have to be lucky always. Give Ireland peace and there will be no war."

The dead have not yet been named. Among the injured were Trade and Industry Secretary Norman Tebbit, his wife Margaret and Government Chief Whip, John Wakeham.

Pulled from the rubble

Firemen used BBC arc lights after cables were cut to rescue Mr Tebbit from the rubble, in a painstaking operation that took several hours.

Breakfast television showed pictures of the rescue and a conscious Mr Tebbit, clearly in pain, being stretchered to safety. His wife suffered neck injuries.

The bomb went off at 0254 local time, ripping open the front of the hotel on the top floors and sending masonry crashing down on guests sleeping below.

Fireman say many lives were probably saved because the well-constructed Victorian hotel remained standing, despite the central section of eight floors collapsing into the basement.

At Mrs Thatcher's insistence the conference opened on schedule at 0930. In her redrafted speech to the party she declared:

"This attack has failed. All attempts to destroy democracy by terrorism will fail."

The Queen was said to be "very shocked" by the bombing. Opposition Leader Neil Kinnock expressed his "horror and outrage".

Meanwhile security in the seaside town has been massively increased as rescue workers continue to search for people trapped in the rubble.

Detectives are now beginning a major investigation into who was behind the bombing and how such a major breach in security occurred.

Parihaka
13 Oct 05,, 04:55
Hell of a day, 12 October.....

lemontree
15 Oct 05,, 06:55
15 October 1542, birthday of Akbar the Great. This Mugal Emperor of India was the first one to establish a secular rule, much before anyone else in the sub-continent.
The current Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam shares his birthday with the legendary emperor, and it is ironical that a muslim rules over the largest democracy - a fullfilment of the principles on which Akbar the Great based his administration.

Parihaka
25 Oct 05,, 02:44
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40922000/jpg/_40922192_unlogo238.jpg

The United Nations Organisation has been formally inaugurated during a short ceremony at the US State Department in Washington.
A total of 29 countries ratified the United Nations Charter that was signed by 50 nations on 26 June in San Francisco. US Secretary of State James Byrnes signed the protocol and proclaimed the charter was "now a part of the law of nations".

He said it was a historic day for peace-loving nations of the world. But he warned peace was not based on documents but depended on the will of people to maintain it.

He added the USA would do its best to promote international co-operation.

Global security

The world security organisation aims to "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war" and maintain international peace and security.

The UN Charter upholds human rights and proposes that nations should work together to overcome social, economic, humanitarian and cultural challenges.

The name "United Nations" was coined by US President Franklin D Roosevelt, and was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942 when representatives of 26 nations pledged to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

Further proposals for an international security organisation were discussed in August 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks, in the District of Columbia, USA. The final charter was then signed in June in San Francisco and ratified today.

The UN's predecessor, the League of Nations, was established after the 1914-18 World War. It aimed to prevent another global conflict, but it failed to prevent the devastating world war that has just ended.

Much of the league's structure and many of its aims have been adopted by its successor.

The organisation will consist of six organs:


a General Assembly of all members;
a Security Council with five permanent members - China, France, Russia, the UK and the US - and six temporary members;
an Economic and Social Council;
a Trusteeship Council to supervise administration of colonies, former mandates of the League of Nations and territories taken from defeated nations;
an International Court of Justice to be based at The Hague in the Netherlands;
a Secretariat.
A Military Staff Committee will be charged with security and may take control of weapons such as the atomic bomb.

The permanent headquarters of the UNO will be in the US although it has been revealed that France, the UK and the Netherlands voted against this decision.

No ostentatious entertaining

A preparatory commission will gather in London next month to prepare for the UNO's first General Assembly meeting in the British capital early next year expected to bring 2,000 people to the city.

Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin will lead the British delegation.

Colonel GR Codrington, who is leading the event's organisers at the Foreign Office, told the Times newspaper there would be "no ostentatious entertaining" and that visitors would be given emergency ration cards.

Bomb damage has restricted the amount of hotel rooms available and members of the public have responded to an appeal to take guests into their homes during the conference.

Dreadnought
25 Oct 05,, 15:30
CNN) -- Rosa Parks, whose act of civil disobedience in 1955 inspired the modern civil rights movement, died Monday in Detroit, Michigan. She was 92.

Parks' moment in history began in December 1955 when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama.

Her arrest triggered a 381-day boycott of the bus system by blacks that was organized by a 26-year-old Baptist minister, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. (See video on an activist's life and times -- 2:52)

The boycott led to a court ruling desegregating public transportation in Montgomery, but it wasn't until the 1964 Civil Rights Act that all public accommodations nationwide were desegregated.

Facing regular threats and having lost her department store job because of her activism, Parks moved from Alabama to Detroit in 1957. She later joined the staff of U.S. Rep. John Conyers, a Michigan Democrat.

Conyers, who first met Parks during the early days of the civil rights struggle, recalled Monday that she worked on his original congressional staff when he first was elected to the House of Representatives in 1964.

"I think that she, as the mother of the new civil rights movement, has left an impact not just on the nation, but on the world," he told CNN in a telephone interview. "She was a real apostle of the nonviolence movement."

He remembered her as someone who never raised her voice -- an eloquent voice of the civil rights movement.

"You treated her with deference because she was so quiet, so serene -- just a very special person," he said, adding that "there was only one" Rosa Parks.

Gregory Reed, a longtime friend and attorney, said Parks died between 7 p.m. and 8 p.m. of natural causes. He called Parks "a lady of great courage."

Parks co-founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development to help young people pursue educational opportunities, get them registered to vote and work toward racial peace.

"As long as there is unemployment, war, crime and all things that go to the infliction of man's inhumanity to man, regardless -- there is much to be done, and people need to work together," she once said.

Even into her 80s, she was active on the lecture circuit, speaking at civil rights groups and accepting awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1996 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 1999.

"This medal is encouragement for all of us to continue until all have rights," she said at the June 1999 ceremony for the latter medal.

Parks was the subject of the documentary "Mighty Times: The Legacy of Rosa Parks," which received a 2002 Oscar nomination for best documentary short.

In April, Parks and rap duo OutKast settled a lawsuit over the use of her name on a CD released in 1998. (Full story)

Bus boycott
She was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, 1913. Her marriage to Raymond Parks lasted from 1932 until his death in 1977.

Parks' father, James McCauley, was a carpenter, and her mother, Leona Edwards McCauley, a teacher.

Before her arrest in 1955, Parks was active in the voter registration movement and with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, where she also worked as a secretary in 1943.

At the time of her arrest, Parks was 42 and on her way home from work as a seamstress.

She took a seat in the front of the black section of a city bus in Montgomery. The bus filled up and the bus driver demanded that she move so a white male passenger could have her seat.

"The driver wanted us to stand up, the four of us. We didn't move at the beginning, but he says, 'Let me have these seats.' And the other three people moved, but I didn't," she once said.

When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her.

As the officer took her away, she recalled that she asked, "Why do you push us around?"

The officer's response: "I don't know, but the law's the law, and you're under arrest."

She added, "I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I would ever ride in humiliation of this kind."

Four days later, Parks was convicted of disorderly conduct and fined $14.

That same day, a group of blacks founded the Montgomery Improvement Association and named King, the young pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, as its leader, and the bus boycott began.

For the next 381 days, blacks -- who according to Time magazine had comprised two-thirds of Montgomery bus riders -- boycotted public transportation to protest Parks' arrest and in turn the city's Jim Crow segregation laws.

Black people walked, rode taxis and used carpools in an effort that severely damaged the transit company's finances.

The mass movement marked one of the largest and most successful challenges of segregation and helped catapult King to the forefront of the civil rights movement.

The boycott ended on November 13, 1956, after the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that Montgomery's segregated bus service was unconstitutional.

Parks' act of defiance came one year after the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision that led to the end of racial segregation in public schools. (Full story)

U.S. Rep. John Lewis of Georgia, a Democrat, told CNN Monday he watched the 1955-56 Montgomery drama unfold as a teenager and it inspired him to get active in the civil rights movement.

"It was so unbelievable that this woman -- this one woman -- had the courage to take a seat and refuse to get up and give it up to a white gentleman. By sitting down, she was standing up for all Americans," he said.

Hawg166
28 Oct 05,, 20:19
Sorry guys I got to this thread way late but did anyone remember that October 21, 1805 was the day Nelson fell at Trafalgar ? Perhaps the naval battle with the greatest consequences in history.

Dreadnought
01 Nov 05,, 16:33
Sorry guys I got to this thread way late but did anyone remember that October 21, 1805 was the day Nelson fell at Trafalgar ? Perhaps the naval battle with the greatest consequences in history.

Hmm remember the story just didnt recall the date. Have to remember for next time. :redface:

THL
01 Nov 05,, 17:31
I Love this thread, but I always forget to go look for stuff from different days. I did this morning.

Nov 1 is NOT a good day to be a composer:

1672 Heinrich Schutz, composer, dies at 87
1711 Christian Demelius, composer, dies at 68
1750 Giuseppe Sammartini, composer, dies at 55
1768 Pierre van Maldere, composer, dies at 39
1788 Johann Samuel Schroeter, composer, dies
1810 Georg Anton Kreusser, composer, dies at 64
1817 Giovanni Calisto Andrea Zanotti, composer, dies at 79
1825 Rodrigo Ferreira da Costa, composer, dies at 49
1844 August Ferdinand Haeser, composer, dies at 45
1895 Aleksander Zarzycki, composer, dies at 61
1942 Hugo Distler, composer, dies at 34
1962 Winter Haynes Watts, composer, dies at 78
1975 Philip James, composer, dies at 85
1982 Leighton Lucas, composer, dies at 79

Also died this day:

1947 the racehorse, Man-O-War
1950 Griselio Torresola, attempted to assassinate President Truman, shot dead
1986 Paul Frees, animation voice (Bullwinkle), dies at 66
1999 Walter Payton, football great, dies at 45

Misc on this day:

1783 Continental Army dissolved; George Washington's "Farewell Address"
1800 1st president to live in white house (John Adams)
1848 1st U.S. woman's medical school opens (Boston)
1914 German-British fleet battle at Coronel, Chile
1938 Seabiscuit beats War Admiral in a match race at Pimlico
1939 1st jet plane, Heinkel He 178, demonstrated to German Air Ministry
1977 President Carter raises minimum wages of $2.30 to $3.35 for Jan 1 1981
1979 Tanker Burmah Agate off Galveston Bay, Texas, spills 10.7 m gallons of oil, in US's worst oil spill disaster
1990 Sandra Miller awarded $100 for Mike Tyson fondling her breasts

Dreadnought
01 Nov 05,, 18:32
I Love this thread, but I always forget to go look for stuff from different days. I did this morning.

Nov 1 is NOT a good day to be a composer:

1672 Heinrich Schutz, composer, dies at 87
1711 Christian Demelius, composer, dies at 68
1750 Giuseppe Sammartini, composer, dies at 55
1768 Pierre van Maldere, composer, dies at 39
1788 Johann Samuel Schroeter, composer, dies
1810 Georg Anton Kreusser, composer, dies at 64
1817 Giovanni Calisto Andrea Zanotti, composer, dies at 79
1825 Rodrigo Ferreira da Costa, composer, dies at 49
1844 August Ferdinand Haeser, composer, dies at 45
1895 Aleksander Zarzycki, composer, dies at 61
1942 Hugo Distler, composer, dies at 34
1962 Winter Haynes Watts, composer, dies at 78
1975 Philip James, composer, dies at 85
1982 Leighton Lucas, composer, dies at 79

Also died this day:

1947 the racehorse, Man-O-War
1950 Griselio Torresola, attempted to assassinate President Truman, shot dead
1986 Paul Frees, animation voice (Bullwinkle), dies at 66
1999 Walter Payton, football great, dies at 45

Misc on this day:

1783 Continental Army dissolved; George Washington's "Farewell Address"
1800 1st president to live in white house (John Adams)
1848 1st U.S. woman's medical school opens (Boston)
1914 German-British fleet battle at Coronel, Chile
1938 Seabiscuit beats War Admiral in a match race at Pimlico
1939 1st jet plane, Heinkel He 178, demonstrated to German Air Ministry
1977 President Carter raises minimum wages of $2.30 to $3.35 for Jan 1 1981
1979 Tanker Burmah Agate off Galveston Bay, Texas, spills 10.7 m gallons of oil, in US's worst oil spill disaster
1990 Sandra Miller awarded $100 for Mike Tyson fondling her breasts

The race horse Man O War was raised on a farm about 15 mins from my home even had the same street named after him :)

THL
01 Nov 05,, 20:17
1990 Sandra Miller awarded $100 for Mike Tyson fondling her breasts
I am surprised no one grabbed at this one (no pun intended) :) .

Being awarded $100,000 is a settlement, but $100? Doesn't that just make one a "working girl"?
:tongue:

TopHatter
01 Nov 05,, 21:11
I am surprised no one grabbed at this one (no pun intended) :) .

Being awarded $100,000 is a settlement, but $100? Doesn't that just make one a "working girl"?
:tongue:
I had seriously considered making a comment but decided it would be better to hold the male moral high ground when it came to make boobie remarks :redface:

As a female, you are held to no such standard for said subject :biggrin:

Parihaka
01 Nov 05,, 23:43
Sorry, I was late on this one :frown:

Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India, has been killed by assassins in New Delhi.
Mrs Gandhi was thought to have been walking through her gardens this morning when she was shot. She was taken to the All India Medical Hospital where she underwent an emergency operation to remove the bullets but died an hour and a half later.

Initial reports suggest the two attackers were guards at her home who were then shot by other security officers.

No exact motive is known but it is believed the pair were Sikh extremists acting in retaliation for the storming of the Sikh holy shrine of the Golden Temple in Amritsar June.

Mrs Gandhi had been receiving death threats since the attack on the temple in which 1,000 people died.

The night before her death she told a political rally: "I don't mind if my life goes in the service of the nation. If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation."

Security throughout the country has been stepped up. Roads to the hospital and the home of the prime minister have been sealed off and borders around Delhi have been closed.


If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation


Indira Gandhi


The Indian cabinet has started an emergency meeting to choose a successor.

India's High Commissioner, Prakash Mehrotra, said: "Democracy is very deep rooted in our country and the country is prepared to face any situation. A meeting is being called in Delhi, it is usual that the number two man in the cabinet takes charge for the time being,"

Mrs Gandhi first became prime minister in 1966 and again in 1980 and was praised for her battle against famine in rural areas.

Stan Orme from the Anglo Indian Parliamentary Association said: "It is a very terrible thing. She was a very impressive person, very strong-willed. It is a real tragedy."

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39113000/jpg/_39113918_indira_238.jpg

THL
03 Nov 05,, 20:00
November 3rd:

1883 U.S. Supreme Court decides Native Americans can't be Americans
1941 Hirohiti's accord on Yamamoto's attack plan on Pearl Harbor fails
1944 German troops in Vlissingen surrenders
1944 US 28th Infantry division occupies Schmidt Hurtgenwald

Parihaka
03 Nov 05,, 23:55
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin has been assassinated.
Mr Rabin was shot three times at close range in the stomach and chest by an assailant as he left a peace rally in Tel Aviv earlier on Saturday.

He was taken to hospital in Tel Aviv where he later died.

The gunman, named as Yigal Amir, was rapidly overpowered and arrested.

He is believed to be one of the founders of an illegal Jewish settlement on the West Bank and a member of an extreme right-wing organisation.

The rally at which Mr Rabin was shot was attended by about 100,000 Israelis who back the Rabin government's peace initiatives with the Palestinians.


I hope that all of us will have the ability to overcome the tragedy and continue the peace process in all of the Middle East


Yasser Arafat, PLO chairman


Security was tight but police allowed right-wing groups, who oppose any peace deal, to protest nearby.

Israel TV said Yigal Amir, 27, had confessed to shooting the prime minister and had told investigators that he did not regret his actions.

Leaders from around the world are expected to attend Mr Rabin's funeral which takes place on Monday.

US President Bill Clinton said Yitzhak Rabin had given his life in the pursuit of peace.

The chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organisation, Yasser Arafat, expressed condolences on behalf of the Palestinians.

"I hope that all of us - the Israelis and the Palestinians - will have the ability to overcome the tragedy and continue the peace process in all of the Middle East," Mr Arafat said.

Israel's foreign minister, Shimon Peres, has been appointed as acting prime minister after an emergency cabinet meeting.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38570000/jpg/_38570917_rabinarafat238.jpg

Parihaka
04 Nov 05,, 00:06
The Soviet air force has bombed the Hungarian capital, Budapest and Russian troops have poured into the city in a massive dawn offensive.
At least 1,000 Soviet tanks are reported to have entered Budapest and troops deployed throughout the country are battling with Hungarian forces for strategic positions.

The Soviet invasion is a response to the national uprising led by Prime Minister Imre Nagy, who has promised the Hungarian people independence and political freedom.

Mr Nagy's anti-Soviet policies, which include withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact, have been worrying Eastern Bloc countries and Moscow has demanded his government's capitulation.

Appeal to the West

News of the attack came at 0515 local time on Radio Budapest in an urgent appeal by Mr Nagy himself for help from the West.

Despite an apparent withdrawal only last week, Soviet troops deployed outside Budapest swept back into the capital with Russian and Romanian reinforcements between 0400 and 0800 local time.

Artillery units pounded Budapest from the surrounding hills as Soviet MIG fighters bombarded the capital from the air.

Sources say Soviet infantry units stormed the Parliament building, a key strategic and symbolic target, early this morning.

'Crushed'

Reports that Mr Nagy and other members of his cabinet were captured in the attack have not been confirmed.

But in an unscheduled newscast on Moscow radio shortly after 1200GMT, Russia claimed to have "crushed the forces of reactionary conspiracy against the Hungarian people".

Despite Moscow's claims, heavy fighting is reported to be continuing throughout the country for key installations such as railway stations and major bridges across the River Danube.

Moscow is now backing a new breakaway Hungarian government led by Janos Kadar, whose stated purpose is to destroy Mr Nagy's "counter-revolution".

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38809000/jpg/_38809447_tank_ap_238.jpg

Parihaka
04 Nov 05,, 00:07
Militant Islamic students in Iran have stormed the US embassy in the Iranian capital,Tehran, and taken more than 90 people hostage.
The students have demanded that the Shah of Iran, who fled the country in January, be extradited from the US, where he is currently receiving medical treatment for cancer, to stand trial in Iran.

It is reported that revolutionary guards and police did nothing to stop the take-over and Iranian television has indicated its support for the action by broadcasting live pictures of the siege.

Ayatollah Rubollah Khomeini, who assumed control of Iran in February, has also voiced his support for the occupation.

'Show of strength'

It is not clear at this stage how many of the hostages are American although it is estimated that the figure is approximately 65.

One of the hostage-takers, speaking to reporters by telephone from inside the embassy, gave assurances that there was no immediate danger to the hostages, that they were safe and were being fed.

He said the action was a show of strength and the hostages could be released in the next two or three days.

Supporters of the siege, many of them children, have gathered outside the embassy. Some have set fire to American flags and have posted anti-American messages around the building.

As yet there has been no official reaction to the siege from America.

The storming of the embassy follows months of political and religious tension in Iran.

Violent protests against Shah Reza Pahlavi's regime culminated in a revolution coordinated by Ayatollah Khomeini from exile in France.

In January the Shah and his family fled Iran and are currently in the US.

Within weeks, Ayatollah Khomeini, who had been expelled from Iran by the Shah in 1964, returned to Iran and was greeted by more than five million devotees lining the streets of Tehran.

The Ayatollah immediately dismissed Prime Minister Shapur Bahktiar and installed Mehdi Bzargan as his replacement.

He declared an Islamic Republic of Iran in April and since then he has presided over a brutal and repressive regime.

Thousands of westerners living in Iran have already fled the country in fear of their lives.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40405000/jpg/_40405051_usembassy238.jpg

Parihaka
04 Nov 05,, 00:09
The former Hollywood actor and Republican governor of California Ronald Reagan is to be the next president of the United States.
He has defeated Democrat Jimmy Carter in the US presidential elections by a huge majority.

At the age of 69, Mr Reagan will be America's oldest president. His running mate, former head of the CIA George Bush, will be his vice-president.

The Republicans took state after state in the east, south and mid-west, with results from their stronghold in the west still to come. So far Mr Reagan's electoral vote tally stands at 238 while Mr Carter's is just 35.

Attack on economy

In the last speech of his campaign last night, Mr Reagan with his wife Nancy, addressed 30,000 supporters at a car park of a shopping centre in San Diego, California.

He spoke of the state of the American economy under President Carter as "a major tragedy for the American family".

"In eight years here as your governor," he said, "I learned to have faith in you, the people and I envision a leadership as President taking government off your backs and turning you loose to do what I know you can do best."

His speech was followed by a dazzling firework display after which he returned to his home in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles to spend polling day resting.

The outgoing president's popularity has suffered following the energy crisis and petrol queues. It seems his failure to negotiate a release of US hostages currently held in Iran has sealed his fate.

Surveys of public opinion also suggest Mr Reagan's performance in last Tuesday's televised debate convinced many he was the most suitable candidate.


I can stand here and say it doesn't hurt


President Carter


President Carter is the first elected sitting president to be defeated since Herbert Hoover was beaten by Franklin D Roosevelt in 1932.

Even before the polls closed on the West coast, he drove from the White House to a Washington hotel to address his supporters an hour after congratulating Mr Reagan by phone.

He told them: "I can stand here and say it doesn't hurt."

Putting on a brave smile he added: "The people of the United States have made their choice and I accept that decision."

Mr Carter remains president until Mr Reagan is inaugurated next January.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39320000/jpg/_39320992_reaganap238.jpg

Parihaka
04 Nov 05,, 00:10
Busy and contrasting day, 4 November.......

Parihaka
11 Nov 05,, 01:26
History of Armistice Day
At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918, the Armistice marked the moment when hostilities ceased on the Western Front. The "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" thereafter became universally associated with the remembrance of those who had died in the First World War.
1919: Introduction of the Silent Tribute
On the first anniversary of the Armistice, 11 November 1919, two minutes silence was instituted as part of the main commemorative ceremony in Whitehall, London. King George V had personally requested all the people of the British Empire to suspend normal activities for two minutes on the hour of the Armistice. Two minutes' silence was popularly adopted and it became a central feature of commemorations on Armistice Day.

1920: Tomb of the Unknown Warrior
On the second anniversary of the Armistice, 11 November 1920, the commemoration was given added significance with the return of the remains of an unknown soldier from the battlefields of the Western Front. Unknown soldiers were interred with full military honours in Westminster Abbey in London and at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey attracted over one million people within a week to pay their respects. Most other allied nations adopted the tradition of entombing unknown soldiers in their capitals over the following decade: Washington, Rome and Brussels in 1921, Prague and Belgrade in 1922, and later Warsaw and Athens. However, the New Zealand government rejected a proposal in 1921 for New Zealand to have its own Unknown Warrior on the grounds that the Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey represented New Zealand's war dead. During the 1940s and 1950s the NZRSA renewed the call for New Zealand to have its own Unknown Warrior or even Unknown Warriors, one to represent each World War, without success.

1919-45: Armistice Day in New Zealand
While eventually overshadowed by ANZAC Day, it was marked solemnly in New Zealand with the traditional two minutes' silence at 11 am, when pedestrians and traffic stopping in the streets to observe the silence. The observance of two commemorative days symbolised New Zealanders' emerging sense of national identity, albeit within the wider context of the empire. Armistice Day was shared with the empire; Anzac Day belonged to New Zealand (and Australia).

1925: First Rose Day

Alexander Turnbull Library


First Rose Day in Wellington
In 1925, Wellington RSA instituted the inaugural Rose Day which raised funds for the Wellington Citizens' Memorial. In later years many RSAs held their own Rose Days in order to raise funds for many community as well as RSA projects (and in contrast to the Poppy Day Appeal that was solely for the welfare of returned service personnel and dependants in need). By 1944, the Dominion Council of the NZRSA was encouraging the holding of Rose Day on a nationwide basis on the Friday before Armistice Day.

1946: Introduction of Remembrance Day
After the Second World War, the British and her Dominions, including New Zealand, agreed to change the name and date of Armistice Day to Remembrance Day, now to be observed on the Sunday prior to 11 November (it was later transferred to the second Sunday in November). Armistice Day was no longer viewed as an appropriate title for a day which would commemorate the war dead of both World Wars. In short, Remembrance Day "Sundayised" the observance of Armistice Day. For the first observance of Remembrance Day in 1946, New Zealanders were requested to attend traditional remembrance services and to observe two minutes' silence at 11 a.m., when citizens and vehicles were to halt in the streets. On the whole, Remembrance Day was observed in this manner during the late 1940s.

By the mid 1950s, however, the public gradually lost interest in commemorating Remembrance Day despite the best efforts of the RSA, including an unsuccessful approach to government to revert back to an observance on 11 November. The RSA believed that the decline of Remembrance Day was a result of its "Sundayisation" and the loss of the association with the eleventh hour of the 11 November.

Armistice Day again
Since the 1990s the United Kingdom and many countries of the Commonwealth have increasingly returned to commemorate Armistice Day 11 November because the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" has so much significance. In 1995, for example, the Royal British Legion embarked on a campaign for the reintroduction of two minutes' silence on 11 November at 11 a.m., which steadily gained momentum to the point where today it is estimated that three-quarters of the population of the United Kingdom participate in the observance. In Australia, meanwhile, the interment of an Unknown Soldier at the Australian War Memorial on 11 November 1993 brought renewed attention to the day and in 1997 Australia's Governor-General issued a proclamation formally declaring 11 November Remembrance Day and urging all Australians to observe one minute's silence at 11 am on 11 November each year.

In New Zealand too, since the 75th Anniversary of the Armistice in 1993 was commemorated throughout the country, the RSA has promoted the observance of 11 a.m. on Armistice Day with remembrance services at the National War Memorial in Wellington and at local war memorials throughout the country.

On Armistice Day 2004 the Unknown Warrior was interred at the National War Memorial following a Memorial Service at the Wellington Cathedral of St Paul and a Military Funeral Procession watched by an estimated 100,000 people.

Veterans' Day (formerly Armistice Day)
November 11, is the anniversary of the Armistice which was signed in the Forest of Compiegne by the Allies and the Germans in 1918, ending World War I, after four years of conflict.
At 5 A.M. on Monday, November 11, 1918 the Germans signed the Armistice, an order was issued for all firing to cease; so the hostilities of the First World War ended. This day began with the laying down of arms, blowing of whistles, impromptu parades, closing of places of business. All over the globe there were many demonstrations; no doubt the world has never before witnessed such rejoicing.
In November of 1919, President Woodrow Wilson issued his Armistice Day proclamation. The last paragraph set the tone for future observances:
To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country's service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nation.

In 1927 Congress issued a resolution requesting President Calvin Coolidge to issue a proclamation calling upon officials to display the Flag of the United States on all government buildings on November 11, and inviting the people to observe the day in schools and churches...But it was not until 1938 that Congress passed a bill that each November 11 "shall be dedicated to the cause of world peace and ...hereafter celebrated and known as Armistice Day."
That same year President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill making the day a legal holiday in the District of Columbia. For sixteen years the United States formally observed Armistice Day, with impressive ceremonies at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, where the Chief Executive or his representative placed a wreath. In many other communities, the American Legion was in charge of the observance, which included parades and religious services. At 11 A.M. all traffic stopped, in tribute to the dead, then volleys were fired and taps sounded.
After World War II, there were many new veterans who had little or no association with World War I. The word, "armistice," means simply a truce; therefore as years passed, the significance of the name of this holiday changed. Leaders of Veterans' groups decided to try to correct this and make November 11 the time to honor all who had fought in various American wars, not just in World War I.
In Emporia, Kansas, on November 11, 1953, instead of an Armistice Day program, there was a Veterans' Day observance. Ed Rees, of Emporia, was so impressed that he introduced a bill into the House to change the name to Veterans' Day. After this passed, Mr. Rees wrote to all state governors and asked for their approval and cooperation in observing the changed holiday. The name was changed to Veterans' Day by Act of Congress on May 24, 1954. In October of that year, President Eisenhower called on all citizens to observe the day by remembering the sacrifices of all those who fought so gallantly, and through rededication to the task of promoting an enduring peace. The President referred to the change of name to Veterans' Day in honor of the servicemen of all America's wars.

For The Fallen
With proud thanksgiving, a mother for her children,
England mourns for her dead across the sea.
Flesh of her flesh they were, spirit of her spirit,
Fallen in the cause of the free.

Solemn the drums thrill; Death august and royal
Sings sorrow up into immortal spheres,
There is music in the midst of desolation
And a glory that shines upon our tears.

They went with songs to the battle, they were young,
Straight of limb, true of eye, steady and aglow.
They were staunch to the end against odds uncounted;
They fell with their faces to the foe.

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years contemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.

They mingle not with their laughing comrades again;
They sit no more at familiar tables of home;
They have no lot in our labour of the day-time;
They sleep beyond England's foam.

But where our desires are and our hopes profound,
Felt as a well-spring that is hidden from sight,
To the innermost heart of their own land they are known
As the stars are known to the Night;

As the stars that shall be bright when we are dust,
Moving in marches upon the heavenly plain;
As the stars that are starry in the time of our darkness,
To the end, to the end, they remain.

miglover5
12 Nov 05,, 19:22
On the 30th of january 1972, 14 unarmed boys and men were killed by British paratrooper during a demonstration march of Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association in the Derry, Northern Ireland.

a day to remember...

Age Name: 59 John Johnston (died a day later in the hospital) 41 Bernard McGuigan 34 Geral McKinney 31 Patrick Dohetry 22 James Wray 20 Michael McDaid 19 William Nash 17 John Young 17 John Duddy 17 Kevin McElhimey 17 Gerald Donaghy 17 Hugh Gilmore

in 2002 they made a film about it, with music from U2

Parihaka
18 Nov 05,, 22:38
I have a confession to make. Well actually two but I'll get to that shortly. One night, or rather early one morning around about 1969 my father came into my room, dragged me protesting from my bed, bundled me into my clothes over top of my pyjamas and drove me to where he worked. I was a bit grumpy about this as I had been there the evening before, stood in a long queue of adults in the showroom of his work and had one glimpse of a poorly maintained derelict piece of machinery that looked like it had come off the top of an old hopper. Usually this gleaming white room contained the very latest Ford: Zephyr, Zodiac, Falcon, "crafted in Australia!", or if you were of more modest means, a Prefect or Cortina from the U.K., 3 months from purchase to delivery.
Now, as I say, the gleaming cars were gone and in it's place was a positively disgraceful piece of machinery that looked as though it should be in the yard out the back where old farm equipment was broken down for spare parts and new machines created by my dad when he wasn't maintaining the gleaming Fords.
So anyhow, here I am at two in the morning, once more in the spotless showroom, the main lights turned on again but this time only myself and my father there to see them, every other New Zealander being sensibly tucked up in bed. So for the next fifteen minutes I had a spacecraft all to myself.
I hasten to add at this point that I was still under the restriction of no touching, not once did my greasy little nine or so year old paw enter the same spatial dimensions as the craft in question.
Now I can't for the life of me recall whether it was a Mercury or Gemini; I certainly recall the seat(s), a rough assembly of tubular steel and webbing that looked as though dad could have knocked it up in five minutes, but whether there were two seats or one I cannot say. Row upon row of buttons and switches are a blur in my memory. I can however recall the ablative shield in minute detail, the fine cracking, the off-centre burn pattern where the main heat damage was centred by the pilots right foot, that overall look of a simple clear earthenware glaze. As dad described the re-entry processes, the enormous heat generated "Much hotter than his welding torch!", I mapped out the physical realities, a quarter inch from my nose.
Now I guess dad could have got in a lot of trouble for this, but the Airforce? gentlemen who were escorting it, after being feed half a sheep each, generously roasted in butter and accompanied by a quart of cold beer were tucked up in bed, quite possibly with one or more members of the local lonely hearts club; everyone else in NZ went to bed at 9.30, and even the street lights were turned off at eleven, so it was a risk he was willing to take and if I didn't already have sufficient reason I would love him forever for this one thing.

Seemingly a short time later I remember standing in Miss Greens pottery class at school, listening over the schools P.A. system with the headmaster holding the microphone to his transistor radio as Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin went for a walk on the moon.

Now I've chosen to write about this not on the anniversary of that great day, which I have already noted in this thread, but on the anniversary of Apollo 12, which is my favourite mission. It's my favourite partly because of the early tension of the mission, where virtually the entire electrical system dropped through the floor when the spacecraft was struck by lightning less than a minute into the flight. Partly it was the humour, Pete Conrad, all of five foot four, "Whoopie! Man, that may have been a small one for Neil, but it's a long one for me." But mostly it is because of this photo and what it says.


http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/a12_h_48_7133.gif
Astronaut Charles 'Pete' Conrad works at removing the camera from Surveyor 3, which had landed on the moon over a year previously. Photo: Alan Bean



There are no flags in this photo, there is no earth reflected in someone's visor or rising over the horizon. No golf clubs or four wheel drives. What there is is the proof that all the other missions were feasible, that the great geologic missions of 15, 16 & 17 were worth the time and energy. Apollo 11 proved that you could land on the moon and return safely to earth: Apollo twelve proved that you couldn't just land on the moon, you could do it in your designated parking spot. As Al Bean himself commented while slapping Pete Conrad on the back "Good landing, Pete! Out-staand-ing, man!"

This in a roundabout sort of way leads to my second confession. I have until recently held the country of the United States Of America to a higher standard than any other country, except perhaps my own. The gross unfairness of this, where the European countries have been able to get away with gross misconduct and still not be judged so harshly by me as the failings of the US has its genesis in the events described above. At a formative time of my youth, men of such calibre did such deeds that any subsequent action of that country from whence they came could not measure against their standard.
Whenever America did such things that were less than the perfection of what these men achieved I was outraged, far more so than if some other country had done the same misdeed.
Now of course things have changed. Through reading on this and other boards and through further progression along the never ending path of growing up I've come to realise that Americans, while spelling rather oddly and having strange names for things, are pretty much just the same as the rest of us and are just as entitled as the rest of us to f*ck up without having the whole world abuse the crap out of them because of it.
So anyhow, confessions over and I'm almost done. I'd just like to raise a glass to the gentlemen who, when I show my little girl old maps with dragons and monsters on them and then take her outside and show her the full moon, make it possible for me to say to her "there's no dragons and monsters on the moon, but there are the footsteps of giants."

Parihaka
22 Nov 05,, 00:05
The President of the United States has been assassinated by a gunman in Dallas, Texas.

John F Kennedy was hit in the head and throat when three shots were fired at his open-topped car.

The presidential motorcade was travelling through the main business area of the city.

Texas Governor John Connally was also seriously injured when one of the unknown sniper's bullets hit him in the back.

The men were accompanied by their wives, who were both uninjured.

Vice-president Lyndon Johnson - who was following in a different car - has been sworn in as the new US leader.

The presidential party was driving from Dallas airport to the city centre when witnesses said shots were fired from the window of a building overlooking the road.

The president collapsed into Jackie Kennedy's arms, who was heard to cry "Oh no". Seconds later Governor Connally was also hit.

Dallas Times Herald photographer Bob Jackson was in the motorcade close behind the Democrat leader's car and heard the shots as it entered Dealey Plaza.

"As I looked up I saw a rifle being pulled back from a window - it might have been resting on the windowsill - I didn't see a man," he said.

Mr Kennedy's limousine was driven at speed to Parklands Hospital immediately after the shooting.

The president was alive when he was admitted, but died at 1400 local time (1900 GMT) - 35 minutes after being shot.

Police and Secret Service agents stormed the School Book Depository building moments after the shots were fired and recovered a rifle with a telescopic sight, said to be the assassination weapon.

The mood of shock in the US was echoed by Senator Mike Mansfield in an emergency forum of the senate.

"This is terrible - I cannot find words," he said.

http://www.cronologia.it/storia/biografie/kennedy.jpg

Parihaka
05 Dec 05,, 10:40
Hundreds of people have died from the effects of toxic gases which leaked from a chemical factory near the central Indian city of Bhopal.

The accident happened in the early hours of this morning at the American-owned Union Carbide Pesticide Plant three miles (4.8 km) from Bhopal.

Mr Y P Gokhale, managing director of Union Carbide in India, said that methyl isocyanate gas (MIC) had escaped when a valve in the plant's underground storage tank broke under pressure.


Mothers didn't know their children had died, children didn't know their mothers had died and men didn't know their whole families had died

Ahmed Khan, Bhopal resident
This caused a deadly cloud of lethal gas to float from the factory over Bhopal, which is home to more than 900,000 people - many of whom live in slums.

Chaos and panic broke out in the city and surrounding areas as tens of thousands of people attempted to escape.

More than 20,000 people have required hospital treatment for symptoms including swollen eyes, frothing at the mouth and breathing difficulties.

Thousands of dead cats, dogs, cows and birds litter the streets and the city's mortuaries are filling up fast.

Bhopal resident, Ahmed Khan, said: "We were choking and our eyes were burning. We could barely see the road through the fog, and sirens were blaring.

"We didn't know which way to run. Everybody was very confused.

"Mothers didn't know their children had died, children didn't know their mothers had died and men didn't know their whole families had died."

The Union Carbide factory was closed immediately after the accident and three senior members of staff arrested.

Medical and scientific experts have been dispatched to the scene and the Indian government has ordered a judicial inquiry.

It is understood the Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, will be flying to the area within the next few days.

Parihaka
05 Dec 05,, 10:42
Border battles between India and Pakistan have erupted into full-scale war.

Jets from West Pakistan have attacked at least four Indian airports, with reports eight airfields have been struck.

The West Pakistan Government said it was in retaliation for a major ground offensive against the area by the Indian army.

This has been denied by New Delhi.

Initial reports of the Pakistani air attacks were unclear but both capitals confirmed the Indian airports of Amritsar, Pathankot, Avantipur and Sringar were hit.

The Indian Government has declared a state of emergency.


We must be prepared for a long period of hardship and sacrifice

India PM Indira Gandhi
In a broadcast to the nation, India's Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, said the Pakistani war against Bangladesh has become one against their homeland.

Mrs Gandhi said the town of Agra, 120 miles south of New Delhi, and the site of the Taj Mahal, had been hit.

"We must be prepared for a long period of hardship and sacrifice," she said.

In West Pakistan, President Yahya Khan, called up "essential persons and ex-servicemen who have no reserve liability".

The current eruption of military strikes comes in a conflict which dates back to March after President Khan's attack on the independence movement in East Pakistan.

President Khan believed the Indian Government supports East Pakistani rebels with training and arms.

The United Nations is understood to be discussing the possibility of invoking Security Council intervention in the conflict.

Dreadnought
07 Dec 05,, 14:29
1941: Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor
Japan has launched a surprise attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii and has declared war on Britain and the United States.
The US president, Franklin D Roosevelt, has mobilised all his forces and is poised to declare war on Japan.

Details of the attack in Hawaii are scarce but initial reports say Japanese bombers and torpedo-carrying planes targeted warships, aircraft and military installations in Pearl Harbor, on Oahu, the principal island of Hawaii.

News of the daring raid has shocked members of Congress at a time when Japanese officials in Washington were still negotiating with US Secretary of State Cordell Hull on lifting US sanctions imposed after continuing Japanese aggression against China.


He remembered that moment [Pearl Harbor] in later years as the end of one existence and the beginning of another


People's War memories »


At 0755 local time the first wave of between 50 and 150 planes struck the naval base for 35 minutes causing several fires and "untold damage" to the Pacific Fleet.

The Japanese squadrons dropped high-explosive and incendiary bombs.

A second strike followed at about 0900 when a force of at least 100 planes pounded the base for an hour.

At least two Japanese airplanes have been shot down but it is reported that at least 350 men were killed by one single bomb at the Hickman Army Air Field, an Air Corps post on Oahu.

Officials announced a further 104 Army personnel were killed and 300 were wounded in the raid.

It is believed the attack was launched from two aircraft carriers.

One radio report says US forces downed six Japanese planes and sunk four submarines.

There are reports the Hawaiian capital Honolulu was also bombed as well as the Pacific island of Guam and the capital of the Philippines, Manila.

A British gunboat, the Peterel, has also been sunk at Shanghai in China.

Reports from Singapore suggest a build-up of Japanese warships in the South China Sea and seem to be headed for the Gulf of Siam, towards Bangkok.

President Roosevelt is working on a message to Congress tomorrow in which he is expected to ask for a declaration of war with Japan.

The Times newspaper's Washington correspondent says the US Government expects Germany and Italy to declare war on the US within hours.

Although the attack has shocked the American people there is little doubt that it had been brewing for some years.

Relations with the United States have deteriorated since 1931 when Japan occupied Manchuria in northern China. Over the last decade conflict has intensified into a full-scale war between Japan and China.

Last year, the US imposed trade sanctions on Japan.

Then in September 1940 Japan signed a Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy. It became a formal member of the Axis alliance fighting the European war but continued to negotiate with America for trade concessions until today.

Japan's fury over the embargoes and allied support for China prompted a declaration of war.

A very solem Thank You to our Vets and current Military men and women its been 64 years ago today. There are many that remember it as clearly as yesterday and some that are still haunted by its memories. :redface:
A link about Arizona's history. http://ussarizona.org/home/content/view/7/8/100/

Dreadnought
07 Dec 05,, 18:04
PEARL HARBOR, Hawaii (AP) -- Survivors of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor will join sailors, community leaders and guests on Wednesday for the 64th anniversary of the assault.

The crowd will observe a moment of silence at 7:55 a.m. -- the moment the attack began in 1941.

A U.S. Navy ship will honor the USS Arizona, which lies submerged in Pearl Harbor with the bodies of hundreds of sailors still aboard. The Hawaii Air National Guard will fly F-15s in formation over the harbor.

The Navy's chief uniformed officer, Adm. Michael G. Mullen, is scheduled to address the crowd along with Sen. Daniel K. Inouye, D-Hawaii, who saw and heard Japanese planes drop bombs on Oahu as a teenager in Honolulu.

Navy reservists from the USS Ward, which fired the first shots of the war when its crew spotted and sank a Japanese midget submarine, will also be honored.

The December 7, 1941, surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and other military bases on Oahu lasted two hours, leaving 21 U.S. ships heavily damaged and 323 aircraft damaged or destroyed.

It killed 2,390 people and wounded 1,178

Dreadnought
07 Dec 05,, 18:46
A very fitting picture for today Dec 7,2005. The beginning of WWII symbolized by The Arizona (BB39 Pennsylvania class) under the watchfull eye of her much younger sister The Missouri (BB63 Iowa class) which ended WWII on her decks so many years ago and brought peace again to a world ravaged by war on a scale never seen again ever since. And hopefully because of ALL of their sacrifices will never be seen again. :redface: The Greatest Generation indeed! :redface:

Parihaka
07 Dec 05,, 21:50
Nice, Dreadnought :)

Dreadnought
08 Dec 05,, 22:19
Nice, Dreadnought :)

Thanks. I had to stop by the VFW yesterday as they were raising the colors.
We have several Pearl Harbor Vets that live around us. Very moving when you see these men that are fathers, grandfathers etc cry at the looses they endured while standing and saluting as stiff as a board as the colors are raised as frail as they are and irregardless of weather conditions.

I truelly dont believe the world will ever produce a greater generation then these men and women were. And an even larger shame is the amount of press this very day gets every year by generations who either have forgotten their sacrifice or just dont want to know. We the younger generations could stand to learn alot from these men and women. :redface:

Parihaka
08 Dec 05,, 22:25
Thanks. I had to stop by the VFW yesterday as they were raising the colors.
We have several Pearl Harbor Vets that live around us. Very moving when you see these men that are fathers, grandfathers etc cry at the looses they endured while standing and saluting as stiff as a board as the colors are raised as frail as they are and irregardless of weather conditions.

I truelly dont believe the world will ever produce a greater generation then these men and women were. And an even larger shame is the amount of press this very day gets every year by generations who either have forgotten their sacrifice or just dont want to know. We the younger generations could stand to learn alot from these men and women. :redface:
On of the things that cheers me up about my country is that every ANZAC day there are sadly fewer and fewer of these old guys, none now from WWI, but every year there are more people, parents bringing their young children at dawn to the cenotaphs. During the seventies there was virtually only the soldiers and their immediate families, now there are 10s of thousands.

Dreadnought
08 Dec 05,, 22:34
On of the things that cheers me up about my country is that every ANZAC day there are sadly fewer and fewer of these old guys, none now from WWI, but every year there are more people, parents bringing their young children at dawn to the cenotaphs. During the seventies there was virtually only the soldiers and their immediate families, now there are 10s of thousands.

:)

Bulgaroctonus
09 Dec 05,, 00:37
December 8: Constitution Day in Romania.

1854 - Pope Pius IX proclaimed the dogmatic definition of Immaculate Conception.

1941 - World War II: Takashi Sakai and the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Hong Kong and quickly achieved air superiority by bombing Kai Tak Airport.

1941 - The Holocaust: The Chełmno concentration camp in Poland, the first Nazi extermination camp to use poison gas, began operations.

1980 - Mark David Chapman fatally shot former Beatle John Lennon outside the Dakota apartments in New York City.

1991 - Leaders of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine met to dissolve the Soviet Union and establish the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Parihaka
09 Dec 05,, 00:58
1980 - Mark David Chapman fatally shot former Beatle John Lennon outside the Dakota apartments in New York City.
.
Imagine there's no heaven,
It's easy if you try,
No hell below us,
Above us only sky,
Imagine all the people
living for today...

Imagine there's no countries,
It isnt hard to do,
Nothing to kill or die for,
No religion too,
Imagine all the people
living life in peace...

Imagine no possessions,
I wonder if you can,
No need for greed or hunger,
A brotherhood of man,
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world...

You may say Im a dreamer,
but Im not the only one,
I hope some day you'll join us,
And the world will live as one.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38540000/jpg/_38540193_lennon238.jpg
Just thought he deserved his own post :cool:

Parihaka
09 Dec 05,, 01:05
US troops have arrived in Somalia in a bid to aid thousands of starving locals.

The American marines landed just before dawn.

Their mission is to spearhead the arrival of 35,000 troops from a dozen countries assembled as part of a US led multi-national operation to crack down on looting and extortion that has prevented food getting through.

American forces were expecting to tackle hostile gunmen who have been holding the famine-stricken country to ransom in a conflict which has seen around 300,000 people killed in the last year ever since dictator Mohamed Siad Barre was ousted and local warlords took over.

But instead of fierce fighting, the marines were greeted by the world's media.

The first group of six to eight navy frogmen in Operation Restore Hope, came out of the sea on to the beach outside the Somali capital, Mogadishu under a full moon.

Later, three rubber boats came ashore and around 24 troops walked up through the dunes into the glare of television lights.

US Marines in armoured amphibious tractors from the USS Juneau then set about establishing beachheads for further arrivals of around 1,800 troops.

Their mission is to secure Mogadishu's airport and port areas so that food and medicine, which has been blocked by Somali gunmen, can be safely airlifted to thousands of locals dying of starvation.

About an hour after US troops landed, half a dozen unexplained gunshots were fired in a distant Mogadishu suburb.

Despite the attack, most of the city's streets remained relatively deserted.

Earlier in Washington, President-elect Bill Clinton could offer no ''artificial timetable'' for American withdrawal.

He added: "I respect and appreciate President Bush's desire to see the ground forces out of there by sometime in mid-January, and it may work out that that can be done.

"But the issue is whether the United States will have to keep these ground forces there longer than a few weeks. I think that depends on how long it takes to accomplish the mission."

Somalia's two top warlords, General Mohammed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohammed, urged their fighters to co-operate with US forces and keep away from the port and airport.

But Robert Oakley, US Special Envoy to Somalia, said he recently met both men and he believes that neither of them have full control over their gunmen.

According to the Pentagon, around 35 countries have offered to help the US operation with military or financial contributions.

Around 2,100 French troops are due to team up with the US forces.


In Context
US troops expected the mission to be over by mid-January but they remained in Somalia until March 1994.

Despite saving hundreds of thousands of lives in the early stages of occupation, their peace mission came to symbolise failure after a heavy firefight in October 1993 left 18 US troops dead and around 90 injured.

Between 350 and 1,000 Somali gunmen and civilians were also believed to have been killed in the attack.

The UN eventually withdrew all its forces in 1995 leaving Somalia with no government to take over.

Somalia still suffers from conflict, famine and economic collapse today.

Bulgaroctonus
09 Dec 05,, 02:02
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38540000/jpg/_38540193_lennon238.jpg
Just thought he deserved his own post :cool:
He does.

niigata_lin
09 Dec 05,, 05:08
And as a first post: I realise that it's still the 20th in the States but here it's the 21st so I get to jump the gun.

1969: America lands man on the Moon
American Neil Armstrong has become the first man to walk on the Moon.
The astronaut stepped onto the Moon's surface, in the Sea of Tranquility, at 0256 GMT, nearly 20 minutes after first opening the hatch on the Eagle landing craft.

His colleague Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin watched from inside the lunar module and spoke the first words of man on the Moon: "Tranquillity base. The Eagle has landed."

As he put his left foot down first Mr Armstrong declared: "That's one small step for man but one giant leap for mankind."

He described the surface as being like powdered charcoal and the landing craft left a crater about a foot deep.

'We came in peace'

The historic moments were captured on television cameras installed on the Eagle and turned on by Armstrong.

Armstrong spent his first few minutes on the moon taking photographs and soil samples in case the mission had to be aborted suddenly.

He was joined by Aldrin at 0315 GMT and the two collected data and performed various exercises - including jumping across the landscape - before planting the Stars and Stripes flag at 0341 GMT.

They also unveiled a plaque bearing President Nixon's signature and an inscription reading: "Here men from the planet earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind."

After filming their experience with a portable television camera the astronauts received a message from the US President.

President Nixon, in the White House, spoke of the pride of the American people and said: "This certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made."

Many other nations - including the UK - sent messages of congratulation.

Moscow Radio announced the news solemnly in its 1030 GMT broadcast.

As Aldrin and Armstrong collected samples, Michael Collins told mission control in Houston he had successfully orbited the Moon in the mother ship Columbia, and take-off was on schedule for 1750 GMT this evening.

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/a11_h_37_5445.gif
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/hires/a11_h_40_5875.gif
let me ask you this question--'did man really land on the moon' during that time..? fyi russia is claiming that the us had faked the 'landing on the moon' and frankly enough to tell you the truth, they have total and scientifically supported basis of facts. here are the ff:

basis #1: the supposed astronauts's suit is consist of only a few layers of 'aluminum foil'--
literally. why the russians thought the landing didn't happen? well, it's really
simple--outside the earth's atmosphere, the sun's rays--specifically the ultaviolet
rays--is a 'very' dangerous environment to behold for anyone who would strive
to separate himself from the safe haven of protection the earth's atmosphere
provides--and aluminum foil is out of the rate of 10 of comparing to the
atmosphere--is zero.

if anyone wants more basis, just e-mail me or post the question for me to see.

Officer of Engineers
09 Dec 05,, 05:24
Oh, freaking bs.

Check the film of the dust.

1) They're in a vacum
2) They're falling at the rate of the gravity on the moon - IMPOSSIBLE to duplicate on Earth.

TopHatter
09 Dec 05,, 05:35
let me ask you this question--'did man really land on the moon' during that time..? fyi russia is claiming that the us had faked the 'landing on the moon' and frankly enough to tell you the truth, they have total and scientifically supported basis of facts.
Nonsense. I don't care what the Russians are saying in 2005.
The Soviets in 1969 knew darn good and well that the United States had beat them to the moon, fair and square. If there was even a hint of foul play, the Soviets would have screamed bloody murder.

They didn't say a thing...except that they never really intended to go to the moon :rolleyes:

Confed999
09 Dec 05,, 06:09
let me ask you this question--'did man really land on the moon' during that time..?
ROTFL! What next? :tongue:

TopHatter
09 Dec 05,, 06:45
ROTFL! What next? :tongue:
My Midway thread maybe?

Dreadnought
09 Dec 05,, 14:12
I was never a big fan of John Lennon. However I did respect the man for some of the breakthroughs the Beatles made.

On another note I do remember the Moon landing and what an amazment that stirred. :eek:

Parihaka
09 Dec 05,, 18:33
let me ask you this question--'did man really land on the moon' during that time..Yes I am quite sure, and am happy to answer your questions, but please not on this thread, by all means start another in the science forum, I'll keep an eye out.

THL
12 Dec 05,, 02:31
1620 103 Mayflower pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock
1816 Indiana becomes 19th state
1844 1st dental use of nitrous oxide, Hartford CT
1909 Colored moving pictures demonstrated at Madison Square Garden, New York NY
1951 Joe Dimaggio announces his baseball retirement
1961 Adolf Eichmann is found guilty of war crimes, in Israel
1961 Elvis Presley's "Blue Hawaii" album goes to #1 & stays #1 for 20 weeks
1961 JFK provides US military helicopters & crews to South Vietnam
1961 "Please, Mr. Postman" by Marvelettes, released
1967 6.5 earthquake in West India, 170 killed
1973 West German chancellor Willy Brandt normalizes trade with Czechoslovakia
1975 1st class postage rises from 10¢ to 13¢
1978 6 masked men bound 10 employees at Lufthansa cargo area at New York Kennedy Airport & made off with $5.8 million in cash & jewelry
1990 13 die in 83 vehicle accident in Chattanooga TN (I-75), due to fog
1990 US 69th manned space mission STS 35 (Columbia 11) returns from space
1991 William Kennedy Smith found not guilty of rape
1992 Nor'easter storm hits New York, doing $650 million+ worth of damage
1997 Federal judge orders Microsoft not to bundle IE4 in Windows

Parihaka
14 Dec 05,, 00:43
Leaders of Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia have signed the Dayton Accord in Paris to end three-and-a-half years of war in the Balkans.

Under the deal Bosnia is preserved as a single state but it is divided into two parts.

It will be made up of a Muslim-Croat federation representing 51% of the country's territory and a Serb republic holding the remaining 49%.

Sarajevo will become a unified city with Serbs giving up some suburbs which they currently control.

The so-called "safe-enclave" of Gorazde will remain under Muslim control but it will be linked by a land corridor to Sarajevo.

The three leaders signed the deal surrounded by European heads of state in a Parisian palace before 50 world leaders and international organisation chiefs.

'Closer ties'

Serbia's Slobodan Milosevic said the country had been an outcast for too long.

He said: "As to the implementation of the peace agreement and the role of the international peace force, the key of the success of its mission is even-handedness, just as partiality is the key of failure."

Croatia's Franjo Tudjman spoke of his aim for closer ties between his people and the European Union.

And Bosnia's Alija Izetbegovic, referring to his dream of a multi-ethnic Bosnia said he felt he was "drinking a bitter but useful medicine".

The deal was driven by President Clinton's team and Nato will move into protect the area - with overriding power - as a temporary measure.

The success of maintaining the deal will determine aid for the war-torn country where at least 200,000 people have died in the bloodiest conflict seen in Europe since World War II.

Several million people have been left homeless - some the result of so-called ethnic cleansing operations. Many other refugees fled the country rather than get caught up in the fighting.

The American president told the summit that it was up to the three leaders and their people to ensure peace.

"No one outside can guarantee that Muslims, Croats and Serbs in Bosnia can come together and stay together as free citizens in a united country sharing a common destiny," President Clinton said.

"Only the Bosnian people can do that."

Parihaka
14 Dec 05,, 00:45
The ousted President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, is under arrest after he was captured by US soldiers.

"Ladies and gentlemen, we got him," US administrator Paul Bremer told journalists in Baghdad. "The tyrant is a prisoner."

Saddam Hussein was found hidden in a tiny bunker at a farmhouse about 10 miles (15 km) south of his home town, Tikrit.

A US military spokesman, Major-General Raymond Odierno, said the operation was launched soon after a tip-off from a member of Saddam Hussein's own extended family.

"Over the last 10 days we brought in about five to 10 members of these families, and finally got the ultimate information from one of these individuals," he said.

Reward

There was a $25m reward offered by the US authorities for information leading to his capture.

A similar reward was claimed for revealing the whereabouts of Saddam Hussein's sons, Uday and Qusay, who were killed in a raid by US forces in the northern city of Mosul in July.

Saddam Hussein was found in a "spider hole" or cellar just big enough for a person to lie down in, and six to eight feet (1.8m to 2.5m) deep.

The entrance was topped with a polystyrene lid and covered with a rug, bricks and dirt. Saddam had been breathing through an air vent and extractor fan.

The former Iraqi dictator was armed with a pistol, but Major-General Odierno said he gave himself up without resistance.

He seemed "disoriented" and "bewildered", the Major-General said, and was arrested at 2030 local time (1730 GMT).

Dishevelled

Two unidentified people said to be "close allies" of Saddam Hussein were also arrested. Weapons and more than $750,000 in cash was confiscated.

Video footage was released by the US military showing a dishevelled Saddam with a long black and grey beard undergoing a medical examination.

The former president had not been seen since US forces entered Baghdad in April.

Despite one of the most intensive manhunts in history, he has evaded capture for eight months.

As the news spread throughout Iraq, people began celebrating in the streets of Baghdad and the northern Iraqi city of Kirkuk by sounding their horns and firing into the air.

Saddam's stronghold towns of Tikrit and Fallujah, however, were sombre and quiet.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40492000/jpg/_40492763_saddam238.jpg

Parihaka
14 Dec 05,, 01:00
The last manned space mission to the Moon is on its way back to Earth, bringing to an end the US programme of lunar exploration.

The two Apollo 17 astronauts, Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt, completed their third lunar walk after a short ceremony in which they bade farewell to the Moon and unveiled a small commemorative plaque at the Taurus-Littrow valley.

On it was written, "Here man completed his first explorations of the Moon, December 1972."

Eugene Cernan also read out loud the postscript: "May the spirit of peace in which we came be reflected in the lives of all mankind."

Signatures

The plaque also bore the signatures of the astronauts and the US President Richard Nixon.

"This is our commemmoration," added Commander Cernan, "which will be here until someone comes back to read it again to further the meaning of Apollo."

His colleague, Dr Schmitt, called the voyages to the Moon man's "first evolutionary steps into the universe", and said, "I can think of no more significant contribution that Apollo has made to history."

Apollo 17 has already been hailed as the most successful of them all.

Commander Cernan and Dr Schmitt, the first trained geologist in space, gathered more material than ever before, spent longer on the surface and drove further away from the landing craft than in any previous Apollo mission.

They also set up six automatic research stations which will continue to operate after their departure.

Ground-breaking

The mission made one potentially ground-breaking discovery: an orange soil, found yesterday at the Shorty crater, is believed to be the first indication yet that there has been volcanic activity on the Moon.

During their last drive, the astronauts explored the base of the 6,000 ft (1,800 metres) high mountain known as North Massif. They then went north-east to the very different range known as the Sculptured Hills.

Twelve men have now walked on the Moon since Neil Armstrong stepped out of Apollo 11 in July 1969.

There are no plans at present for astronauts to return, although Nasa still hopes men might fly back to the Moon in the 1980s, possibly as a joint US-Soviet venture.

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/image/spacecraft/apollo_17_lm.jpg


http://history.nasa.gov/ap08fj/pics/windows.jpg

Parihaka
19 Dec 05,, 22:15
Maybe it's a little story in the context of world events but it's a reminder of the selfless nature of those who serve





A desperate search is underway for eight members of a life boat crew missing feared dead off the Cornish coast.

All contact has been lost with the crew of RNLI Penlee lifeboat, Soloman Browne, which was answering a distress call in treacherous weather conditions last night.

The men were giving assistance to Union Star whose crew reported engine failure eight miles east of Wolf Rock Lighthouse, south-west Cornwall.

Last contact with the Penlee crew was made last night shortly after reports it had rescued four of the eight people aboard the Union Star.

But this morning the vessel was found broken into small pieces.

Seven bodies have been recovered from the water.

The rescue attempt was taking place in winds coming from the south east at hurricane force 12, gusting to 90 knots and the sea reaching 60ft high.

Many of the crew, volunteers made up of fishermen among others, were from the close-knit fishing community of Mousehole.

Local men and those from neighbouring stations have joined a major sea and air search alongside a naval helicopter, life boats and fishing vessels.

Shock

They have been searching since the early hours of this morning and pledged to continue indefinitely despite waning hopes the men will be found alive.

The community is described as being 'numb with shock' as the Penlee lifeboat has been on station for 21 years and the crew were all experienced.

But the conditions last night were so poor that in spite many attempts a Royal Navy Sea King helicopter was unable to lift off any of the coaster's crew.

This morning the Union Star is upturned and washed ashore at the bottom of cliffs.

It is understood she launched from Denmark ten days ago and was travelling to Ireland with a cargo of fertilisers.

There is speculation the Solomon Browne may have collided with the hull of the Union Star, with many ruling out a capsize because this type of boat is subject to regular checks.

Dreadnought
21 Dec 05,, 15:06
Nice image Parihaka :)

Parihaka
08 Jan 06,, 23:46
Sir Edmund Hillary has reached the South Pole - the first overland explorer to do so since Captain Robert F Scott's expedition in 1912.
The New Zealander and his team arrived safely after travelling 70 miles (113km) through mist and poor weather conditions.

They described seeing the round tower of the South Pole for the first time as a "black blob" on the horizon.

Sir Edmund and his colleagues had only one drum of petrol left when they sighted the Polar base. This would have been enough for the "tractor train" to travel 20 miles (32km).

Earlier, the explorer had said fuel consumption was the party's main worry and that the team were "cutting it fine" because of very soft snow. Members of the team had to use shovels to clear a path for their tractors.

It took the tractor train, which included three tractors, a caboose and two sledges, more than 80 days to complete the 1,200-mile (1,930km) journey.

Sir Edmund was reportedly enthusiastic ahead of his arrival at the South Pole, and had told colleagues of heavy going in snow with a consistency of sugar, although he said good progress had been made.


We are heading hellbent for the Pole. God willing and crevasses permitting.


Sir Edmund Hillary ahead of arrival




In the final leg of the journey, the sky was overcast and there was no sun to warm the polar plateau. The party had to travel in "white-out" conditions for most of the time, with Sir Edmund telling Scott Base by radio: "It is tough, but not too tough."

The explorer later thanked his team, which included Ron Balham, Peter Mulgrew, Murray Ellis, Jim Bates and Derek Wright, and everyone involved in the expedition to the South Pole.


We are all very tired but well and very pleased to have arrived.


Sir Edmund Hillary


A broadcast message congratulating the triumphant group has been sent by New Zealand Prime Minister Walter Nash. All the explorers have spent 16 hours sleeping following their gruelling journey.

Crossing the polar plateau has led to several problems for Sir Edmund and the others in his party, including engine failure and poor weather conditions such as low cloud and strong winds, plus the hidden danger of crevasses.

Meanwhile, Sir Vivian Fuchs - director of the British Antarctic Survey - has reported a significant advance to about 200 miles (322km) from the Pole, and hopes to advance by around 50 miles (80km) per day. The two parties, approaching from opposite directions, had originally intended to link up on the Scott Base side of the South Pole.

Both teams of explorers were able to report progress by radio to the outside world and also made radio contact with each other to discuss future plans. They were also helped by the Beaver aircraft of the Royal New Zealand Air Force.

Sir Edmund Hillary's team is one of two Commonwealth Antarctic Expeditions.There are also 10 other national expeditions currently exploring the vast Antartic continent.

Since October 1956, the Americans have had a station at the geographical pole, with 20 men there at any one time. Russia has five bases - including the biggest in the Antarctic, which is at Mirny.
http://www.mtaspiring.school.nz/hillary/cd/resource/bottom/tractors/journeys/tract7.jpg

And yes, that's a Massey Ferguson tractor, they used three of them to reach the Pole

THL
13 Jan 06,, 15:13
On January 13th, 1794, President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union. (The number of stripes was later reduced to the original 13.)

In 1893, Britain’s Independent Labor Party (a precursor to the current Labor Party) held its first meeting.

In 1978, former Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey died in Waverly, Minnesota, at age 66.

Five years ago: An earthquake measuring magnitude seven-point-six struck El Salvador; more than 840 people were killed.

One year ago: Major League Baseball adopted a tougher steroid-testing program that suspended first-time offenders for ten days and randomly tested players year-round.

In History Today - January 13th (http://cbs2chicago.com/watercooler/watercooler_story_008171808.html)

Captain Drunk
14 Jan 06,, 10:45
January 14, 1991

UN Secretary General fails in Iraq. The Iraqi Parliament gives Saddam an unanimous vote of confidence for War. France's Six-point Proposal is being brushed aside. The US goes into a war watch.

Saddam sends King Fahd an open letter telling him that he will be responsible if War breaks out and condemns him for inviting foreign troops onto his soil.

Abu Lyad, deputy to Arafat, is assassinated

Israel issues gas masks to Palestinian residents

US Navy strength in the region reaches 108 ships

The 3rd F-16 is lost during Desert Shield (all types of accidents and losses).

Parihaka
19 Jan 06,, 02:30
1991: 'Mother of all Battles' begins
The Gulf War Allies have sent hundreds of planes on bombing raids into Iraq, at the start of Operation Desert Storm.

The American, British, French, Saudi and Kuwaiti aircraft took off at 2330 GMT last night.

Their bombs were aimed at military and strategic targets, including an oil refinery and Baghdad airport.

At least 400 raids took place. Latest reports say all the Allied aircraft have returned home safely, although France says four of its planes were hit.

One Tornado was shot down
Read the navigator's story

US Defence Secretary, Dick Cheney, said the operation appeared to have gone "very well".

Two hours after the raids began, President George Bush made a televised address.

He said the military objectives were clear - force Iraqi troops out of Kuwait and restore the legitimate government.

In Baghdad, Saddam Hussein remained defiant. He said the "Mother of all Battles had begun". He urged the Iraqi people to "stand up to evil".

First news of the bombing came from reporters in Baghdad working for the American TV network, CNN. They reported hearing air raid sirens shortly before the bombs hit.

President Bush said: "Our operations are designed to best protect the lives of all the coalition forces by targeting Saddam's vast military arsenal.

"Initial reports from General Schwarzkopf are that our operations are proceeding according to plan."

The British Prime Minister, John Major, came out of Number Ten shortly before 0800 GMT to make a statement to reporters.

"No-one wanted this conflict. No-one can be pleased about the fact this conflict has been necessary," he said.

"I hope now it is clear to Iraq that the scale of the Allied operation is such that they cannot win.

"I hope that Saddam Hussein will now make a very swift decision that he will do what he's been invited to do by the world community for a long time, that he should get out of Kuwait and end this matter swiftly and decisively."

He said the attacks would continue until Saddam withdrew his troops.

Allied planes have taken off this morning to launch a second round of air strikes.

http://www.flags.ru/pic/desert-storm.jpg

Parihaka
19 Jan 06,, 02:32
1994: Massive earthquake hits Los Angeles
A huge earthquake has rocked Los Angeles, killing more than 20 people.

The earthquake, which measured 6.6 on the Richter scale and lasted for 40 seconds, struck at 0431 local time (1231 GMT).

More than 1,000 people have been injured and the death toll is expected to rise as rescuers continue to pull bodies from collapsed buildings.

Mayor of Los Angeles Richard Riordan has declared a state of emergency and an evening curfew has been imposed.

The airport has been closed due to a lack of power and doctors are having to perform surgery in the open air because hospital buildings are severely damaged.

'Stay home, stay calm'

The area worst hit is reported to have been the San Fernando Valley where the quake is likely to have affected up to three million people.

Los Angeles emergency services are stretched to the limit and using heat detecting cameras and listening equipment to trace signs of life beneath the rubble.

One of the city's fire fighters, Grove Lumas, said it was fortunate the quake had struck during the night.

He said: "If this had happened in the middle of the day we would have been stacking up the bodies."

Experts are warning of potential aftershocks and police have issued a statement warning of isolated cases of looting.

The authorities have told residents to "stay home" and "stay calm".

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40624000/jpg/_40624575_earthquake238.jpg

Parihaka
19 Jan 06,, 02:35
1995: Earthquake devastates Kobe
Hundreds of people are feared dead and thousands injured after a powerful earthquake struck Japan at dawn.

Worst hit was the port of Kobe, a city of 1.5 million. Whole buildings, apartment blocks and an elevated highway collapsed killing at least 200 people and injuring some 13,000.

Osaka and the ancient city of Kyoto were also severely damaged.

The earthquake measured 7.2 magnitude and was the biggest to hit Japan for 47 years.

It struck at 0546 local time just as commuters were starting their journey into work.


The whole room was moving around like it was made of jelly

Dennis Kessler, British journalist
Scientists say the epicentre was 15 miles (24km) below the island of Awajisima, 20 miles (32km)from Kobe.

The NHK national television station has broadcast pictures of a devastated Kobe, with smoke billowing over large sections of the city.

Hundreds of people are trapped under the rubble of flattened buildings, but damaged gas and water pipes are hampering the rescue effort.

Reports say at least two people died when the elevated section of the Hanshin motorway connecting Osaka to Kobe collapsed in three places.

It threw 50 cars off the edge and left a bus hanging over the edge.

Trains were derailed and power cut in some areas, leaving a million people without electricity.

Many hundreds of people are out on the streets wrapped in bedding, too afraid to go home in case of more after-shocks.

Eyewitnesses said the terrifying shaking lasted for about 20 seconds and was followed by several aftershocks.

British journalist Dennis Kessler living in Osaka described the moment he was woken by a loud roar and watched his second-floor flat sway like a pendulum.

"Every single object in our room was flying around," he told the Evening Standard newspaper.

"The walls and ceilings were moving and creaking, the whole room was moving around like it was made of jelly."

The prime minister, Tomiichi Muruyama, has ordered the creation of an emergency committee to handle the effects of the quake and sent troops to help the rescue operation.
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39712000/jpg/_39712309_kobebus238.jpg

Parihaka
19 Jan 06,, 02:39
1966: Indira Gandhi takes charge in India
Indira Gandhi, only daughter of India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, is to become the country's next leader.

She was chosen at the end of a bitter leadership battle with former finance minister Morarji Desai.

Following her win, Mrs Gandhi pledged herself to serve the Congress Party and the country, and said she would "strive to create what my father used to call a climate of peace."

Crowds had gathered outside Parliament House while the election was held, and cheered Mrs Gandhi wildly as she went to the President's House to report.

She will not become prime minister until she submits her cabinet to the president.

Mrs Gandhi did not confirm she would be a candidate until four days ago, when chief ministers from 11 of India's 16 states let it be known they would support her to take over.

Another leading candidate, Gulzarilal Nanda, withdrew once it was clear Mrs Gandhi would be running.

He has been acting as prime minister since the unexpected death of Mr Nehru's successor, Lal Bahadur Shastri, earlier this month.

Mr Desai was under extreme pressure to pull out as well and avoid a potentially damaging leadership contest, but he insisted on going to a vote.

It was predicted he would get less than 100 of the 526 votes from Congress MPs, but he surprised many by winning 169 votes to Mrs Gandhi's 355.

Afterwards, Mr Desai pledged to cooperate fully with Mrs Gandhi. It is the second time running he has been defeated in a leadership contest: the first time, against Mr Shastri, he withdrew his candidacy without a vote.

Mrs Gandhi, 48, was educated at West Bengal and Oxford and has two sons, Rajiv and Sanjay, who are both studying in England.

She gets her name not from Mahatma Gandhi, the legendary independence campaigner and founder of the Congress Party, but from her husband Feroze Gandhi, a lawyer who died in 1960.

The couple spent 13 months in prison for subversion after fighting against British rule in India during the 1940s.

She has played a key part in the Congress Party since 1955, and served as information minister in Mr Shastri's government.


http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40927000/jpg/_40927569_newindira_ap.jpg

Dreadnought
20 Jan 06,, 17:50
1961: John F Kennedy sworn in as US president

The Democrat John F Kennedy has been sworn in as the youngest ever elected president of the United States.
The 43-year-old Roman Catholic was inaugurated as the 35th president on a snow-covered Capitol Hill in Washington. He takes over from the oldest president in American history, General Dwight Eisenhower, who is bowing out aged 70.

The president's Republican rival, Richard Nixon, who came a close second in the race for the White House, also attended the inauguration ceremony.

Millions watched the swearing-in of the new president on television. He chose to wear formal dress, including a top hat, for the occasion.


Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country


President John F Kennedy


President Kennedy began his speech by addressing "my fellow citizens" - the term first used by President George Washington but rejected by later presidents in favour of the less formal "my fellow Americans".

His ten-minute address appealed to Americans to unite in the fight against the common enemy of man: tyranny, poverty, disease and war itself.

For the people of the world struggling against the "bonds of misery", the president pledged, "our best efforts to help them help themselves".

He continued: "If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich."

He also appealed to the Soviet Union to begin a new quest for peace.

"Let both sides for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations," he said.

President Kennedy closed his speech with the words: "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man."

His words were greeted with
rousing applause.

The man never got a fair chance. Many believe he could have done wonders for America and the world. Sadly we will never know :redface:

Commando
20 Jan 06,, 22:41
His death shocked and created mourners all over the world. Not many other people have done that.

Dreadnought
27 Jan 06,, 17:29
1945: Auschwitz death camp liberated

The Red Army has liberated the Nazis' biggest concentration camp at Auschwitz in south-western Poland.
According to reports, hundreds of thousands of Polish people, as well as Jews from a number of other European countries, have been held prisoner there in appalling conditions and many have been killed in the gas chambers.

Few details have emerged of the capture of Auschwitz, which has gained a reputation as the most notorious of the Nazi death camps.

Some reports say the German guards were given orders several days ago to destroy the crematoria and gas chambers. Tens of thousands of prisoners - those who were able to walk - have been moved out of the prison and forced to march to other camps in Germany.


Little did we know that we had arrived at a place, the name of which would become as well known and remembered as any battle in the war


People's War memories »


Details of what went on at the camp have been released previously by the Polish Government in exile in London and from prisoners who have escaped.

In July 1944 details were revealed of more than 400,000 Hungarian Jews who were sent to Poland many of whom ended up in Auschwitz. They were loaded onto trains and taken to the camp where many were put to death in the gas chambers.

Before they went they were told they were being exchanged in Poland for prisoners of war and made to write cheerful letters to relatives at home telling them what was happening.

According to the Polish Ministry of Information, the gas chambers are capable of killing 6,000 people a day.

Another report from Poland told of mass arrests in the village of Garbatka near Radom in the early hours of one morning in August 1942. Workmen were accused of plotting to blow up a local factory. Twenty were executed on the spot, the rest were sent to Auschwitz.

Since its establishment in 1940, only a handful of prisoners have escaped to tell of the full horror of the camp.

In October last year, a group of Polish prisoners mounted an attack on their German guards. The Germans reportedly machine-gunned the barracks killing 200 Polish prisoners. The Poles succeeded in killing six of their executioners.

When the Red Army arrived at the camp they found only a few thousand prisoners remaining. They had been too sick to leave.

The capture of Auschwitz comes as the Red Army has made important advances on three fronts: in East Prussia to the north, in western Poland as well as Silesia in eastern Germany. Fighting is continuing around the historic Polish western city of Poznan.

The Polish capital, Warsaw, was liberated a week ago after five-and-a-half years of German occupation.

So much for an Iranian myth needless to say...Idiot! :mad:

Dreadnought
27 Jan 06,, 17:52
CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida (AP) -- Twenty years ago, space shuttle Challenger blew apart in jets of fire and plumes of smoke, a terrifying sight witnessed by the families of the seven astronauts and by those who came to watch the historic launch of the first teacher in space.

The disaster shattered NASA's image and the belief that spaceflight could become as routine as airplane travel. The investigation into the accident's cause revealed a space agency more concerned with schedules and public relations than safety and sound decision-making.

Seventeen years later, seven more astronauts were lost on the shuttle Columbia, leading many to conclude NASA had not learned the lessons of Challenger.

But after last summer's successful return to flight under the highest level of engineering scrutiny ever, many space watchers are more hopeful.

"Don't we all learn as we go?" said Grace Corrigan, who lost her daughter, teacher Christa McAuliffe, in the Challenger accident. "Everybody learns from their mistakes."

Joining McAuliffe on the doomed January 28, 1986 Challenger flight were commander Dick Scobee, pilot Mike Smith and astronauts Ellison Onizuka, Judy Resnik, Ron McNair and Greg Jarvis.

"It was one of those defining moments in your life that you will always remember," said Democratic Sen. Bill Nelson of Florida, who flew on the shuttle mission preceding Challenger. "Because in 1986, the space shuttle was the symbol of technological prowess of the United States and all of the sudden it's destroyed in front of everybody's eyes."

The two shuttle disasters, as well as the deaths of the Apollo 1 crew during a 1967 launch pad test, taught the space agency how to improve the herculean task of launching humans into space, NASA administrator Michael Griffin said recently.

On Thursday, NASA workers paused for their annual Day of Remembrance in honor of those lost in all three accidents. On Saturday, a ceremony remembering the Challenger accident is planned at Kennedy Space Center. (Full story)

Challenger was brought down just after liftoff by a poorly designed seal in the shuttle's solid rocket booster, which has since been redesigned and has performed without problems. It will be used on the next-generation vehicle with plans to return astronauts to the moon and later to Mars.

"We learned how to design solid rocket boosters ... with no further failures," Griffin said. "We got that from the Challenger crew, so that is part of the learning process, I'm afraid."

The Challenger disaster came in an era of tighter budgets, smaller work forces and a constant need for the space agency to justify the shuttle program that followed the heyday of the Apollo moon program. NASA had hoped sending a teacher into space to give a lesson would win back some public interest and show how routine shuttle flights could be.

The success of the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs had led NASA to believe that spaceflight eventually could become as commonplace as an airplane ride, said Stanley Reinartz, the former manager of the shuttle project office at the Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. He made the decision not to take engineers' concerns about the Challenger's O-ring seals to the highest reaches of NASA management.

"Things can go wrong," Reinartz said of the decision to launch. "You don't get away from it. It's always there."

Nelson said he is confident that the current NASA leaders have learned the lessons of management hubris from their predecessors. Griffin grounded the shuttle fleet last summer after foam fell off the tank of Discovery during the first shuttle flight after Columbia. It was a chunk of foam debris that doomed Columbia by knocking a hole in its wing.


Seven more shuttle astronauts were lost when Columbia broke to pieces upon re-entering the Earth's atmosphere February 1, 2003."The problem that NASA has had that caused the destruction of both space shuttles is the same ... -- arrogance in the management of NASA so that they were not listening to the engineers on the line," Nelson said.

But some critics wonder how long the 2-year-old reforms and attitude changes implemented after Columbia will last until, once again, dissenting opinion is discouraged and NASA managers override the concerns of their engineers.

In a series of telephone conference calls the night before Challenger's liftoff, engineers from NASA contractor Morton Thiokol recommended against a launch because data showed that cold temperatures compromised the O-rings' resiliency. The temperature at launch time was 36 degrees Fahrenheit (2.2 Celsius).

Under perceived pressure from NASA managers, Thiokol managers reversed themselves and went against the recommendation of their engineers not to launch, according to the investigation by a commission appointed by President Reagan.

"The presidential commission made very powerful and strong recommendations on how the system needed to be fixed," said Roger Boisjoly, a former Thiokol engineer who had opposed the Challenger launch during the conference calls. "Initially NASA installed every one of those (recommendations), but in the ensuing years proceeded to dismantle them."

Griffin said he is reminded of the early days of the nation's air transport system when scores of test pilots died in plane accidents during the early part of last century.

"The knowledge we gained was gained only through many, many losses," Griffin said. "That is the perspective through which we must look at our losses in spaceflight."

Bulgaroctonus
30 Jan 06,, 03:17
On January 30, 1948, on his way to a prayer meeting, Gandhi was shot dead in Birla House, New Delhi, by Nathuram Godse. Godse was a Hindu radical with alleged links to right-wing Hindu organisations, like the Hindu Mahasabha and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening the new government by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and convicted, and executed on 15 November 1949. A prominent revolutionary and Hindu extremist, the president of the Mahasabha, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was accused of being the architect of the plot, but was acquitted due to lack of evidence.

It is indicative of Gandhi's long struggle and search for God that his dying words were said to have been a homage to God, Rama: "He Ram!" (Oh God!). This is seen as an inspiring signal of his spirituality as well as his idealism regarding the possibility of a unifying peace. The words are inscribed upon his memorial called Raj Ghat in New Delhi. While some are sceptical of this, evidence from a number of witnesses supports the claim that he made this utterance (see External links). Some sources state that Gandhi's last words were "He Ram, He Ram" or "Rama, Rama". It has also been claimed that when Gandhi fell to the ground dying, he clasped his hands together in the form of the namaste.

Soon after, Jawaharlal Nehru announced Gandhi's death with the words:

"Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not for me only, but for millions and millions in this country."

Garry
31 Jan 06,, 19:14
The guy became a hero when he was made a symbol of fight for vanishing troops in Stalingrad rubbish. It was terrible fight there for every meter of land... especially at the end when Russians were left just 1km strip along the Volga... it got shrink to 300m. Zaitsev has record of more than 200 ememy soldiers including 11 snipers. His battle with german sniper major Kening was considered myth for long time even by many Soviet historians. But today they put major's rifle and his documents in the museum... at day when Zaitsev was reburried.

In real life Zaitsev was never left alone against other snipers. A whole group of snipers guarded him and his flanks. In 1942 he was an important symbol for soldiers who knew that MOST OF THEM will not suvive even few days in Stalingrad. Casualties were very high and people needed some hope to hold. Many soldiers start copying Zaitsev and went sniping.... not all of them successfully. Many did not last long as snipers, while some survived in their hobby and became pretty dangerous snipers. But in overall this movement created such a wave of sniping among Russian troops that Germans has lost around 10,000 soldiers and officers due to precision shots of these amateurs.

Dreadnought
31 Jan 06,, 19:20
ATLANTA (AP) - Coretta Scott King, who turned a life shattered by her husband's assassination into one devoted to enshrining his legacy of human rights and equality, has died at the age of 78.

Flags at the King Center were lowered to half-staff Tuesday morning.

"We appreciate the prayers and condolences from people across the country," the King family said in a statement. The family said she died during the night. The widow of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. suffered a serious stroke and heart attack last August.

"It's a bleak morning for me and for many people and yet it's a great morning because we have a chance to look at her and see what she did and who she was," poet Maya Angelou said on ABC's "Good Morning America."


"It's bleak because I can't - many of us can't hear her sweet voice - but it's great because she did live, and she was ours. I mean African-Americans and white Americans and Asians, Spanish-speaking - she belonged to us and that's a great thing."

King died at Santa Monica Hospital, a holistic health center in Rosarito Beach, Mexico, 16 miles south of San Diego, said her sister, Edythe Scott Bagley of Cheyney, Pa.

She had gone to California to rest and be with family, according to Former Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young, who broke the news on NBC's "Today" show.

At a news conference, Young said Coretta King's fortitude rivaled that of her husband.

"She was strong if not stronger than he was," Young said. "She lived a graceful and beautiful life, and in spite of all of the difficulties, she managed a graceful and beautiful passing."


(AP) Key dates in the life of Coretta Scott King. (AP Graphic)
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She was a supportive lieutenant to her husband during the most tumultuous days of the American civil rights movement, and after his assassination in Memphis, Tenn., on April 4, 1968, she kept his dream alive while also raising their four children.

"I'm more determined than ever that my husband's dream will become a reality," King said soon after his slaying.

She goaded and pulled for more than a decade to have her husband's birthday observed as a national holiday, first celebrated in 1986.

King became a symbol, in her own right, of her husband's struggle for peace and brotherhood, presiding with a quiet, steady, stoic presence over seminars and conferences on global issues.

The Rev. Jesse Jackson, who was with her husband when he was assassinated, said Tuesday that she understood that every time he left home, there was the chance he might not come back. "Like all great champions, she learned to function with pain and keep serving," he said. "So her legacy is secure as a freedom fighter, but her work remains unfinished."


(AP) King Center employee Bobby Blacklock, right, and an unidentified security officer bring flowers to...
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King wrote a book, "My Life With Martin Luther King Jr.," and, in 1969 founded the multimillion-dollar Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. She saw to it that the center became deeply involved with the issues she said breed violence - hunger, unemployment, voting rights and racism.

"The center enables us to go out and struggle against the evils in our society," she often said.

She became increasingly outspoken against businesses such as film and television companies, video arcades, gun manufacturers and toy makers she accused of promoting violence. She called for regulation of their advertising.

After her stroke, King missed the annual King holiday celebration in Atlanta two weeks ago, but she did appear with her children at an awards dinner a couple of days earlier, smiling from her wheelchair but not speaking. The crowd gave her a standing ovation.

At the same time, the King Center's board of directors was considering selling the site to the National Park Service to let the family focus less on grounds maintenance and more on King's message. Two of the four children were strongly against such a move.


(AP) King Center employee Bobby Blacklock arranges flowers in front of the crypt of Dr. Martin Luther...
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Also in the news recently was a new book, "At Canaan's Edge" by Taylor Branch, that put allegations of her husband's infidelity back in the spotlight. It said her husband confessed a long-standing affair to her not long before he was assassinated.

Coretta Scott was studying voice at the New England Conservatory of Music and planning on a singing career when a friend introduced her to Martin Luther King, a young Baptist minister studying at Boston University.

"She said she wanted me to meet a very promising young minister from Atlanta," King once said, adding with a laugh: "I wasn't interested in meeting a young minister at that time."

She recalled that on their first date he told her: "You know, you have everything I ever wanted in a woman. We ought to get married someday." Eighteen months later - June 18, 1953 - they did, at her parents' home in Marion, Ala.

The couple moved to Montgomery, Ala., where he became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church and organized the famed Montgomery bus boycott in 1955. With that campaign, King began enacting his philosophy of direct social action.

Over the years, King was with her husband in his finest hours. She was at his side as he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. She marched beside him from Selma, Ala., into Montgomery in 1965 for the triumphal climax to his drive for a voting rights law.

Only days after his death, she flew to Memphis with three of her children to lead thousands marching in honor of her slain husband and to plead for his cause.

"I think you rise to the occasion in a crisis," she once said. "I think the Lord gives you strength when you need it. God was using us - and now he's using me, too."

The King family, especially King and her father-in-law, Martin Luther King Sr., were highly visible in 1976 when former Georgia Gov. Jimmy Carter ran for president. When an integration dispute at Carter's Plains church created a furor, King campaigned at Carter's side the next day.

She later was named by Carter to serve as part of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations, where Young was the ambassador.

In 1997, she spoke out in favor of a push to grant a trial for James Earl Ray, who pleaded guilty to killing her husband and then recanted.

"Even if no new light is shed on the facts concerning my husband's assassination, at least we and the nation can have the satisfaction of knowing that justice has run its course in this tragedy," she told a judge.

The trial never took place; Ray died in 1998.

King was born April 27, 1927, in Perry County, Ala. Her father ran a country store. To help her family during the Depression, young Coretta picked cotton; later, she worked as a waitress to earn her way through Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio.

In 1994, King stepped down as head of the King Center, passing the job to son Dexter, who in turn passed the job on to her other son, Martin III, in 2004. Dexter continued to serve as the center's chief operating officer. Martin III also has served on the Fulton County (Ga.) commission and as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, co-founded by his father in 1957. Daughter Yolanda became an actress and the youngest child, Bernice, became a Baptist minister.

On the 25th anniversary of her husband's death, April 5, 1993, King said the war in Vietnam which her husband opposed "has been replaced by an undeclared war on our central cities, a war being fought by gangs with guns for drugs."

"The value of life in our cities has become as cheap as the price of a gun," she said.

King received numerous honors for herself and traveled around the world in the process.

In London, she stood in 1969 in the same carved pulpit in St. Paul's Cathedral where her husband preached five years earlier.

"Many despair at all the evil and unrest and disorder in the world today," she preached, "but I see a new social order and I see the dawn of a new day."

Parihaka
31 Jan 06,, 22:23
British troops have opened fire on a crowd of demonstrators in the Bogside district of Londonderry, killing 13 civilians.

Seventeen more people, including one woman, were injured by gunfire. Another woman was knocked down by a speeding car.

The army said two soldiers had been hurt and up to 60 people arrested.


They just came in firing - there was no provocation whatsoever

Father Daly
It was by far the worst day of violence in this largely Roman Catholic city since the present crisis began in 1969.

Bogsiders said the troops opened fire on unarmed men - including one who had his arms up in surrender.

The trouble began as a civil rights procession, defying the Stormont ban on parades and marches, approached an Army barbed wire barricade.

The largely peaceful crowd of between 7,000 and 10,000 was marching in protest at the policy of internment without trial. Some of the younger demonstrators began shouting at the soldiers and chanting, "IRA, IRA".

A few bottles, broken paving stones, chair legs and heavy pieces of iron grating were thrown at the troops manning the barrier.

Stewards appealed for calm - but more missiles were thrown and the area behind the barricade was quickly strewn with broken glass and other debris.

The 1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment, which had been standing by in case of trouble, sprang into action. Squads leapt over the barricades and chased the demonstrators.

The gates were opened and eight armoured vehicles went into the Bogside and the remaining demonstrators were quickly surrounded.

Army claims provocation

The army says it opened fire after being shot at first by two snipers in flats overlooking the street. It claims acid bombs were also thrown.

The gun battle lasted about 25 minutes.

Father Edward Daly, a Catholic priest, was caught on film helping to carry a teenager who had been fatally wounded, to safety.

He said: "They just came in firing. There was no provocation whatsoever.

"Most people had their backs to them when they opened fire."

Major General Robert Ford, Commander, Land Forces Northern Ireland, who was in charge of the operation, insisted his troops had been fired on first.

"There is absolutely no doubt at all that the Parachute battalion did not open up until they had been fired at," he said.


In Context
A 14th man later died of injuries received during the demonstration.

An inquiry into what became known as Bloody Sunday headed by Lord Widgery in 1972 exonerated the Army. It said their firing had "bordered on the reckless" but said the troops had been fired upon first and some of their victims had been armed.

The results of the inquiry were rejected by the Catholic community who began a long campaign for a fresh investigation.

In 1998, Tony Blair's government announced a new inquiry into Bloody Sunday.

The inquiry, headed by Lord Saville, spent two years taking witness statements. It ended in November 2004 and had cost about £150 million.

Lord Saville's final report and conclusions were due to be published in 2005 but the large amount of evidence being considered has delayed publication.
http://www.mapageweb.umontreal.ca/brodeuj/documents/images/bloody%20sunday%202.jpg

Parihaka
31 Jan 06,, 22:34
The American command in Vietnam has reported over 5,000 people dead after two days intensive fighting.

South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu has been forced to declare martial law as communist forces, under General Vo Nguyen Giap, have kept up sustained assaults on several fronts - from Saigon in the south to Hue in the north.

Authorities in the North Vietnamese capital Hanoi, described it as, "a more powerful and more continuous offensive" than ever before.

White House intelligence in Washington anticipated attacks over the Tet holiday to celebrate the lunar new year, but they were surprised by their intensity.

Sporadic fighting is still being reported in Saigon but the main hostilities - which began at 1800 local time two days ago - are reported to have ceased.

Casualties

According to US figures, 4,959 Vietcong have been killed and 1,862 captured while 232 American and 300 South Vietnamese troops have been killed with 929 and 747, respectively, wounded.

Last night, a 19-man Vietcong suicide squad blew a four foot hole in the wall of the US Embassy in Saigon and the nearby British Embassy sustained minor damage.

Vietcong forces have also attacked the Vietnam general staff headquarters, Navy headquarters, two police stations and the Philippine Ambassador's residence as well as blowing up the radio station in Saigon.

Communications are in chaos and commercial flights from the airport have been cancelled.

North Vietnamese - Vietminh - troops have reinforced their siege of Khe Sanh, near the demilitarised zone.

Some commentators expect the so-called Tet Offensive will shatter the American resolve and have a similar effect on the US to that on the French after the North Vietnamese victory at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 - which contributed to the Geneva Agreements later that year.

The Hanoi goverment has offered talks and a seven-day truce if the US stops its aerial bombardments.

Documents captured by the Americans show the Vietminh troops have been promised an end to the war by February.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38774000/jpg/_38774725_vietcong238.jpg

Parihaka
31 Jan 06,, 22:36
The US space shuttle Columbia has broken up as it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere killing all seven astronauts on board.

This is the first time there has been an accident on landing in the 42 years of space flight.

President George Bush told a nation in shock: "The Columbia is lost. There are no survivors."

Six of the seven astronauts were US citizens. They were Rick Husband, William McCool, Michael Anderson, David Brown, and female astronauts Laurel Clark and Indian-born Kalpana Chawla.

The seventh - fighter pilot Colonel Ilan Ramon - was Israel's first astronaut and was carrying with him a miniature Torah scroll of a Holocaust survivor.

Columbia disintegrated just 16 minutes before it was due to land at Cape Canaveral in Florida.

At 0900 local time (1400 GMT) Mission Control lost all data and contact with the crew.

The US space agency Nasa then sent search teams to the Dallas-Fort Worth area amid reports of "a big bang" and TV pictures showing smoke and fireballs in the sky.

Debris scattered over Texas

In an emotional announcement, Nasa's administrator Sean O'Keefe, said: "This is indeed a tragic day for the Nasa family, for the families of the astronauts and likewise, tragic for the nation."

Flags at the Kennedy Space Center have been lowered to half-mast.

Debris from the shuttle is scattered across eastern Texas and western Louisiana and has crashed into car parks, forests, backyards, a reservoir, a rooftop and a dentist's office.

Nasa has temporarily suspended shuttle flights. Shuttle programme manager Ron Dittemore told a news conference in Houston, Texas, "We will not fly again until we have this understood. Somewhere along the line we missed something."

The finger of blame points to a piece of insulating foam from an external fuel tank that hit the shuttle's left wing as it took off 16 days ago.

Some experts say this could have damaged tiles that protect the craft from intense heat on re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere.

But the lead flight director in mission control, Leroy Cain, assured journalists engineers had concluded any damage to the spacecraft was considered minor.

The shuttle was the world's first reusable space vehicle and Columbia was the oldest of a fleet of four and flew her maiden voyage in April 1981.

Her sister ship Challenger exploded soon after take-off 17 years ago killing six astronauts and schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe.

Parihaka
31 Jan 06,, 22:40
Religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini has made a triumphant return to Iran after 14 years in exile.

Up to five million people lined the streets of the nation's capital, Tehran, to witness the homecoming of the Shia Muslim imam.

Ayatollah Rubollah Khomeini, 78, was imprisoned by the Shah in 1963 for his opposition to reforms and was expelled the following year, to Iraq - via Turkey.

He spent the last few months of his exile in France, near Paris, from where he co-ordinated the revolution in January that forced the Shah of Iran to go into hiding.

The Ayatollah - a title meaning Gift of God - emerged from his chartered plane looking tired and tearful to meet the 1,500 religious and political leaders allowed to meet him in the terminal building.


I will strike with my fists at the mouths of this government

Ayatollah Khomeini
A force of 50,000 police quickly lost control of the crowds outside the airport clamouring to catch a glimpse of the man who has been their spiritual inspiration.

Hands raised in greeting and appreciation, Ayatollah Khomeini made slow progress as his blue and white Chevrolet forced its way through a mass of people.

The cavalcade did not stop in Tehran itself but made the 12 mile journey south to the Cemetery of Martyrs where Mr Khomeini addressed 250,000 supporters.

He was openly belligerent towards the current government of Prime Minister Shahpur Bakhtiar.

"These people are trying to bring back the regime of the late Shah or another regime. I will strike with my fists at the mouths of this government. From now on it is I who will name the government," he claimed.

Dr Bakhtair responded by saying: "Don't worry about this kind of speech. That is Khomeini. He is free to speak but he is not free to act."

The government has tried to re-assert its authority by cutting TV pictures of Mr Khomeini's progress and holding a military parade through Tehran this evening.

Parihaka
03 Feb 06,, 00:16
I could feel the bricks starting to bury my feet'


The Hawke's Bay earthquake rumbled for a terrifying 2½ minutes. When it finally stopped, towns lay in ruins. On today's 75th anniversary of the disaster, survivors tell their stories to Bernard Carpinter.

'Situation appalling. Whole town appears to be on fire'.

The HMS Veronica, docked at Napier, sent that message by morse code to naval headquarters at 1.31pm on February 3, 1931. It was two hours and 45 minutes after the killer quake had struck Hawke's Bay and caused New Zealand's worst natural disaster.

The commercial centre of Napier, comprised mainly of masonry buildings, had collapsed to the extent that when special policeman Ernest Vogtherr arrived there he could not even find his way around: "There were just no streets left," he said.

Hastings and other towns throughout Hawke's Bay were also devastated. In total 258 people lost their lives.

May Blair, nee Forrest, was just 13½ years old and starting her first day at Napier Technical College, proudly wearing her first pair of court (dress) shoes.

"When the quake struck I was on the second-storey sitting about in the middle of the room," Mrs Blair, now an 89-year old widow, recalled this week.

"I remember the building seemed to lean over at an alarming angle before the walls started to collapse. My first thought was the boys in the lab had made some terrible explosion."

As luck would have it, Mrs Blair was in the safest possible place: she had dropped a fountain pen and was on the floor under her desk.

"I think that saved me from a lot of damage. Nine people were killed at the school."

She managed to thread her way through the carnage and arrive safely at her sister's house in Latham St.

"It was then I noticed one of my lovely court shoes was missing and that I had a deep cut on my neck and shoulder."
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The family home in Battery Rd had not been badly damaged – wooden houses survived the quake very well, apart from their chimneys – but with strong tremors continuing the residents were scared to stay indoors. The Forrest family slept outside under a tarpaulin.

"About three days after the quake I went to the grocer and a big crack appeared in the ground in front of me. I turned round and there was another one behind me."

May's brother Bill was in the navy and in Napier for the quake – but seamen were forbidden from leaving the service to check their families.

"After three days he did come to see us – and he got 90 days in Mt Eden jail."

When Mrs Blair returned to school it was housed in tents in Nelson Park and then, briefly, at Napier Girls High.

"We Tech girls were not liked at Girls High so I would not go back."

Despite witnessing first hand the earthquake's horror, Mrs Blair has stayed in Napier: "I wouldn't want to live anywhere else, although I have travelled a lot".

She raised seven children, became a JP, married 950 couples, was president of the Napier branch of the New Zealand Council of Women and was awarded the QSM for volunteer work.

February 3, 1931 was also Gordon Vogtherr's first day at school, the Hastings five-year-old started that day at Mahora School.

"It being my first day, I didn't know which doors went where and everything was rocking but eventually I managed to get out and I immediately took off for home," he recalls.

"The water overflowed from the swimming baths. One girl was killed at the school.

"I told my father to `Spear him!' – I thought it was something like a serpent moving under the ground.

"The chimneys in our house came down and there was this awful smell from it. In the kitchen all the jams and pickles were strewn about. My grandparents lost everything."

Gordon's father Ernest later took a job in Nelson and the family moved there for 3½ years. Seven years after the quake the family returned to Hastings – "my father had a great yearning for Hawke's Bay" – and started what is now called the Holly Bacon Company, still run by the family.

Ernest Vogtherr wrote about the earthquake in his autobiography, No Regrets. The first shockwave knocked him down in the street in central Hastings.

"When I recovered from the initial shock I realised that I was right under the Cosy Theatre, and I could feel the bricks from this building coming down at me like snowballs," his book says.

"They started by burying my feet and I could feel them creeping up my body and I thought 'this can't last much longer' as only my head was by now uncovered." Suddenly the bricks stopped and he eventually managed to wriggle free.

"Fortunately the theatre was extremely badly built and the bricks had just fallen apart and came down on me one at a time. Had a portion of the wall held together I would have been crushed to death like so many other unfortunate victims of nature's bad-tempered upheaval.

"The main street was a shambles and impassable. Buildings were cut completely in half leaving bedrooms, etc, exposed whilst the fronts of the buildings lay in the street below."

Ernest Vogtherr had trained as a territorial and was called into the special police force as an inspector. Officers had to deal with a few looters and thieves, and had to keep people out of dangerous areas.

He ordered his men not to let anyone through the picket lines, "not Jesus Christ himself". They even blocked the commissioner of police, which caused some fuss.

Maori from local pa came in to help: "They were magnificent," Mr Vogtherr said in his book.

Another survivor, Dorothy Hollay, now 94 and living in Te Awamutu, has won a competition for recollections of the quake. She was 19 when it struck and was working in the Napier hospital laundry. "The new nurses' home, only built the previous year, was reduced to rubble killing all the nurses who had been on night duty," she said in her memoirs.

"I knew one of these young ladies, it was her very first evening on night duty. This home contained no reinforcements whatsoever, a shocking example of the lack of an enforceable building code in those times."

Though dazed, Mrs Hollay spent the day helping at the hospital on the hill. Down in the town centre the fire station had collapsed and there was no water, allowing fires to rage unchecked.

Many who survived the earthquake died, trapped in the fires.

Mrs Hollay recounted one story about a man who was trapped by his leg as the fires advanced. He begged rescuers to cut his leg off.

"No one had the heart to cut off a man's leg, but the dilemma was soon solved – he yelled again, 'Cut the bloody thing off, it's only a wooden one!' Now that was his lucky day."

Despite the widespread destruction, order was restored surprisingly quickly, with crew from the Veronica and other naval ships working round the clock.

The special police force was disbanded after only three weeks and each member received a personal letter of thanks – Gordon Vogtherr still has his father's.

While the city centre was being rebuilt, "Tin Town" was set up in what is now Clive and Memorial squares. Most of the new shops and offices were built in the style of the day – art deco – which is now one of the region's icons and tourist attractions.

The Government offered up to £100 to each household to repair quake damage. Applications had to be made on a single sheet of paper, with a quote from a builder.

Government officials drew up national building codes to ensure that future buildings would better withstand earthquakes. Many homeowners could afford to rebuild only one of their chimneys and simply blocked off other fireplaces.

The weekend before the quake Dorothy Hollay went sailing on the lagoon just outside Napier.

"It was a perfect day for sailing, and I now find it is hard to believe that there is now no sea on which to sail," she said.

Land rose by up to two metres, so the quake had the effect of providing more land on which Napier could expand.

After the earthquake, many people left the area for different reasons and differing periods, some never returning.

Mrs Blair chose to stay. "We just got on with things."


http://www.objectlessons.org.uk/img_hr/GEO000XP5017.jpg

Parihaka
08 Feb 06,, 01:42
Princess Elizabeth has formally proclaimed herself Queen and Head of the Commonwealth and Defender of the Faith.

Lords of the Council - numbering 150 - representatives from the Commonwealth, officials from the City of London - including the Lord Mayor - and other dignitaries witnessed the accession of the deceased king's eldest daughter this morning.

The new monarch read an official Proclamation - also ordered to be published - declaring her reign as Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second.


I shall always work to advance the happiness and prosperity of my peoples

Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II read: "By the sudden death of my dear father I am called to assume the duties and responsibilities of sovereignty."

"My heart is too full for me to say more to you today than I shall always work, as my father did throughout his reign, to advance the happiness and prosperity of my peoples, spread as they are all the world over."

Her husband, Prince Philip of Greece, the Duke of Edinburgh, was also present at the 20 minute meeting at St James's Palace.

The couple returned to the UK yesterday after cutting short a tour of the Commonwealth - beginning in Kenya a week ago - because of King George VI's sudden death on 6 February.

After the Accession Declaration, at 1000 GMT, the new Queen held her first Privy Council meeting and her Proclamation was signed by the Lord Chancellor, the prime minister, and many other privy counsellors along with representatives of the Commonwealth and the City and the Lord Mayor of London.

During the ceremonies the 25-year-old Queen also took an oath to assure the security of the Church of Scotland and approved several other Orders in Council.

Other dignitaries formally announced the new sovereign across the UK and Commonwealth.

In a statement this evening the Home Secretary, Sir David Fyfe, asked the nation for two minutes' silence on 15 February when the late King will be buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor.

Parihaka
08 Feb 06,, 01:47
Israeli defence minister Ariel Sharon has resigned after an inquiry concluded that he had failed to act to prevent the massacre of hundreds in two refugee camps.

Mr Sharon was forced to step down by an Israeli tribunal investigating the 1982 Lebanon killings.

The investigation found that Mr Sharon - as defence minister of the Israeli forces - was indirectly but personally to blame for the massacres.

More than 800 people died at the hands of Lebanese Christian Phalangist militia in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps near Beirut in 1982.

Israeli troops were in control of west Beirut when right-wing Christian militias entered the camps.

Israel formed a commission of inquiry led by former Supreme Justice Kahan. The report included evidence from Israeli army personnel, political figures and Phalangist officers.

The Kahan Commission's report said Mr Sharon had made a "grave mistake" by failing to order "appropriate measures for preventing or reducing the danger of massacre" at the camps.

It concluded that the former defence minister should have foreseen what the Phalange would do when they entered the camps.

Mr Sharon's lawyer said that because he had no knowledge of what would happen when Israeli troops allowed the militia into the camps, he could not be held to account.

The Kahan report also condemned Israeli General Rafael Eitan for "breach of duty" in not taking steps to stop the massacre. It said he should have anticipated the danger and opposed the decision to send militia into the camp.

The judicial report criticised Israeli prime minister Menachim Begin and his government's role and dismissed the argument that Israel could not be held directly accountable.

In Israel, 300,000 people had taken to the streets of Tel Aviv to demand that Mr Sharon resign.

PLO leader Yasser Arafat criticised the official Israeli report and called for an international tribunal to investigate the killings.

The massacre came after Bashir Gemayel, the Christian Lebanese president-elect and leader of the Phalange, was assassinated.

The Chap
08 Feb 06,, 04:32
1066 and all that.
Partition.
Marathon.
Salamis
The Washing of the Spears.
'82 -Falklands. The lion was not quite as dead as thought.
1997. God curse that bloody day. A nation proven moron.
Vatican II
1947. The arrival of that all too famous gun
1974. For oh so many reasons ...
1939. Or was it 1942? My yank friends endeavour to keep me confused. :rolleyes:
Crecy, Poitier, Ascincout [sic] and Waterloo whilst I'm at it.
Signinig of the Magna Carta. Treaty of Versailles.
American "arbitrary" declaration of "independance". (never ratified) :biggrin:
Some time Last Year. European Constitution rejected. Even by The French. :confused:
A.D. 6something - birth of the Prophet inshallah etc.
1682. England allowed to have fun again.
Whenever S. J. published the (or rather had published) the first Dictionary.
The French Revolution. I await the second. It may herald both an age of enlightenment and one of reason. Don't hold y'breath. As the French should. :biggrin:

Parihaka
08 Feb 06,, 04:40
1997. God curse that bloody day. A nation proven moron.

Fraid you'll have to give me more clues on that one?

The Chap
08 Feb 06,, 21:01
Fraid you'll have to give me more clues on that one?

Labour. :mad:

Parihaka
08 Feb 06,, 22:14
Labour. :mad:
AHA AHAHA HAHA HA (wait: what am I bloody laughing for...)

The Chap
12 Feb 06,, 03:29
AHA AHAHA HAHA HA (wait: what am I bloody laughing for...)

'not sure; best to check with Health and Safety first ...

Once you have a permit for inquiring. :rolleyes: :biggrin:

Parihaka
14 Feb 06,, 11:48
Leading anti-apartheid campaigner Nelson Mandela has been freed from prison in South Africa after 27 years.
His release follows the relaxation of apartheid laws - including lifting the ban on leading black rights party the African National Congress (ANC) - by South African President FW de Klerk.

Mr Mandela appeared at the gates of Victor-Verster Prison in Paarl at 1614 local time - an hour late - with his wife Winnie.

Holding her hand and dressed in a light brown suit and tie he smiled at the ecstatic crowds and punched the air in a victory salute before taking a silver BMW sedan to Cape Town, 40 miles away.

People danced in the streets across the country and thousands clamoured to see him at a rally in Cape Town.


Our march to freedom is irreversible

Nelson Mandela

Doctors treated over a hundred people as police clashed with youths looting shops in various cities and townships and several people were reported shot dead.

Mr Mandela, the deputy-president of the ANC, appeared on the balcony of Cape Town's City Hall to speak to the 50,000 people assembled outside at 2000 local time.

He acknowledged Mr de Klerk was a man of integrity, but said: "Our struggle has reached a decisive moment. Our march to freedom is irreversible."

"Now is the time to intensify the struggle on all fronts. To relax now would be a mistake which future generations would not forgive," he continued.

As he addressed the crowd South African state television broadcast a profile of Mr Mandela - including a BBC interview from 1961 - which was the first time he had been shown speaking on TV.

Now 71, the lawyer from the Transkei homeland was convicted of treason and sabotage in June 1964 and sentenced to life imprisonment.

He spent most of his sentence on Robben Island, off Cape Town, doing hard labour.

Since the 1980s he has refused numerous offers for early release from the government in Pretoria because of the conditions attached.

Parihaka
14 Feb 06,, 11:49
The British Conservative Party has chosen Margaret Thatcher as its new leader.
She will be the first woman to head a British political party after a landslide victory over the other four - male - candidates.

Mrs Thatcher - who served as Secretary of State for Science and Education in Ted Heath's Government - exclaimed "It's like a dream."

The MP for Finchley, north London, since 1959 rejected suggestions of great celebrations.


It's like a dream

Margaret Thatcher

She said: "Good heavens, no. There's far too much work to be done."

Mrs Thatcher, 50, forced Ted Heath to resign as leader last week when she trounced him in the first round of the leadership race with 130 votes to his 119.

Conservative Party confidence in Mr Heath - prime minister from 1970 to 1974 - was rattled by his failure to win general elections in both February and October last year.

Chairman of the influential 1922 Backbench Committee - whose 276 members are largely responsible for deciding party leaders - Edward du Cann, told BBC Television: "We have a new and rather exciting leader. Mrs Thatcher will make the Tory Party distinctive."

At a press conference at the House of Commons the new leader thanked her campaign team and looked forward to retaining Ted Heath and other members of the current Shadow Cabinet, though probably not in the same jobs.

Mrs Thatcher - a mother of twins married to Denis, an oil executive - put in a brief appearance at a party in Pimlico before having a working dinner with Conservative Chief Whip Humphrey Atkins in Westminster.

Former Northern Ireland Minister Willie Whitelaw was her closest challenger, but still only gained 79 votes in comparison to the 146 she polled in the second ballot of the contest.

The other candidates were Sir Geoffrey Howe, QC, and Mr Prior who each received 19 votes and John Peyton trailed in last with just 11 votes.

Parihaka
14 Feb 06,, 11:50
Supporters of the Ayatollah Khomeini appear to be in control of the Iranian capital, Tehran, tonight.
Only 10 days since Khomeini's triumphant return to Iran from exile in Paris, the army has returned to barracks and given up the fight to defend the old regime.

Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiar, brought in by the Shah only last month in an effort to win back popular support, has resigned and disappeared.

Iran radio is reporting rumours he has committed suicide after his home in North Tehran was attacked and burned down.

Abandoned tanks

Civilian demonstators have again been on the streets today, seizing control of police and fire stations, forcing the officers to flee and arming themselves with the weapons they found inside.

Khomeini set the country on a collision course five days ago when he established a provisional government under Mehdi Bazargan and called on people to demonstrate their support for an Islamic regime.

Ten people died in a battle for one police station today. In total the death toll is now put at 200 with 700 injured.

Demonstrators have taken control of the airport and radio and television station, where staff who had been on strike in support of the Ayatollah returned immediately and began broadcasting news about the takeover of the country.

Elsewhere protesters have set fire to barricades across the streets, even in the heart of the main shopping and business districts of the city.

Abandoned tanks have been left behind after soldiers previously loyal to the Shah have switched allegiances.

Foreign embassies have been raided for their weapons.

The only remaining resistance came from soldiers of the elite Imperial Guard, who were defending their headquarters in the north of the city at Lavizan and at two royal palaces.

An announcement on television said the three bases had been surrounded by revolutionary forces and negotiations were under way for their surrender.

Although there was no official announcement from Dr Bakhtiar of his resignation, the news has been repeatedly broadcast by the media.

There had been rumours of a possible military coup. But a meeting of senior generals this afternoon acknowledged this would split the army and cause serious bloodshed.

They put out a statement at 1400 local time ordering troops to return to their garrisons in order to prevent further bloodshed and anarchy.

Parihaka
14 Mar 06,, 00:16
1996: Massacre in Dunblane school gym
A lone gunman has gone on a shooting spree at a school in Dunblane, Scotland, killing 16 children and their teacher.

The killer sprayed shots at random around the school gym in an attack that lasted just three minutes, but caused carnage in a class of five and six year olds. He then turned the gun on himself.

Twelve other children were taken to hospital in Stirling, where one is reported to have later died of his injuries.

The killer has been named as Thomas Hamilton, 43, a local man, who had once - briefly - been a scout master before being sacked by the Scout Association.

'Sick and evil act'

The Queen has sent a message of sympathy to the people of Dunblane.

The Prime Minister, John Major, on a visit to Cairo, has spoken of his disbelief at what he called "this sick and evil act".

The attack happened just after 0930 GMT, as the Year One pupils were beginning an exercise class in the gym with their teacher, Gwen Mayor.

One pupil said: "We heard these gunshots from the gym and looked round and thought he must be firing at a target or something then he came out through a fire exit and started firing at our huts and we were all petrified."

William Wilson, chief constable of central Scotland, told a news conference his officers had been called to the school at 0938 GMT: "They found a scene of carnage, with 15 children dead, one teacher dead and one other dead."

Parents and carers began arriving at the school as news of the tragedy quickly spread around the town.

The Scottish Secretary, Michael Forsyth, who represents Dunblane said: "I find it difficult to express the feelings I know will be felt throughout Dunblane.

"This is a close-knit community where everyone knows everyone else and the impact of this horrible tragedy will be felt in every household."

The motive for the attack is still unclear.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38549000/jpg/_38549051_dunblane_pa_238.jpg

Parihaka
19 Mar 06,, 14:44
2003: US launches missiles against Saddam
American missiles have hit the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, signalling the start of the US-led campaign to topple Saddam Hussein.
President George Bush delivered a live television address shortly after the bombings began, vowing to "disarm Iraq and to free its people".

The attack was ordered two hours after a final 48-hour deadline expired for Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq.

US sources say five key members of the Iraqi regime, including the Iraqi leader himself, were targeted in the first attacks.


We will bring freedom to others

President Bush

The Iraqis say some non-military targets have been hit and a number of civilians wounded in Doura, a southern suburb of the capital.

The air strikes began at 0534 local time (0234 GMT). A short time later, Iraqi TV broadcast what it said was a live speech by Saddam Hussein.

In it he said: "I don't need to remind you what you should do to defend our country.

"Let the unbelievers go to hell, you will be victorious, Iraqi people."

President Bush played down hopes of an early victory.

In his broadcast to the American people he warned the campaign "could be longer and more difficult than some predict".

He continued: "This will not be a campaign of half measures and we will accept no outcome but victory."

"The dangers to our country and the world will be overcome. We will pass through this time of peril and carry on the work of peace. We will defend our freedom. We will bring freedom to others."

At 2200 GMT British Prime Minister Tony Blair made a live televised address to the nation.

He confirmed British troops were in action in Iraq. He said their purpose was to remove Saddam Hussein and disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction.

The attack has drawn international condemnation and brought demonstrators onto the streets in several countries.

Attempts to get a United Nations Security Council resolution backing a military campaign in Iraq were abandoned earlier in the week when it became clear the US still faced an uphill battle to get the majority it needed.

The French had been pushing for more time to allow Iraq to disarm and today President Jacques Chirac of France expressed regret at the launch of hostilities without UN backing.

Russian President Vladimir Putin said the military action was entirely unjustified, while China said the strike violated the United Nations charter.

Anti-war demonstrations have taken place in cities in Greece, Egypt, Australia and Indonesia.

Parihaka
13 Apr 06,, 03:48
The Soviet Union has beaten the USA in the race to get the first man into space.

At just after 0700BST, Major Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin was fired from the Baikonur launch pad in Kazakhstan, Soviet central Asia, in the space craft Vostok (East).

Major Gagarin orbited the Earth for 108 minutes travelling at more than 17,000 miles per hour (27,000 kilometres per hour) before landing at an undisclosed location.

The Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev has congratulated Major Gagarin on his achievement.

He sent the cosmonaut a message from his holiday home on the Black Sea.

"The flight made by you opens up a new page in the history of mankind in its conquest of space," Mr Khrushchev said.

The Soviet news agency, Tass, made the first official announcement of Major Gagarin's flight at just before 0800BST.

National hero

Radio Moscow then interrupted its schedule to give details to a jubilant nation.

Major Gagarin's safe return has laid to rest worries that space flight would be fatal for humans.

It is also a blow to the Americans who had hoped to be the first to launch a man beyond Earth's atmosphere.

However, President Kennedy has congratulated the Soviets on their achievement.

It would be some time before the United States caught up with the Soviets in the fields of rocket boosters, the president added.

Rumours that a Soviet launch attempt was imminent began some days ago.

It was the culmination of two years of highly secretive training for Yuri Gagarin, 27, who beat off thousands of other hopefuls.

The previously obscure army major has returned to earth a national hero.

He has already been awarded the title of "Master of Radio Sport of the Soviet Union" and a big reception for him at the Kremlin in Red Square is being planned.
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38466000/jpg/_38466189_gagarin238.jpg

Parihaka
13 Apr 06,, 03:50
On this day also the first space shuttle was launched :)

Parihaka
13 Apr 06,, 03:51
An explosion on board Apollo 13 has caused one of the most critical situations in American space history and put the lives of the three astronauts on board in severe jeopardy.

The explosion happened in the fuel cells of the spacecraft's service module approximately 56 hours after lift-off.

This resulted in the loss of Apollo 13's main power supply which means oxygen and water reserves are now critically low.

The safety of the three astronauts, Captain James Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise, is uncertain although Nasa is hoping emergency contingency plans will ensure their safe return.

Certain death

The cause of the explosion is not yet clear although it is understood it could have been the result of a meteorite crashing into the service module.

It is unlikely the exact cause will ever be ascertained as the service module will burn up before the spacecraft's re-entry into the earth's atmosphere.

The crew are currently surviving on the emergency battery power supply of the lunar module, Aquarius.

If the accident had occurred after the lunar module had been detached for the moon landing, the astronauts would have faced certain death.

The spacecraft's main computer has now been switched off to conserve what little power remains in the command module, Odyssey, as this part of the spacecraft will be required for re-entry into the earth's atmosphere.

Plans have been made to "slingshot" Apollo 13 around the moon and fire the spacecraft's last remaining booster engine to take it away from the moon's orbit and bring it back on course to earth.

This is a highly risky operation and there is no back-up should anything go wrong.

If all goes to plan Apollo 13 is due to splash down at approximately 1900 BST on Friday 17 April.

Geological experiments

The Apollo 13 mission was to have been man's third moon landing. The spacecraft was due to land in the Fra Mauro area of the moon on Thursday 16 April.

Captain Lovell and Mr Haise were due to carry out geological experiments on the moon's surface as part of an ongoing project to establish the true age of the moon.

Rock samples taken from previous missions have been dated as being 4,500 million years old.

During the 33-hour moon landing Mr Swigert would have been responsible for piloting the command module in lunar orbit.

Mr Swigert replaced Thomas Mattingly as command module pilot just hours before the mission began after it was found that Mr Mattingly had no immunity after exposure to German Measles.

Parihaka
13 Apr 06,, 03:53
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39949000/jpg/_39949761_belsen_ap_238.jpg

British troops have entered the German concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen.

Inside the camp the horrified soldiers found piles of dead and rotting corpses and thousands of sick and starving prisoners kept in severely overcrowded and dirty compounds.

Belsen, near Hanover in Germany, is the first concentration camp to be liberated by the British. Details of the conditions inside are likely to horrify a public which until now has only heard limited descriptions from the camps in Poland freed by the Red Army.

The first British soldiers who entered Bergen-Belsen have described seeing a huge pile of dead, naked women's bodies within full view of several hundred children held at the camp.


From where we were, we could see the desperate plight of the inmates

People's War memories »
The gutters, too, were filled with dead bodies.

One of the reasons the Germans agreed to surrender Belsen was because so many of the inmates were diseased. There was no running water in the camp and there were epidemics of typhus, typhoid and tuberculosis.

There were thousands of sick women, who should have been in hospital, lying on hard, bare bug-ridden boards. Of the 1,704 acute typhus, typhoid and tuberculosis cases, only 474 women had bunks to sleep on.

There were fewer male prisoners, but they were also kept in severely overcrowded and dirty conditions.

One of the British senior medical officers, Brigadier Llewellyn Glyn- Hughes, told the Reuters news agency he saw evidence of cannibalism in the camp. There were bodies with no flesh on them and the liver, kidneys and heart removed.

He said their first priority was to remove the dead bodies from the camp. He was told some 30,000 people had died in the past few months.

He said typhus had caused far fewer deaths than starvation. Men and women had tried to keep themselves clean with dregs from coffee cups. Medical supplies were severely limited - there were no vaccines, or drugs and no treatments for lice.

The only food available for the prisoners was turnip soup and British guards had to fire over the heads of prisoners to restore order among those desperate to get at the food stores.

Those prisoners who were too weak to get up and collect their food went without and died.

The camp commandant, who was described as "unashamed" at the camp conditions, has been placed under arrest.

The Chap
01 May 06,, 08:57
That schoolgirl music video wot Britny dun. And the Pope getting/being shot. Lybia playing nice. And most unfortunately the Labour Party comming to power in the UK in ~ '97.

Only one of the above is a "good thing".

Hint: It is not anything to do with the Vatican. For more help try some sort or Soduku site. Probably. :tongue:

Moroz
08 May 06,, 19:53
Happy Victory Day!
61 years ago Germany has lost the bloodiest war ever been.

kNikS
08 May 06,, 23:31
Happy Victory Day!
61 years ago Germany has lost the bloodiest war ever been.
Thanks, Happy Victory Day to you, too! I expect to see a nice parade!

Parihaka
14 Jun 06,, 01:15
German troops marched into Paris in the early hours of this morning as French and allied forces retreated.

The enemy met no resistance as it entered the capital, which was declared an open town yesterday by the city's French military governor, General Hering.

French troops withdrew to avoid a violent battle and total destruction of Paris. They are believed to have taken a new line of defence south of the city.

The Germans advanced from the north-east and north-west and shortly afterwards tanks rumbled past the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs Elysees to the Place de la Concorde.

Government retreats

All shops and businesses in Paris have been closed and shuttered and there are unconfirmed reports the French government has now left Tours, in central France, and gone further south to Bordeaux.

The enemy has been advancing toward Paris since they took Dunkirk ten days ago, forcing a huge evacuation of the port, resulting in thousands of allied deaths and casualties.

As the Germans approached, the French premier Paul Reynaud broadcast an appeal for all free men to come to the aid of France.

British troops arrived south of Paris and began fighting, with their French counterparts, day and night to stem the advance of the Germans.

The RAF has spent the past few days bombing German convoys, supply columns, mechanised units and lines of communications.

All the bridges behind enemy lines from Rouen to Mantes have been destroyed by the RAF to stop the enemy bringing up material and reserves.

German aircraft responded with air raids east of Paris and at Evreux and Mantes, west of the capital.

http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/nuremberg2/images/nur009a.jpg

AlpErTunga
03 Jul 06,, 03:26
2nd July

311 St Militiades begins his reign as Catholic Pope
0195 "Plan 9 From Outer Space," one of the worse films ever, premieres
1644 Battle of Marston Moor; Parliamentary forces defeat royalists
1776 Continental Congress resolves "these United Colonies are & of right
ought to be Free & Independent States"
1777 Vermont becomes 1st American colony to abolish slavery
1787 de Sade shouts from Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered
1808 Simon Fraser completes his trip down Fraser R, BC, lands at Musqueam
1843 An alligator falls from the sky during a Charleston SC thunderstorm
1847 Envelope bearing the 1st US 10 stamps, still exists today
1858 Partial emancipation of Russian serfs
1862 Lincoln signs act granting land for state agricultural colleges
1863 Battle of Gettysburg (2nd day)
1864 Gen Early & Confederate forces reach Winchester
1864 Statuary Hall in US Capitol established
1867 1st US elevated railroad begins service, NYC
1881 Pres Garfield shot by Charles J Guiteau a disappointed office-seeker
1885 Canada's North-west Insurrection ends with surrender of Big Bear
1890 Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits industrial monopolies
1894 Government obtains injunction against striking Pullman Workers
1900 Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin 1st airship LZ-1, flies
1902 John J McGraw becomes manager of NY Giants (stays for 30 years)
1906 Yanks win by forfeit, for their 1st time
1921 1st million dollar gate ($1.7m) boxing match (Dempsey KOs Carpentier)
1926 US Army Air Corps created; Distinguish Flying Cross authorized
1927 1st American to win Wimbeldon in 20 years (Helen Wills Moody)
1932 FDR makes 1st presidential nominating conventional acceptance speech
1933 Carl Hubbell shuts-out Cards 1-0 in 18 innings without a walk
1935 C Jackson discovers asteroid #1357 Khama
1935 Great Britain boxers beat US team in 1st intl Golden Gloves
1937 Amelia Earhart & Fred Noonan disappear over Pacific Ocean
1937 C Jackson discovers asteroids #1429 Pemba & #1456 Saldanha
1938 Helen Wills Moody (US) wins her 8th & final Wimbeldon singles
1940 Lake Washington (Seattle) Floating bridge dedicated
1941 DiMaggio breaks Willie Keeler's 44 game hitting streak (45th of 56)
1943 Indians score 12 runs in 4th inning & beat Yankees 12-0
1943 Lt Charles Hall, becomes 1st black pilot to shoot down Nazi plane
1949 "Red Barber's Clubhouse" sports show premiers on CBS (later NBC) TV
1955 "Lawrence Welk Show" premiers on ABC
1956 Elvis Presley records "Hound Dog" & "Don't Be Cruel"
1957 1st sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor completed-The Seawolf
1957 1st submarine designed to fire guided missiles launched, Grayback
1961 Maris hits 29th & 30th en route to 61 homers
1964 Celia Black records Beatle's "Its For You," McCartney plays piano
1964 Pres Johnson signs Civil Rights Act
1966 Billie Jean King wins her 1st of 6 Wimbeldon single titles
1967 Catherine Lacoste becomes youngest (22), 1st foreigner (France) &
1st amateur to US Women's open golf tournament
1969 Leslie West & Felix Pappalardi form the rock group Mountain
1974 Fernando Mameda of Portugal sets record for 10,000 m (27:13.81)
1976 Formal reunification of North & South Vietnam
1976 Supreme Court ruled death penalty not inherently cruel or unusual
1977 Sweden's **”orn B”rg won Wimbeldon men's singles over Jimmy Connors
1978 Pitcher Ron Guidry sets Yankee record of 13-0 start
1980 Grateful Dead's Bob Weir & Mickey Hart are arrested for incitement

AlpErTunga
03 Jul 06,, 12:25
July 3

1608 - The city of Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain.

1775 - U.S. Gen. George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, MA.

1790 - In Paris, the marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.

1844 - Ambassador Caleb Cushing successfully negotiated a commercial treaty with China that opened five Chinese ports to U.S. merchants and protected the rights of American citizens in China.

1863 - The U.S. Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, PA, ended after three days. It was a major victory for the North as Confederate troops retreated.

1871 - The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad Company introduced the first narrow-gauge locomotive. It was called the "Montezuma."

1878 - John Wise flew the first dirigible in Lancaster, PA.

1880 - "Science" began publication. Thomas Edison had provided the principle funding.

1890 - Idaho became the 43rd united state.

1898 - During the Spanish American War, a fleet of Spanish ships in Cuba's Santiago Harbor attempted to run a blockade of U.S. naval forces. Nearly all of the Spanish ships were destroyed in the battle that followed.

1901 - The Wild Bunch, led by Butch Cassidy, committed its last American robbery near Wagner, MT. They took $65,000 from a Great Northern train.

1903 - The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila.

1912 - Rube Marquand of the New York Giants set a baseball pitching record when earned his 19th consecutive win.

1922 - "Fruit Garden and Home" magazine was introduced. It was later renamed "Better Homes and Gardens."

1924 - Clarence Birdseye founded the General Seafood Corp.

1930 - The U.S. Congress created the U.S. Veterans Administration.

1934 - U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) made its first payment to Lydia Losiger.

1937 - Del Mar race track opened in Del Mar, CA.

1939 - Chic Young’s comic strip character, "Blondie" was first heard on CBS radio.

1940 - Bud Abbott and Lou Costello debuted on NBC radio.

1944 - The U.S. First Army opened a general offensive to break out of the hedgerow area of Normandy, France.

1944 - During World War II, Soviet forces recaptured Minsk.

1945 - U.S. troops landed at Balikpapan and take Sepinggan airfield on Borneo in the Pacific.

1945 - The first civilian passenger car built since February 1942 was driven off the assembly line at the Ford Motor Company plant in Detroit, MI. Production had been diverted due to World War II.

1950 - U.S. carrier-based planes attacked airfields in the Pyongyang-Chinnampo area of North Korea in the first air-strike of the Korean War.

1954 - Food rationing ended in Great Britain almost nine years after the end of World War II.

1962 - Jackie Robinson became the first African American to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

1974 - The Threshold Test Ban Treaty was signed, prohibiting underground nuclear weapons tests with yields greater than 150 kilotons.

1976 - 103 hostages were rescued by an Israeli commando unit at the raid on Entebbe airport in Uganda. The hostages had been taken from an Air France jetliner.

1981 - The Associated Press ran its first story about two rare illnesses afflicting homosexual men. One of the diseases was later named AIDS.

1986 - U.S. President Reagan presided over a ceremony in New York Harbor that saw the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.

1986 - Mikhail Baryshnikov became a U.S. citizen at Ellis Island, New York Harbor.

1988 - The USS Vincennes shot down an Iran Air jetliner over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard. The jetliner was misidentified as an Iranian F-14 fighter.

1991 - U.S. President George Bush formally inaugurated the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota.

1997 - U.S. President Clinton made his first formal response to the charges of sexual harassment from Paula Jones. He denied all the charges and asked that the judge dismiss the case.

AlpErTunga
03 Jul 06,, 12:42
1883- Czek author Franz Kafka was born.
1905- Russian Army killed workers who went on strike.
1941- Turkish Conservatory of Republic gave her first graduates.
1962. French President de Gaulle sign the decleration which anounce independence of Algeria. 132 year French colony reached the end.
1967- Famous player of Galatasaray, Turgay Seren retired from football.
1969- Turkiye took civil control of the American bases in Turkish borders.
1971- Jim Morrison, the leader of Doors music band died on his age of 27.
1988- Fatih Sultan Mehmed Bridge began to serve. Constuction of bridge costed 887 million dolars. The bridge's length is 1090 m. and construction lasted 2,5 years.
1993- Turkiye met the word of "Tax Number".
1999- Singer Sevim Tuna died.

Moroz
15 Jul 06,, 19:11
Russian and American astronauts shook hands in space for the first time 31 years ago, in July 1975.

In the meantime, the idea of a joint Soviet-American space mission was gaining ground. The Apollo-13 disaster made the Americans aware of the need for cooperation.

The U.S. technical director of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Dr. Glynn Lunney recalled that at that dramatic time the idea of outside help was dismissed out of hand. As an engineer he knew only too well that in the preceding years the Soviet Union and the U.S. had been designing and building their spaceships and docking devices in different ways.

Brezhnev supported the idea of a joint flight, and voiced the big idea that the Soviet Union was for peaceful space exploration and for the development of devices to make it possible for spacecraft to rendezvous and dock and for crew members to work together.

Soyuz-19 with astronauts Alexei Leonov and Valery Kubasov on board blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 15, 1975, at 3:20 p.m. Moscow time. Seven hours and a half later, Apollo followed suit from Cape Canaveral, carrying Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand and Donald Slayton.

On the eve of the launch, astronaut Gene Cernan, a participant in the U.S. Moon program, told journalists that he didn't think that any member of the ASTP project had changed his political views in the course of communication. It was clear that we ought to lay emphasis not on what divides us but on the striving to understand, respect and trust each other, he said.

The ASTP was a success despite involving the two competing space powers of the Cold War. For the first time in the history of space flights in the near-Earth orbit, a space system consisting of two docked spacecraft with an international crew functioned for two days.

The public and prominent political figures from around the world viewed the Soviet-American Test Project as an important historical event that ushered in a new era in space research, and as a major contribution to improving Soviet-U.S. relations and the world climate as a whole.

The success of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was largely the result of the long experience of both crews. Brigadier General Thomas Stafford was the Apollo commander. Prior to ASTP he had already carried out rendezvous techniques on Gemini-6 and Gemini-9 five times. Under the Moon project, Stafford's assignment was to fly around the Moon on Apollo-10, getting as close as 12.8 km from its surface in a landing module, and take photos for subsequent landings. The dress rehearsal was a great success and Neil Armstrong's crew landed on the Moon some time later.

Soyuz commander Alexei Leonov was four years younger than Stafford. He had been the first man in outer space from Voskhod-2. Later, he was trained for Moon landings and to conduct five more space missions that were cancelled for various reasons.

The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project required more than technical competence from all crewmembers. They had to display diplomatic skills and a sense of humor that is an absolute must in space. Not everything went smoothly, but all participants in the program eventually coped with political and technical problems and achieved complete mutual understanding.

The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was designed to create in the long term a universal rescue unit, to test technical systems and methods for joint flight, and to cooperate in research and experiments as well as in rescue operations. Joint testing of the docking systems and rendezvous techniques, the docking and undocking of the two spacecraft, and the experience of joint flight control and conducting numerous scientific and technical experiments were of vast importance for the subsequent building of the International Space Station.

The ASTP mission was not free of emergencies. A local TV camera collapsed on the eve of the Soyuz launch but it was not delayed. The crew were trusted to fix it themselves and they did.

The Apollo crew had a more serious problem. When the astronauts splashed down, poisonous fumes from the engine permeated into the cabin and they had to use oxygen masks. Talking to journalists, Stafford said that he had 10 to 15 seconds to do this. In his whole career he had to deal with 11 emergencies that put his life at risk.

http://en.rian.ru/world/20050715/40912491.html
http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20050704/40838913.html

The Chap
25 Jul 06,, 03:41
Oh, when was it. You all Know! Oh kakak I'm sure I can find out.

This mag next to me. Hmmm.

Bugger, someone has scribbled on the cover. Not an epoch/paradigm - shift/ Chomsky moment.

I'm sure many a PHD has been strung out in a liberal arts department over Norma's **** with a red background. :rolleyes:

sappersgt
25 Jul 06,, 04:49
LIFE magazines issue for this week in 1958 has a picture of United States Marines wading ashore in Lebanon on the front cover. Is history repeating itself?

Dreadnought
26 Jul 06,, 16:45
RICHMOND, Virginia (AP) -- Carl M. Brashear, the first black U.S. Navy diver who was portrayed by Cuba Gooding Jr. in the 2000 film "Men of Honor," died Tuesday. He was 75.

Brashear died at the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth of respiratory and heart failure, the medical center said.

Brashear retired from the Navy in 1979 after more than 30 years of service. He was the first Navy diver to be restored to full active duty as an amputee, the result of a leg injury he sustained during a salvage operation.

"The African-American community lost a great leader today in Carl Brashear," Gooding said of the man he played alongside Robert DeNiro, who was Brashear's roughneck training officer in "Men of Honor." "His impact to us as a people and all races will be felt for many decades to come."

In 1966 Brashear was assigned to recover a hydrogen bomb that dropped into waters off of Spain when two U.S. Air Force planes collided.

During the mission Brashear was struck below his left knee by a pipe that the crew was using to hoist the bomb out of the water. Brashear was airlifted to a naval hospital where the bottom of his left leg was amputated to avoid gangrene. It later was replaced with a prosthetic leg.

The Navy was ready to retire Brashear from active duty, but he soon began a grueling training program that included diving, running and calisthenics.

"Sometimes I would come back from a run, and my artificial leg would have a puddle of blood from my stump. I wouldn't go to sick bay because they would have taken me out of the program," Brashear said in 2002 when he was inducted into the Gallery of Great Black Kentuckians. "Instead, I'd go hide somewhere and soak my leg in a bucket of hot water with salt in it -- that's an old remedy I learned growing up."

Brashear faced an uphill battle when he joined the Navy in 1948 at the age of 17, not long after the U.S. military desegregated.

"I went to the Army office, and they weren't too friendly," Brashear said in 2002. "But the Navy recruiter was a lot nicer. Looking back, I was placed in my calling."

Brashear, the son of poor sharecroppers in Sonora, Kentucky, quickly decided after boot camp that he wanted to become a deep-sea diver.

"Growing up on a farm in Kentucky, I always dreamed of doing something challenging," he said. "When I saw the divers for the first time, I knew it was just what I wanted."

In 1954 he was accepted and graduated from the diving program, despite daily battles with discrimination, including having hate notes left on his bunk.

He went on to train for advanced diving programs before his 1966 incident.

"He kept to himself personally, but his military life was an open book," said Junetta Brashear, his first wife, who lives in Portsmouth, Virginia, near Brashear's home in Virginia Beach.

She said Brashear's health started to deteriorate about three years ago, but that he had experienced problems ever since the amputation.

Brashear married childhood friend Junetta Wilcox in 1952 and had four children -- Shazanta, DaWayne, Phillip and Patrick -- before their divorce in 1978. He later married Hattie R. Elam and Jeanette A. Brundage.

Funeral arrangements are pending.

*An excellent movie I may add Rest In Peace Sir. :redface:

Parihaka
01 Nov 06,, 05:24
1984: Indian prime minister shot dead
Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India, has been killed by assassins in New Delhi.

Mrs Gandhi was thought to have been walking through her gardens this morning when she was shot. She was taken to the All India Medical Hospital where she underwent an emergency operation to remove the bullets but died an hour and a half later.

Initial reports suggest the two attackers were guards at her home who were then shot by other security officers.

No exact motive is known but it is believed the pair were Sikh extremists acting in retaliation for the storming of the Sikh holy shrine of the Golden Temple in Amritsar in June.

Mrs Gandhi had been receiving death threats since the attack on the temple in which 1,000 people died.

The night before her death she told a political rally: "I don't mind if my life goes in the service of the nation. If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation."

Security throughout the country has been stepped up. Roads to the hospital and the home of the prime minister have been sealed off and borders around Delhi have been closed.


If I die today, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation

Indira Gandhi
The Indian cabinet has started an emergency meeting to choose a successor.

India's High Commissioner, Prakash Mehrotra, said: "Democracy is very deep rooted in our country and the country is prepared to face any situation. A meeting is being called in Delhi, it is usual that the number two man in the cabinet takes charge for the time being,"

Mrs Gandhi first became prime minister in 1966 and again in 1980 and was praised for her battle against famine in rural areas.

Stan Orme from the Anglo Indian Parliamentary Association said: "It is a very terrible thing. She was a very impressive person, very strong-willed. It is a real tragedy."

Canmoore
02 Nov 06,, 00:21
Today in History that REALLY matters..

Jaques Plante of the Montreal Canadiens, became the first goalie ever to wear a mask in hockey on this date 1959...after taking a puck in the head from New York Rangers player Andy Bathgate.

After getting stiches to close the wound, he returned to the game with a Mask to protect his face, and thus the Goalie mask was invented!!

oh and btw, the Canadians won that game 3-1

Canmoore
02 Nov 06,, 00:23
Today in History that REALLY matters..;)

Jaques Plante became the first goalie ever to wear a mask in hockey on this date 1959...after getting a puck in the head from New York Rangers player Andy Bathgate.

After getting stiches to close the wound, he returned to the game with a Mask to protect his face, and thus the Goalie mask was invented!!

YellowFever
02 Nov 06,, 08:16
1993: The EC was changed to EU.

1950: Harry Truman survives an assasination attempt as two Puerto Rican nationalists shoot their way into his private residence, killing one of his guards.

1984: Rajiv Gandhi is sworn in as India's premiere.


Damn...nothing much happened this day in history....what a boring day. :confused:

YellowFever
02 Nov 06,, 09:14
1953: First announcement that Pakistan will adopt Islamic law.

1947: The "Spruce Goose" flew for the first and last time. It began construction in Culver City , California in 1942 and reportedly cost appx. 40 million dollars to build.

1976: Jimmy Carter becomes President-elect with an electoral vote of 297 to Gerald Ford's 241.
(Gotta be one of the saddest days in american history)

1936: The world's first high definition (405-line) TV service was inaugurated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. It served 100 TV owners, all living within a radius of 25 miles from the studio At alexandria Palace, Noth London.

1917: The possiblity of a Jewish homeland in Palestine comes one step closer when the British government issues the so-called Balfour Declaration.

1957: Elvis Presely sets an all time record with 8 songs in the UK Top 30 simultaneously.

1960: A British jury of 12 found the book, "Lady Chatterly's Lover" to be not obscene, nor liable to deprave or corrupt those who read it.



1734: Daniel Boone was born.

1913: Burt Lancaster was born.

Canmoore
10 Nov 06,, 20:08
On this day in 1975, the Edmund Fitzgerald sunk in Lake Superior, due to a "November Gale", also known as the Witch of November, 29 med died as a result.

November Gales are massive storms which occur during early November, as winter sets in, Arctic cold fronts rolling off the praries clash with humid Gulf air masses coming up from the States, these two masses collide over the Great Lakes whose waters are still warm from the Summer, this warm water acts as fuel for these monsterous storms.

One of the greatest November gale occured in 1913, when 250 people were killed, 19 ships were lost, another 19 stranded, and countless damaged. The loss of so many merchant ships made prices for consumer goods to temporarily rise throughout North America

The Edmund Fitzgerald was the last commercial Laker to be lost due to a storm, since 1975, technological advances in weather prediction and communications have nearly made it impossible for a ship to be lost in a storm. Gordon Lightfoot wrote a song about the wreck, which has cemented the lost ship into history and the minds of people forever. Here are the Lyrics.


The legend lives on from the Chippewa on down
Of the big lake they call Gitche Gumee
The lake, it is said, never gives up her dead
When the skies of November turn gloomy.

With a load of iron ore - 26,000 tons more
Than the Edmund Fitzgerald weighed empty
That good ship and true was a bone to be chewed
When the gales of November came early

The ship was the pride of the American side
Coming back from some mill in Wisconson
As the big freighters go it was bigger than most
With a crew and the Captain well seasoned.

Concluding some terms with a couple of steel firms
When they left fully loaded for Cleveland
And later that night when the ships bell rang
Could it be the North Wind they'd been feeling.

The wind in the wires made a tattletale sound
And a wave broke over the railing
And every man knew, as the Captain did, too,
T'was the witch of November come stealing.

The dawn came late and the breakfast had to wait
When the gales of November came slashing
When afternoon came it was freezing rain
In the face of a hurricane West Wind

When supper time came the old cook came on deck
Saying fellows it's too rough to feed ya
At 7PM a main hatchway caved in
He said fellas it's been good to know ya.

The Captain wired in he had water coming in
And the good ship and crew was in peril
And later that night when his lights went out of sight
Came the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald.

Does anyone know where the love of God goes
When the words turn the minutes to hours
The searchers all say they'd have made Whitefish Bay
If they'd fifteen more miles behind her.

They might have split up or they might have capsized
They may have broke deep and took water
And all that remains is the faces and the names
Of the wives and the sons and the daughters.

Lake Huron rolls, Superior sings
In the ruins of her ice water mansion
Old Michigan steams like a young man's dreams,
The islands and bays are for sportsmen.

And farther below Lake Ontario
Takes in what Lake Erie can send her
And the iron boats go as the mariners all know
With the gales of November remembered.

In a musty old hall in Detroit they prayed
In the Maritime Sailors' Cathedral
The church bell chimed, 'til it rang 29 times
For each man on the Edmund Fitzgerald.

The legend lives on from the Chippewa on down
Of the big lake they call Gitche Gumee
Superior, they say, never gives up her dead
When the gales of November come early.

Parihaka
10 Nov 06,, 21:41
Sad git that I am, I loved that song:)

zraver
10 Nov 06,, 23:56
On this day...
461 St Leo I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1483 Martin Luther Eisleben, Germany, founded Protestantism is born
1674 Dutch formally cede New Netherlands (NY) to English
1770 French philosopher Fran_'__ois Voltaire, 75, uttered his famous remark: 'If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.'
1775 US Marine Corps established by Congress
1801 Kentucky outlaws dueling
1808 Osage Treaty signed
1836 Louis Napoleon banished to America
1864 Austrian Archduke Maximilian became emperor of Mexico
1871 Stanley presumes to meet Livingston in Ujiji, Central Africa
1891 1st Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting held (in Boston)
1898 Race riot in Wilmington NC (8 blacks killed)
1917 41 suffragists are arrested in front of the White House
1918 Independence of Poland proclaimed by Jozef Pilsudski
1919 1st observance of National Book Week
1919 American Legion's 1st national convention (Minneapolis)
1926 Vincent Massey becomes 1st Canadian minister to USA
1938 Kemal Atarok 1st President of Turkey, dies
1928 Hirohito enthroned as Emperor of Japan
1940 Pittsburgh & Philadelphia play a penalty free NFL game
1945 College football's #1 Army beats #2 Notre Dame 48-0
1945 General Enver Hoxha becomes leader of Albania
1950 Jacobo Arbenz Guzm n elected President of Guatemala
1951 1st long distance telephone call without operator assistance
1954 Iwo Jima Memorial (servicemen raising US flag) dedicated in Arlington
1954 Lt Col John Strapp travels 632 MPH in a rocket sled
1957 NFL record crowd (102,368), '49ers vs Rams in LA
1960 Senate passes landmark Civil Rights Bill
1963 Gordie Howe takes over NHL career goal lead at 545
1968 Launch of Zond 6, 2nd unmanned circumlunar & return flight
1969 "Sesame Street" premieres on PBS TV
1970 Luna 17, with unmanned self-propelled Lunokhod 1, is launched
1971 US table tennis team arrived in China
1974 2nd meeting of Giants-Jets, Jets even series at 1 with 26-20 OT win
1974 Montreal Candiens shutout Washington Capitals 11-0
1975 Ore ship Edmund Fitzgerald & crew of 29 lost in storm on Lake Superior
1975 PLO leader Yasser Arafat addresses UN in NYC
1975 UN General Assembly approves resolution equating Zionism with racism
1976 Utah Supreme Court OKs execution of convicted murderer Gary Gilmore
1977 Major Indoor Soccer League officially organized (NYC)
1978 Israel's top negotiators broke away from Middle East peace talks
1978 Yanks trade Lyle, Rajsich, McCall, Heath & Ramos to Texas for Righetti, Mirabella, Beniquez, Jemison & Griffin
1980 Dan Rather refuses to pay his cabbie, CBS pays the $12.55 fare
1982 Leonid I Brezhnev Soviet 1st sect, dies of a heart attack at 75
1984 Miami Hurricanes blows 31-0 lead in 3rd quarter lose to MD 42-40
1986 River Rhine (Germany) polluted by chemical spill
1988 China confirms earthquake death toll will rise above current 938
1988 MLB All-Star team beats Japan 3-1 in Tokyo (Game 5 of 7)
1988 NY's MTA announces it may replace tokens with credit card type passes
1988 Orel Hershiser wins NL Cy Young award unanimously
1989 Guerrillas battle with government forces in El Salvador
1989 Germans begin punching holes in the Berlin Wall
1989 Word Perfect 5.1 is shipped
1990 Lebanon releases 2 French hostages (Camille Sontag & Marcel Coudari)
1991 Marty Glickman broadcasts his 1,000th football game
2084 Transit of Earth as seen from Mars

Parihaka
25 Jan 07,, 00:15
1965: Winston Churchill dies

http://pinetreeweb.com/winston-1896.jpg

Sir Winston Churchill has died at the age of 90 with his wife Lady Clementine Churchill and other members of the family at his bedside.

He suffered a stroke 15 days ago and gradually slipped into a deep sleep from which he never awakened.

Sir Winston died in his London home at Hyde Park Gate.

Earlier in his illness, there had been crowds anxiously waiting for news at the top of the quiet Kensington cul-de-sac - but when the announcement finally came there was only a handful of journalists in the street.

Mourning crowds

News of his death was announced on the BBC shortly after 0800 GMT. Within half-an-hour, crowds began to gather near his home to pay homage to Britain's greatest wartime leader.

When Sir Winston fell ill, he was visited by one of the country's leading neurologists, Lord Brain, who advised on his treatment.

Since then, regular medical bulletins have been issued by Sir Winston's own doctor, Lord Moran.

Sir Winston has spent the past few days lying in the downstairs room he converted to a bedroom after a fall four years ago in which he injured his back.

Members of the family were summoned to his bedside at 0700 GMT. Lady Churchill and the couple's eldest surviving daughter, Mary Soames, have been with him throughout his illness.

Their son, Randolph Churchill was seen arriving with his son, Winston. Soon after, Sir Winston's actress daughter, Lady Sarah Audley, looking pale and drawn, arrived with her daughter, Celia Sandys.

Many television and radio programmes have been cancelled or re-scheduled to make way for tributes to Sir Winston.

Sir Winston will lie in state in Westminster Hall - an honour not accorded any English statesman since Gladstone in 1898. His body will remain there for three days, before the funeral at St Paul's cathedral on Saturday.

Parihaka
31 Jul 07,, 00:57
Northern Ireland: The longest tour of duty is over (http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/ulster/article2819591.ece)

It was as a last resort that Harold Wilson sent troops to Northern Ireland in 1969. Now, after 38 years, the deployment is finally at an end.
By David McKittrick
Published: 31 July 2007

Today the Army will formally end Operation Banner, the longest continuous deployment in UK military history, and will bring almost all the troops back home after almost four decades.

The move is a milestone for the Army and for Northern Ireland, which is now looking forward to a more peaceful era. The hope is that no more generations will grow up with heavily armed troops a familiar sight on the streets. The ending of the IRA campaign, and the widespread sense that the Troubles are over, mean that the Army will no longer be on active security duty, after 38 years which have seen more than 300,000 military personnel serve in Northern Ireland.

Some of them went through multiple tours of duty, but the campaign lasted so long that hardly anyone in the Army has served throughout its length.

For decades the phrases "British Army" and "streets of Belfast" have been almost synonymous, with newspapers and television carrying images of wary infantry trudging through dangerous urban and rural areas.

The troops were first called in in 1969 after a period of street marches degenerated into disorder. In Belfast, Protestant mobs set fire to Catholic homes in the Falls Road, while in Londonderry's Bogside, police were exhausted by days of nationalist rioting.

The Stormont government did not want to call them in, realising that their arrival would inevitably mean a loss of power for its Unionist government. And Westminster desperately resisted the move, for the instinct was strong "not to be drawn into the Irish bog".

It all happened under a previous generation of British Labour politicians: Harold Wilson, the Prime Minister, reluctantly approved their dispatch as an absolute last resort. He did so against the desire of the military establishment, a cabinet minister recording that the Defence Secretary, Denis Healey, "was cagey and said on no account must we risk having to take over".

But with rioting raging almost out of control, Stormont in desperation made an appeal for military aid to James Callaghan, the Home Secretary. Callaghan recalled being handed a message while flying in an RAF plane.

"It tersely informed us that an official request for the use of troops had been made. I immediately scribbled 'Permission granted' on the pad and handed it back to the navigator. A few minutes later General Freeland's troops began to relieve the police in the Bogside amid loud jubilation from the inhabitants."

That jubilation did not last long. Nationalists initially hailed the troops as saviours, handing out trays of tea and sandwiches to the first bemused squaddies.

But the military is a blunt instrument to come into contact with any civilian population, and the welcome dissipated as brushes on the streets produced friction leading to sustained rioting. The Army saw itself as providing protection to civilians and maintaining the peace. But in the nationalist ghettos, resentment grew with incidents such as a large-scale curfew in which a large part of the Falls Road was sealed off for several days.

Nationalist alienation from the military was heightened when troops were used in the disastrous introduction of internment without trial and, most of all, with Bloody Sunday in Londonderry in 1972. The deaths of 14 civilians who were taking part in a protest march put a final end to any military efforts to win nationalist hearts and minds. The event led to a swelling of the ranks of the IRA, and helped to spark off a major wave of violence, with almost 500 people killed that year.

This phase of the Troubles saw sustained gun battles which sometimes lasted for hours in the Belfast republican heartlands of the Falls and Ballymurphy. By that stage, it was apparent that the military presence, originally viewed as an emergency, short-term measure, would have to continue indefinitely.

In the years that followed, the Army never rebuilt relations with nationalists in general, but in addition it faced the Provisional IRA, which developed into a formidable terrorist grouping.

By the late 1970s the violence had reduced somewhat, yet by that stage the IRA had transformed itself into a smaller yet still deadly organisation with the ability to launch high-profile attacks and sustain a campaign.

The Army and police altered their strategy, with the police placed in overall charge but the military providing the back-up needed to contain the violence in frontline areas. Officers have often acknowledged that they faced a formidable foe in the IRA. One recently and inadvertently released army document described it as "what will probably be seen as one of the most effective terrorist organisations in history - professional, dedicated, highly skilled and resilient".

In the years that followed, the Army, alongside the police and other security services, remained locked in a long-running conflict with the IRA and lesser republican organisations.

Most of the Army's fatalities were suffered at the hands of the IRA. In one 1979 incident, 18 soldiers, 16 of them members of the Parachute Regiment, were killed in a two-stage IRA bombing attack at Warrenpoint, Co Down.

Soldiers were also vulnerable to snipers, and in some cases were killed while off duty. Over the years, the IRA used an array of tactics and weapons, including booby-trap bombs, mortars and machineguns.

The IRA menace increased in the late 1980s when it received shipments of high-grade weapons from Libya, including very powerful machineguns, rockets and even flamethrowers.

The organisation was particularly ingenious in putting to use Libyan-supplied Semtex in booby-trap bombs and other homemade but effective devices which posed a serious threat to military vehicles and bases. In the border region of South Armagh - known as "bandit country" - the threat was so high that almost all troop movements had to take place by helicopter, since local roads were too dangerous.

As the years passed, the Army developed new technology to protect its vehicles and the scores of military installations which were dotted all over Northern Ireland. New bases and watchtowers were built using sophisticated new techniques. The military also hit back aggressively at the IRA, imprisoning large numbers of its members. It used the SAS in a series of ambushes which intercepted IRA units en route to carry out bombings or shootings. The IRA's worst single loss came at Loughgall, Co Armagh, in 1987, when a concealed SAS team opened fire on an IRA unit intent on attacking a police station. Eight IRA members were shot dead.

A major complication during the Army's deployment lay in the threat posed by loyalist extremists. Although these were for the most part dealt with by the police, there were times when the Army struggled to contain large-scale demonstrations which threatened stability. In addition, sections of the Army also had an undercover role. Military intelligence infiltrated loyalist terrorist groups, placing or recruiting undercover agents within their ranks.

While this produced some significant breakthroughs, it was also to lead to major controversies, with accusations that intelligence officers had used agents not to save lives but to direct loyalist gunmen towards specific republican targets.

The 1989 murder of the Belfast solicitor Pat Finucane, who was killed by a loyalist organisation which included at least one agent planted in its ranks by army intelligence, is to be the subject of an official public inquiry.

The Army and the IRA meanwhile remained locked in battle into the 1990s. The IRA lost important figures, but remained a menace. In 1996, it set off two car bombs inside the Army's closely-guarded headquarters in Lisburn, Co Antrim, killing a warrant officer, in what was seen as a huge security breach.

The last soldier to be killed by the IRA, Lance-Bombardier Stephen Restorick, died in the following year, the victim of a sniper using a high-powered rifle.

The question of who really prevailed, the Army or the IRA, remains unanswered and will be the subject of controversy for years to come. The IRA has gone as an active force, having abandoned the idea of victory and instead pursuing its aims through politics. The Army would not claim to have beaten the IRA in the sense of bringing about its surrender, but it can argue that violence did not prevail and that the conflict ended with a political settlement.

Kansas Bear
18 Sep 07,, 05:22
On this day...
1739 Treaty of Belgrade-Austria cedes Belgrade to Turks
1755 Fort Ticonderoga, NY opens
1759 British capture Qu‚bec during the French & Indian War
1769 Boston Gazette reports 1st US piano (a spinet)
1793 Washington lays cornerstone of Capitol building
1810 Chile declares independence from Spain (National Day)
1830 A horse beats the 1st US made locomotive (near Baltimore)
1851 NY Times starts publishing, at 2 a copy
1881 Chicago Tribune reports on a televide experiment
1882 Pacific Stock Exchange opens (as the Local Security Board)
1888 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure "The Sign of Four" (BG)
1895 Booker T Washington delivers "Atlanta Compromise" address
1895 D.D. Palmer of Davenport, Iowa, becomes 1st chiropractor
1903 Phillie's Chick Fraser no-hits Chic Cubs, 10-0
1908 Cleve Indian Bob "Dusty" Rhoades no-hits Boston, 2-1
1911 Britain's 1st twin-engine airplane (Short S.39) test flown
1914 Battle of Aisne ends with Germans beating French during WW I
1915 Boston Braves trounce St Louis Cardinals 20-1
1919 Hurricane tides 16 feet above normal drown 280 along Gulf Coast
1926 Hurricane hits Miami, kills 250
1927 Columbia Broadcasting System goes on the air (16 radio stations)
1928 Cards beat Phillies for 20th of 22 games in 1928
1930 Enterprise (US) beats Shamrock V (England) in 15th America's Cup
1930 NY Yankee pitcher Red Ruffing hits 2 HRs to beat St Louis Browns, 7-6
1934 St Louis Brown Bobo Newsom loses no-hitter to Boston in 10, 2-1
1938 Chicago Bears beat Green Bay Packers 2-0
1938 Despite losing a double header, Yanks clinch pennant #10
1942 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation authorized for radio service
1945 1000 whites walk out of Gary Ind schools to protest integration
1948 Ralph J Bunche confirmed as acting UN mediator in Palestine
1949 Baseball major league record 4 grand slams hit
1954 Cleveland Indians clinch AL pennant, beat Tigers (3-2)
1957 "Wagon Train" premiers
1959 Vanguard 3 launched into Earth orbit
1962 Rwanda, Burundi, Jamaica & Trinidad admitted (105th-108th) to the UN
1963 Final game at Polo Grounds, 1,752 see Phillies beat Mets 5-1
1965 "Get Smart" premiers
1967 Intrepid (US) beats Dame Pattie (Aust) in 21st America's Cup
1968 Ray Washburn (Cards) no-hits SF Giants 2-0
1972 1st black NL umpire (Art Williams-Los Angeles vs San Diego)
1974 Hurricane Fifi strikes Honduras with 110 mph winds, 5,000 die
1975 Heiress/bank robber Patricia Campbell Hearst captured by FBI in SF
1977 Courageous (US) sweeps Australia (Aust) in 24th America's Cup
1977 US Voyager I takes 1st space photograph of Earth & Moon together
1979 Bolshoi Ballet dancers Leonid & Valentina Kozlov defect
1979 Steven Lachs, appointed Calif's 1st admittedly gay judge
1980 Soyuz 38 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Cuban) to Salyut 6 space station
1982 Christian militia begin massacre of 600 Palestinians in Lebanon
1983 George Meegen completes 2,426d (19K mi) walk across Western Hemisphere
1983 New Orleans Saints 1st OT victory; beating Chic Bears 34-31
1984 Joe Kittinger completes 1st solo balloon crossing of Atlantic
1984 Tigers become 4th team to stay in 1st place from opening day
1987 Detroit Tiger Darrell Evans is 1st 40 year old to hit 30 HRs
1989 Hurricane Hugo causes extensive damage in Puerto Rico
1990 A 500 lb 6' Hershey Kiss is displayed at 1 Times Square, NYC
1990 Atlanta is chosen to host the 1996 (centennial) Summer Olympics
1991 Space shuttle STS 48 (Discovery 14) lands

Shuttlecat
18 Sep 07,, 21:44
So all I really cared about was the Cardinals and Browns stuff.

Kansas Bear
19 Sep 07,, 05:42
On this day...
1356 English defeat French at Battle of Poitiers
1777 Battle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights) or 1st Battle of Saratoga
1796 George Washington's farewell address as president
1846 Elizabeth Barrett & Robert Browning elopes
1848 Bond (US) & Lassell (England) independently discover Hyperion, moon of Saturn
1849 1st commercial laundry established, in Oakland, California
1862 Battle of Luka, Miss
1863 Battle of Chickamauga, Tenn (near Chattanooga) begins; Union retreat
1864 3rd Battle of Winchester, Virginia
1873 Black Friday: Jay Cooke & Co fails, causing a securities panic
1879 Thomas Ray becomes youngest to break a world track & field record pole-vaulting 11' 2¬" at age 17 years & 198 days
1890 Turkish frigate "Ertogrul" burns off of Japan, kills 540
1914 Brooklyn's Ed Lafitte no-hits KC (Federal League), 6-2
1928 Mickey Mouse's screen debut (Steamboat Willie at Colony Theater NYC)
1934 Bruno Hauptmann arrested for kidnapping the Linbergh baby
1940 Nazi decree forbids gentile women to work in Jewish homes
1945 Lord Haw Haw (William Joyce) sentenced to death in London
1956 1st intl conference of black writers & artists meets (Sorbonne)
1957 1st underground nuclear explosion (Las Vegas Nevada)
1959 Nikita Krushchev is denied access to Disneyland
1966 Mike Burke named Yankees pres
1968 Baby born on Golden Gate Bridge (those Marin County folk!)
1970 "Mary Tyler Moore" show premiers
1973 NL refuses to allow San Diego Padres move to Washington DC
1973 Pirate Radio Free America (off Cape May NJ) goes on the air
1980 Titan II missile explosion (Damascus, AR)
1981 Satellites China 10 & 11 launched into Earth orbit by B-1 rocket
1981 Simon & Garfunkel reunite for a NYC Central Park concert
1982 New Orleans Saints 1st road shutout victory beating Chic Bears 10-0
1982 Streetcars stop running on Market St after 122 years of service
1983 St Christopher-Nevis gains independence from Britain (Nat'l Day)
1985 9,500 die in Mexico's earthquake (6.9)
1986 "Captain EO" with Michael Jackson permieres
1986 Chic White Sox Joe Crowley no-hits Calif Angels, 7-1
1986 Fed health officals announce AZT will be available to AIDS patients
1988 Israel launches 1st satellite, for secret military reconnaissance
1989 Chase Manhattan Discovery Center at Brooklyn Botanic Garden opens
1989 Appeals court restores America's Cup to US after NY Supreme Court gave it to New Zealand (NZ protested US's use of a catamaran)

Kansas Bear
20 Sep 07,, 06:40
On this day...
622 Mohammad's Hegira
1519 Magellan starts 1st successful circumnavigation of the world
1565 Spaniards capture Fort Caroline Fla & massacre the French
1664 Maryland enacts 1st anti-amaglmation law to prevent widespread intermarriage of English women & black men
1777 Paoli massacre
1792 French defeat Prussians at Valmy
1797 US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) launched in Boston
1830 1st National Black convention meets (Phila)
1850 Slave trade abolished in DC, but slavery allowed to continue
1854 British & French defeat Russians at Alma, in the Crimea
1859 Patent granted on the electric range
1860 1st British royalty to visit US, Prince of Wales (King Edward VII)
1863 Civil War Battle of Chickamauga, near Chattanooga, Tenn, ends
1873 Panic sweeps NY Stock Exchange (railroad bond default/bank failure)
1877 Chase National Bank opens in NYC (later merges into Chase Manhattan)
1879 US Grant comes to SF for elaborate extended visit
1881 Chester A Arthur sworn in as president
1884 6.2 mile Arlberg railroad tunnel completed in Austria
1884 Equal Rights Party nominates female candidates for Pres & VP
1902 Chic White Sox Jim Callahan no-hits Detroit Tigers, 3-0
1907 Pitts Nick Maddox no-hits Bkln Dodgers, 2-1
1908 Chic White Sox Frank Smith 2nd no-hitter, beats Phila 1-0
1911 Yanks set team record 12 errors in a double header
1933 Pittsburgh Steelers (as Pirates) play 1st NFL game, lose 23-2
1942 Gunther Hagg becomes world champ of all records from 1500m to 5000m
1945 German rocket engineers begin work in US
1948 Mexican Baseball league disbanded
1949 Tennis player Pancho Gonzales turns professional
1951 1st North Pole jet crossing
1951 Ford Frick elected commissioner of baseball
1954 1st FORTRAN computer program run
1954 1st National People's Congress adopts Chinese constitution
1954 Roger Bannister awarded Britain's Silver Pears Trophy
1958 Baltimore Oriole knuckler Hoyt Wilhelm no-hits NY Yankees 1-0
1958 Martin Luther King Jr stabbed in chest by a deranged black woman in NYC
1960 UN General Assembly admit 13 African countries & Cyprus (96 nations)
1961 After 84 1/3 innings Bill Fischer gives up a base on balls
1961 Roger Maris hits home run # 59 & barely misses # 60 in game 154 of the season. Yanks clinch pennant #26
1962 James Meredith is blocked from entering Miss U as its 1st black
1964 Paramount theater (NYC) presented the Beatles & Steve & Eydie
1966 US Surveyor B launched toward Moon; crashed Sept 23
1967 Hurricane Beulah hits Texas-Mexican border, kills 38
1968 Mickey Mantle hits final career homer # 536
1969 Pitts Pirate Bob Moose no-hits NY Giants, 4-0
1970 Luna 16 lands on Moon's Mare Fecunditatis, drills core sample
1972 Police find cannabis growing on Paul & Linda McCartney's farm
1973 Billy Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in battle-of-sexes tennis match
1973 Willie Mays announces retirement at end of 1973 season
1975 David Bowie's "Fame," single goes #1 for 2 weeks
1975 Gary Sentman draws a record 176 lb longbow to a maximum 28¬" draw
1976 Playboy releases Jimmy Carter's interview that he lusts for women
1976 Sid Berstein offers $230 million charity concert for Beatle reunion
1977 Voyager 2 launched for fly-by of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
1979 Bloodless coup in Central African Rep overthrows Emperor Bokassa I
1979 NASA launches HEAO
1980 Plaque dedicated in Thurman Munson's memory at Yankee Stadium
1980 Spectacular Bid runs in Belmont alone as 3 horses drop out
1981 Joe Danelo kicks then NY Giant record 55 yard field goal
1982 NFL players begin a 57 day strike
1983 3,112 turn out to see the Pirates play the NY Mets at Shea Stadium
1984 Suicide car bomb attacks US Embassy annex in Beirut
1985 Curtis Strong is convicted for selling cocaine to pro baseball players
1985 Walt Disney World's 200-millionth guest
1986 Wichita State Shockers blow a 35-3 lead; lose 36-35 to Morehead State
1987 Alain Prost wins record 28th Formula one auto race
1987 Walter Payton scores NFL record 107th rushing touchdown
1990 Both Germanys ratify reunification
1990 Saddam Hussein demands US networks broadcast his message

Kansas Bear
21 Sep 07,, 23:11
On this day...
687 Conon ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1348 Jews in Zurich Switzerland are accused of poisoning wells
1451 Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa orders Jews of Holland to wear a badge
1776 Great fire in NY
1780 Benedict Arnold gives British Major Andr‚ plans to West Point
1784 1st daily newspaper in America (Penns Packet & General Advertiser)
1792 1st French Republic declared
1823 Moroni 1st appears to Joseph Smith, according to Smith
1863 Union forces retreat to Chattanooga after defeat at Chickamauga
1872 John Henry Conyers of SC becomes 1st black student at Annapolis
1893 Frank Duryea drives 1st US made gas propelled vehicle (car)
1895 1st auto manufacturer opens-Duryea Motor Wagon Company
1897 NY Sun runs famous "Yes, Virginia there is a Santa Claus," editorial
1906 Yankee 1st baseman Hal Chase's 22 put-outs ties record
1913 1st aerobatic maneuver, sustained inverted flight, performed in France
1915 Stones at Stonehenge, England, sold at auction for œ6,600
1921 Gas generator explodes at Bradishe Aniline chemical works in Germany
1922 Pres Warren G Harding signs a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine
1929 1st legal forward pass in Canadian senior football thrown (Calgary)
1930 Johann Ostermeyer patents the flashbulb
1931 Britain goes off the gold standard
1934 St Louis Card Paul Dean no-hits Bkln Dodgers, 3-0
1934 Typhoon strikes Honshu Island Japan, kills 4,000
1937 J.R.R. Tolkien, publishes "The Hobbit"
1938 Hurricane (winds 183 MPH) in New England kills 700
1943 Lynch Triangle (Square) in the Bronx named
1948 "Texaco Star Theater" with Milton Berle premieres on NBC-TV
1949 Federal Republic of [West] Germany created under 3-power occupation
1949 People's Republic of China proclaimed
1951 Emil Zatopek runs 15,000 m. in record 44 min, 54.6 sec
1953 Allied forces form West Germany
1954 Nuclear submarine "Nautilus" is commissioned
1956 Yanks set dubious record, stranding 20 men on base Mantle hits a 500' plus homer but Red Sox win 13-9 in Fenway
1957 "Perry Mason" with Raymond Burr premiers on CBS-TV
1958 1st airplane flight exceeding 1200 hours, lands, Dallas Tx
1961 Antonio Abertondo swims the English Channel round trip (44 miles)
1964 Constellation (US) beats Sovereign (England) in 20th America's Cup
1964 Malta gains independence from Britain
1964 Reds Chico Ruiz steals home, beats Phillies 1-0. Phillies start a 10 game losing streak that gives the Cards the pennant
1965 O Kommissarova (USSR) sets women's longest paracute jump (46,250')
1966 5" of rain falls on NYC
1969 NY Jet Steve O'Neal punts 98 yards against Denver Broncos
1970 "Monday Night Football" on ABC premiers (Browns beat Jetss 31-21)
1970 Luna 16 leaves the Moon
1970 Oakland A's Vida Blue no-hits Minn Twins, 6-0
1971 AL OKs Washington Senator move to Arlington (Texas Rangers)
1971 John Lennon & Yoko Ono are Dick Cavett's only guest
1972 Marcos declares martial law in the Philippines
1973 Nate Archibald signs 7 yr contract with NBA KC Kings for $450,000
1973 NY Mets go into 1st place (at .500) after trailing 12« games
1974 US Mariner 10 makes 2nd fly-by of Mercury
1976 Wings performs in Zagreb Yugoslavia
1980 LA Ram Johnnie Johnson scores a 99 yard interception
1980 Richard Todd of the Jets completes 42 passes in a game (NFL record)
1981 Belize gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1981 Sandra Day O'Connor becomes 1st female Supreme Court Justice
1981 Steve Carlton strikes out NL record 3,118th (Andre Dawson)
1982 2,251 turn out to see the Expos play the NY Mets at Shea Stadium
1982 Devils beat Rangers 3-2 in exhibition; 1st hockey in Meadowlands (NJ)
1982 NFL players begin a 57 day strike
1982 SF cable cars cease operations for 2 years of repairs
1982 STS-5 vehicle moves to launch pad
1984 NASA launches Galaxy-C
1985 Michael Spinks becomes 1st light heavyweight to defeat the reigning heavyweight champion, he defeats Larry Holmes
1986 Miami Dan Marino passes for 6 touchdowns vs NY Jets (51-45)
1986 New Orleans Saints Mel Gray returns kickoff 101 yards for a touchdown
1986 NY Jets beat Miami Dolphins 51-45 in OT; record 884 passing yards
1988 Mike Tyson threatens a TV reporter in NJ
1989 Poland's Sejm (National Assembly) approves prime minister Mazowiecki
1990 Oakland A's Bob Welch becomes the 1st 25 game winner in 10 years
1990 Pirate Bobby Bond is 2nd to hit 30 HRs & steal 50 bases in a season
1990 Faye Vincent turns down White Sox bid to reinstate Minnie Minoso, 68, (so he can play in 6 decades) because it is a publicity stunt
1991 Armenia votes on whether to remain in the Soviet Union

glyn
21 Sep 07,, 23:30
Why wasn't Bobby Bond arrested for stealing 50 bases in 1990?:confused: :biggrin:

dave lukins
22 Sep 07,, 00:16
Why wasn't Bobby Bond arrested for stealing 50 bases in 1990?:confused: :biggrin:

Sounds like Grand Theft to me.:))

Kansas Bear
22 Sep 07,, 17:20
On this day...
530 Boniface II begins his reign as Catholic Pope
530 St Felix IV ends his reign as Catholic Pope
530 [Discorus] begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1656 All female jury hears case of woman who killed her child (acquit her)
1692 Last person hanged for witchcraft in US
1756 Nassau Hall opens at Princeton University
1776 Nathan Hale executed as a spy by the British
1784 Russian trappers established a colony on Kodiak Island, AK
1789 Office of Postmaster General of the US established by Congress
1792 Origin of French Republican Era
1817 John Quincy Adams becomes secretary of State
1862 President Lincoln, says he will free slaves in all states on Jan 1
1863 President Lincoln makes his Emancipation Proclamation speech
1868 Race riots in New Orleans La
1869 The opera "Das Rheingold" is produced (Munich)
1893 1st auto built in US (by Duryea brothers) runs in Springfield
1903 Italo Marchiony granted patent for the ice cream cone
1905 Race riot in Atlanta Georgia (10 blacks & 2 whites killed)
1911 Cy Young at 44, wins his 511th & final game
1912 Eddie Collins steals 6 bases in a game, for 2nd time in 11 days
1913 Coal mine explosion kills 263 at Dawson New Mexico
1915 Southern Methodist University (Dallas Texas) holds its 1st class
1919 Steel strike begins in US
1925 Yank Ben Paschal hits 2 inside-the-park homers
1927 Famous "Long count" fight (Dempsey loses boxing title to Tunney)
1927 Yanks Earle Coombs hits 3 triples
1937 Forest fire kills 14 & injures 50 in Cody Wyoming
1944 Boulogne reoccupied by Allies
1945 Stan Musial gets 5 hits off 5 pitchers on 5 consecutive pitches
1946 Evelyn Dick charged with butchering husband
1949 USSR detonates its 1st atomic bomb
1950 Omar N Bradley promoted to rank of 5-star general
1954 Brooklyn Dodger Karl Spooner strikes out 15 NY Giants in his 1st game
1955 Commercial TV begins in England
1955 Heavyweight champ Rocky Marciano KOs Archie Moore in 9
1959 Chicago White Sox clinch the AL pennant
1960 Mali (without Senegal) gains independence from France (National Day)
1961 Antonio Albertondo (Argentina) at 42, completes the 1st "double" crossing swim of the English Channel in 43 hrs. 10 min
1964 "Fiddler on the Roof" opens on Broadway, runs 3,242 performances
1964 "The Man from U.N.C.L.E." premiers on NBC-TV
1966 Only 413 show up at a Yankee Stadium game
1967 Phillies release pitcher Dallas Green, their future manager
1968 Twins' Cesar Tovar pitched a hitless inning & plays all 9 positions
1968 Zond 5 completes flight
1969 SF Giant Willie Mays, becomes 2nd player to hit HR # 600
1970 Pres Nixon requests 1,000 new FBI agents for college campuses
1973 "A Little Night Music" opens at the Majestic Theater on Broadway
1973 Balt Oriole Al Bumbry hits 3 triples vs Milwaukee Brewers
1973 Henry Kissinger, sworn in as America's 1st Jewish Secretary of State
1975 Sara Jane Moore tries to assassinate President Ford in SF Calif
1975 World Football League folds
1977 Minn Twin Bert Blyleven no-hits Calif Angels, 9-0
1978 Israeli PM Menachem Begin returns home after Camp David summit
1980 Iraqi troops seize part of Iran in a border dispute; war begins
1980 John & Yoko sign a recording contract with Geffen Records
1983 NASA launches Galaxy-B
1983 Zhu Jianhau (China) sets high jump record at 7'9 3/4"
1985 Michael Spinks beats Larry Holmes to become Heavyweight Boxing Champ
1985 Rock & country musicians participate in FarmAid in Champaign, Ill
1985 St Louis Cardinals set an unusual streak record by winning 9 of 10 games, each pitched by a different man
1986 LA Dodger Fernando Valenzuela is 1st Mexican to win 20 games
1987 2nd regular-season National Football League player strike begins
1987 Red Sox Wade Boggs gets his 200th hit in 5 straight seasons
1988 South Korean coaches attack the New Zealand referee after disputing his decision, the Olympic Korean boxer stages a 67 minute sit-in
1990 Saudi Arabia expells many Jordanian & Yemeni envoys
1990 Andre Dawson steals his 300th base & is only player other than Willie Mays to have 300 HRs, 300 steals & 2,000 hits
1991 Calif University makes the Dead Sea Scrolls public
1991 NY MTA yanks 6,000 ads for "Dr Tusch" (Dr Jeffrey Lavigne)

ExNavyAmerican
23 Sep 07,, 09:29
Looking at the dates, I notice that events get prgressively more boring the recent the dates.

entropy
23 Sep 07,, 10:41
Looking at the dates, I notice that events get prgressively more boring the recent the dates.


1692 Last person hanged for witchcraft in US

You do miss that one, don't you?

:tongue:

ExNavyAmerican
23 Sep 07,, 13:36
You do miss that one, don't you?

:tongue:


Well, noooo. I just think that it's a bit more exciting than:

NY MTA yanks 6,000 ads for "Dr Tusch" (Dr Jeffrey Lavigne) -1991


:))

Those poor people weren't even witches! Those puritans really know how to overreact and kill people. :mad:

Kansas Bear
23 Sep 07,, 16:27
On this day...
1642 Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass, 1st commencement
1779 John Paul Jones' "Bon Homme Richard" defeats 'HMS Serepis'
1780 British MAJ John Andre was apprehended as a Spy, near Tarrytown, NY
1803 Battle of Assaye-British-Indian forces beat Maratha Army
1806 Lewis & Clark return to St Louis from the Pacific Northwest
1845 1st baseball team, NY Knickerbockers organize, adopt rule code
1846 Johann Gottfried Galle & Heinrich d'Arrest find Neptune
1862 Lincoln's Emancipation is published in Northern Newspapers
1863 Confederate siege of Chattanooga begins
1868 Grito de Lares proclaims Puerto Rico's independence (crushed by Spain)
1873 Tom Allen beats Mike McCale for Heavyweight Boxing title
1879 Baldwin steam motors tram 1st tried in Sydney Australia
1890 Ed Cartwright bats in 7 RBIs in 1 inning
1897 1st frontier days rodeo celebration (Cheyene Wyoming)
1908 Giant Fred (Bonehead) Merkle fails to touch 2nd, causes 3rd out in 9th disallows winning run (game ends tied, Cubs win replay & pennant)
1908 University of Alberta opens
1912 1st Mack Sennett "Keystone Comedy" movie released
1926 Gene Tunney defeats Jack Dempsey for world heavyweight boxing title
1932 Kingdom of Hejaz & Nejd renamed Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1933 Yanks commit 7 errors in 1 game but beat Boston 16-12
1938 Time capsule, to be opened in 6939, buried at World's Fair in NYC (capsule contained a woman's hat, man's pipe & 1,100' of microfilm)
1939 Cookie Lavagetto goes 6 for 6-Dodgers get 27 hits & beat Phillies 22-4
1949 Truman announces evidence of USSR's 1st nuclear device detonation
1950 Phila A's Joe Astroth is 4th to get 6 RBIs in an inning (6th)
1952 1st closed circuit pay-TV telecast of a sports event
1952 Richard Nixon makes his "Checker's" speech
1952 Rocky Marciano KOs heavyweight champ Jersey Joe Walcott in 13 for heavyweight boxing title
1961 1st movie to become a TV series-How to Marry a Millionaire
1962 ABC's 1st color TV series-The Jetsons
1962 LA Dodger Maury Wills steals record setting #97 on his way to 104
1962 NY's Philharmonic Hall (since renamed Avery Fisher Hall) opens as 1st unit of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
1967 Radio Malta stops testing
1969 Northern Star starts rumor that Paul McCartney is dead
1973 Former Argentine President Juan Peron returns to power
1973 Largest known prime, 2 ^ 132,049-1, is discovered
1976 Ford-Carter TV debate
1976 Soyuz 22 returns to Earth
1977 3rd test of Space Shuttle Enterprise
1977 Cheryl Ladd replaces Farrah Fawcett on Charlie's Angels
1978 100,000 cheering Egyptians welcome Sadat home from Camp David summit
1979 Jane Fonda & 200,000 attend anti-nuke rally in Battery Park, NYC
1979 Lou Brock steals record 935th base
1980 Big Thunder Mountain Railroad opens
1983 Columbia moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating in preparation of STS-9
1983 Phillies Steve Carlton wins his 300th game (beating St Louis Cards)
1984 SF 49er Joe Montana misses his 1st start in 49 games
1984 Sparky Anderson is 1st manager to win 100 games in both leagues
1986 Houston Astro Jim Deshales sets record of striking out 1st 8 men starting a ball game, beating the LA Dodgers 4-0
1988 Jose Canseco becomes baseball's 1st to steal 40 bases & hit 40 HRs
1990 PBS begins an 11 hour miniseries on The Civil War
1990 Saddam says he will destroy Israel
1991 NY Islanders Mike Bossy & Denis Potvin inducted into NHL Hall of Fame

Kansas Bear
24 Sep 07,, 17:07
On this day...
312 Start of Imperial Indication
366 Liberius ends his reign as Catholic Pope
673 Synod of Hertford opens; canons made for English Church
787 2nd Council of Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opens in Asia Minor
1493 Columbus' 2nd expedition to the New World
1625 Dutch attack San Juan, Puerto Rico
1683 Jews are expelled from all French possessions in America
1742 Faneuil Hall opens to the public
1789 Congress creates the Post Office
1789 Congress' 1st Judiciary Act, Attorney General & Supreme Court
1829 Russia & Ottoman Empire sign Peace Treaty of Adrianople
1838 Anti-Corn-Law League forms to repeal English Corn Law
1841 Sarawak obtained by Britain from Sultan of Brunei
1845 1st baseball team is organized
1852 A new invention, the dirigible, is demonstrated
1853 1st round-the-world trip by yacht (Cornelius Vanderbilt)
1862 Confederate Congress adopts confederacy seal
1865 James Cooke walks tightrope from Cliff House to Seal Rocks, SF
1869 Black Friday; Wall St panic after Gould & Fisk attempt to corner gold
1883 National black convention meets in Louisville, Kentucky
1895 1st round-the-world trip by a woman on a bicycle (took 15 months)
1902 Start of Sherlock Holmes "The Adventure of The Red Circle" (BG)
1906 St Louis Card Stony McGlynn no-hits Dodgers, 1-1 in 7 inning game
1919 Babe Ruth sets season homer mark at 28 off of Yankee Bob Shawkey
1922 Roger Hornsby sets the NL HR mark at 42
1927 NHL's Toronto St Patricks become the Maple Leafs
1927 Yanks set record of 106 victories
1929 Lt James H Doolittle guides a Consolidated N-Y-2 Biplane over Mitchell Field in NY in the 1st all-instrument flight
1930 Portsmouth beats Brooklyn in 1st NFL game played under floodlights
1934 2500 fans see Babe Ruth's farewell Yankee appearance at Yankee Stadium
1938 Don Budge becomes 1st tennis player to grand slam
1940 Jimmy Foxx hits his 500th career HR
1941 9 Allied govts pledged adherence to Atlantic Charter
1948 Mildred Gillars (Axis Sally) pleads innocent in Wash DC
1950 "Operation Magic Carpet"-All Jews from Yemen move to Israel
1952 Underwater volcano explodes under research vessel Kaiyo-maru-5
1953 "Take a Giant Step," opens on Broadway
1954 Tonight Show premiers on NBC (Johnny takes over 8 years later)
1954 Yanks tie a record, 3 of their pinch hitters strike out in 1 inning
1955 Pres Eisenhower suffers a heart attack on vacation in Denver
1957 Bkln Dodgers play last game at Ebbets Field, defeat Pirates 2-0
1957 Eisenhower orders US troops to desegregate Little Rock schools
1958 1st welded aluminum girder highway bridge completed, Urbandale, Ia
1960 1st nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, launches (USS Enterprise)
1960 Internationl Development Assn (UN agency) comes into existence
1962 US Circuit Court of Appeals orders Meredith admitted to U of Miss
1963 Senate ratifies treaty with Britain & USSR limit nuclear testing
1964 "The Munsters" premiers
1964 Ringo forms Brikley Building Company Ltd
1967 Cards Jim Bakken kicks 7 field goals vs Steelers
1968 "60 Minutes" premiers
1968 "That's Life" premiers-A Broadway musical type TV show
1968 NY Met manager Gil Hodges suffers a heart attack
1969 Trial of "Chicago 8" (protesters at Dem Natl Conv) begins
1970 1st Automated return of lunar sample by Luna 16
1971 Houston Astros beat SD Padres, 2-1, in 21 innings
1972 Antique F86 Sabrejet fails to takeoff at air show, kills 22
1972 Jack Tatum, Oakland, returns a fumble 104 yds vs Green Bay (rec)
1972 NY Jet Joe Namath passes for 6 touchdowns vs Balt Colt (44-34)
1973 Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau) declares independence
1973 St Louis Cards Jim Bakken sets NFL record kicking 7 field goals
1974 Al Kaline gets his 3,000th career hit
1976 Newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst sentenced to 7 years for her part in a 1974 bank robbery. Released after 22 months by Pres Carter
1977 Ken Hinton of CFL British Columbia Lions returns a punt 130 yards
1978 Ron Guidry beats Cleveland 4-0, raising his record to 23-3 ERA 1.74
1979 CompuServe system started
1982 Tennis great Bj”rn B”rg retires at 26
1982 US, Italian & French peacekeeping troops begin arriving in Lebanon
1984 Paul McCartney releases "No More Lonely Nights"
1985 Apollo Computer Inc. lays off 300 employees
1985 Fastest English Channel crossing by a relay team set (15h 30m)
1985 Montreal Expo Andre Dawson is 9th to get 6 RBIs in an inning (5th)
1988 Barbara C Harris of Mass, elected 1st woman Episcopal bishop
1988 Canada's Ben Johnson runs drug-assisted 100 m in 9.79 sec
1988 Jackie Joyner-Kersee of USA sets the heptathlon woman's record (7,291)
1990 South African president F.W. de Klerk meets Pres Bush in Wash DC
1990 Supreme Soviet gives approval to switch to free market
1991 "Good & Evil" & "Sibs" premiers on ABC TV
1991 Doogie Howser loses his virginity
1991 Robin Yount is 37th to hit 2,000 singles

Kansas Bear
25 Sep 07,, 20:18
On this day...
1492 Crewman on the Pinta sights "land"-a few weeks early
1493 Columbus sails on 2nd voyage to America
1513 Vasco Nu¤ez de Balboa is the 1st European to see the Pacific Ocean
1639 1st printing press in America
1690 Publick Occurrences, 1st US (Boston) newspaper, publish 1st & last ed
1775 American Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen captured
1789 Congress proposes Bill of Rights (10 of 12 will ratify)
1804 12th amendment to the US constitution, regulating judicial power
1861 Secretary of US Navy authorizes enlistment of slaves
1882 1st baseball doubleheader (Providence & Worcester)
1888 Start of Sherlock Holmes "The Hound of the Baskervilles" (BG)
1890 Congress establishes Yosemite National Park (Calif)
1890 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure "Silver Blaze" (BG)
1908 Cubs' Ed Reulbach becomes only pitcher to throw Doubleheader shutout
1909 Hudson-Fulton Celebration opens in NY
1911 Ground breaking begins in Boston for Fenway Park
1919 Pres Wilson becomes seriously ill & collapses after a speech
1920 Vern Bradburn of Winnipeg Victorias kicks 9 singles in a game
1924 Malcolm Campbell sets world auto speed record at 146.16 MPH
1926 Henry Ford announces the 8 hour, 5-day work week
1926 International slavery convention signed by 20 states
1926 NHL grants franchises to Chicago Black Hawks & Detroit Red Wings
1934 Lou Gehrig plays in his 1500th consecutive game
1934 Rainbow (US) beats Endeavour (England) in 16th America's Cup
1939 Versailles Peace Treaty forgot to include Andorra, so Andorra & Germany finally sign an official treaty ending WW I
1949 Louis Suggs wins US Woman's Golf championship
1956 1st transatlantic telephone cable goes into operation
1956 Brooklyn Dodger Sal Maglie no-hits Phila Phillies, 5-0
1957 300 US Army troops guard 9 black kids return to Central HS in Ark
1957 Soviet 7 year plan (1959-1965) announced
1960 Phillies beat Reds 7-1, ending 16 consecutive Sunday losses
1962 A black church is destroyed by fire in Macon Georgia
1962 Sonny Liston KOs Floyd Patterson in 1st round for heavyweight title
1962 Weatherly (US) beats Gretel (Aust) in 19th running of America's Cup
1965 Beatle cartoon show begins in the US
1966 Smallest Yankee stadium crowd, 413 see White Sox win 4-1
1970 Ringo releases his "Beaucoups of Blues" album
1973 3-man crew of Skylab II make safe splashdown in Pacific after 59 days
1973 Willie Mays night at Shea Stadium
1976 Expo's last game at Montreal's Jarry Park
1978 PSA Boeing 727 & a Cessna private plane collide by San Diego, 144 die
1980 Chevy Chase calls Cary Grant a homo on Tomorrow show (suit follows)
1981 Rolling Stones begin their 6th US tour (JFK Stadium, Phila)
1981 Sandra Day O'Connor sworn in as 1st female supreme court justice
1982 Penn prison guard George Banks kills 13 (5 were his own children)
1983 Bob Forsch pitches 2nd career no-hitter, Cards beat Expos 3-0
1985 Akali Dal wins Punjab State election in India
1986 Antonin Scalia appointed to the Supreme Court
1986 Houston Astro Mike Scott no-hits SF Giants, 2-0
1988 Florence Griffith Joyner runs Olympic record 100m in 10.54s
1990 1st 8 NY Yankees hit safely vs Balt Orioles to tie record
1990 Oakland A's clinch 3rd straight AL West title
1990 Saddam Hussein warns US will repeat Vietnam experience
1990 UN Security Council vote 14-1 to impose air embargo against Iraq
1991 "Good & Evil" premiers on ABC TV
1991 The Paramount at Madison Square Garden in NYC opens

Kansas Bear
27 Sep 07,, 14:46
On this day...
1290 Earthquake in Gulf of Chili China, reportedly kills 100,000
1540 Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by Ignatius Loyola
1777 Battle of Germantown; Washington defeated by the British
1779 John Adams negotiates Revolutionary War peace terms with Britain
1787 Constitution submitted to the states for ratification
1821 Mexican Empire declares its independence
1821 Revolutionary forces occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw
1825 Railroad transportation is born with 1st track in England
1854 Steamship Arctic sank with 300 people aboard
1863 Jo Shelby's calvery in action at Moffat's Station, Arkansas
1877 John Mercer Langston named minister of Haiti
1881 Chicago Cubs beat Troy 10-8 before record small "crowd" of 12
1894 Aqueduct racetrack opens in NY
1905 1st published blues composition goes on sale, WC Handy Memphis Blues
1905 Boston's Bill Dinneen no-hits Chic White Sox, 2-0
1910 1st test flight of a twin-engined airplance (France)
1919 Democratic National Committee votes to admit women
1919 Pitcher Bob Shawkey sets then Yank record with 15 strike-outs
1921 Yanks beat Indians 21-7 in Polo Grounds
1923 Lou Gehrig's 1st homer
1928 US recognizes Nationalist Chinese government
1930 Bobby Jones completes the Grand Slam of Golf
1930 White Sox 1st baseman Bud Clancy didn't handle the ball at all in a 9 inning game vs St Louis Browns
1931 Lou Gehrig completes his 6th straight season, playing in every game
1937 1st Santa Claus school opens (Albion NY)
1938 Ocean liner Queen Elizabeth launched at Glasgow
1939 Warsaw, Poland, surrenders to Germans after 19 days of resistance
1940 Black leaders protest discrimination in US armed forces
1940 Floyd Giebells, 1st game, 2-0 pennant clinching beating Bob Feller
1941 1st WW II liberty ship, freighter Patrick Henry, launched
1942 NY Giants beat Wash Redskins 14-7 without making a 1st down
1942 St Louis Cards win NL pennant on last day of the season
1950 Heavyweight champ Ezzard Charles defeats Joe Louis
1953 Bert Bechichar, Baltimore Colts, kicks a 56-yard field goal
1953 Typhoon destroys 1/3 of Nagoya Japan
1954 School integration begins in Wash DC & Baltimore Md public schools
1954 Steve Allen's "Tonight Show" premiers
1959 Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev concludes his US visit
1959 Typhoon Vera, hits Japanese island of Honshu, kills nearly 5,000
1961 Sierre Leone becomes the 100th member of the UN
1962 US sells Israel, Hawk anti-aircraft missiles
1963 At 10:59 AM the census clock, records US population at 190,000,000
1964 Phillies 7th straight loses sends them into 2nd place
1964 Warren Commission released, finding Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone
1967 Phillies Jim Bunning ties NL record of 5, 1-0 losses in a year
1968 Cardinal's super pitcher Bob Gibson's 13th shutout of the year
1970 Ken Boswell sets 2nd baseman record of 85 games without an error
1972 1st game at Nassau Coliseum, Rangers beat Islanders 6-4 (exhibition)
1973 Nolan Ryan strikesout his 383rd batter of the year
1973 Soyuz 12 carries 2 cosmonauts into Earth orbit (2 days)
1977 Phillies clinch 2nd straight NL East Division title
1979 Congress' final approval to create Dept of Education
1980 WHOT (Bkln NY pirate radio station) begins on 1620 AM & 92.5 FM
1982 John Palmer becomes news anchor of the Today Show
1985 Hurricane Gloria's 130 MPH wind hits the Atlantic coast
1986 Senate joins House of Reps voting for sweeping tax reforms
1987 NFL players' strike
1988 Grand jury evidence shows Tawana Brawley fabricated rape story
1988 Lab tests reportedly show Shroud of Turin not Christ`s burial cloth
1988 Senate votes for major federal tax code changes
1989 Sony purchases Columbia Pictures for $3.4 billion cash
1990 A gunman holds 33 people (killing 1) hostage in Berkley Calif
1990 Deposed emir of Kuwait address the UN General Assembly
1990 Senate Judiciary committee approves Souter's Supreme Court nomination
1990 Tour de France champion Greg LeMond visits White House
1991 "Princesses" premiers on CBS TV
1991 Pres Bush decides to end full-time B-52 bombers alert
1991 1st scheduled NHL exhibition game in St Petersburg Fla, is cancelled due to poor ice conditions (NY Islanders vs Boston Bruins)

Callmecur
28 Sep 07,, 08:08
And today in 1923 my father was born and having survived the whole of WW2 in the Royal Navy (Arctic convoys, MTB's in Greece and the Med etc), surviving a submarine disaster in 1950 when HMS Truculent was hit and sunk by a Swedish tanker in the Thames estuary, working in an asbestos factory and spending 26 years as a miner - Happy birthday Dad and glad you're still with us!!!

Shamus
28 Sep 07,, 10:54
And today in 1923 my father was born and having survived the whole of WW2 in the Royal Navy (Arctic convoys, MTB's in Greece and the Med etc), surviving a submarine disaster in 1950 when HMS Truculent was hit and sunk by a Swedish tanker in the Thames estuary, working in an asbestos factory and spending 26 years as a miner - Happy birthday Dad and glad you're still with us!!!Happy Birthday Sir!Many happy returns:) .

tankie
28 Sep 07,, 15:42
All the best to your Dad Dave , by the way , you spelt Swedish Tanker wrong :))

Kansas Bear
28 Sep 07,, 16:28
On this day...
1066 William the Conqueror lands in England
1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovers California, at San Diego Bay
1781 Siege of Yorktown begins, last battle of the Revolutionary War
1787 Congress sends Constitution to state legislatures for their approval
1829 Walker's Appeal, racial antislavery pamphlet, published in Boston
1850 Flogging in US Navy & on merchant vessels abolished
1858 Donati's comet becomes the 1st to be photographed
1867 Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario
1868 Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella 2 of Spain to flee to France
1868 Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish Louisiana (200 blacks killed)
1879 Sydney Australia innaugurates steam motor tram route
1906 US troops reoccupy Cuba, stay until 1909
1912 "Kiche Maru" sinks off Japan, killing 1,000
1914 German forces move into Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
1919 Fastest major league game (51 mins), Giants beat Phillies 6-1
1920 8 White Sox indicted, threw 1919 World Series (Black Sox scandal)
1922 Mussolini marches on Rome
1923 Yanks slaughter Red Sox 24-4
1924 2 US Army planes end around-world flight, Seattle to Seattle, 57 stops
1928 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st helicopter flight over English Channel
1928 Yanks clinch pennant #6
1930 Lou Gehrig's errorless streak ends at 885 consecutive games
1936 Brooklyn & Boston play a penalty free NFL game
1937 FDR dedicates Bonneville Dam on Columbia River (Oregon)
1939 Soviet-German treaty agree on 4th partition of Poland (WW II) & gives Lithuania to the USSR
1940 Michigan's Tom Harmon runs 72, 86 & 94 yard touchdowns
1941 Phillies lose club record 111th game
1941 Ted Williams assures his .400 avg on last day with 6 hits
1942 NY Americans NHL team folded
1944 1st TV Musical comedy (The Boys from Boise)
1944 Battle of Arnhem, Germans defeat British airborne in Netherlands
1948 WBAP-TV, (NBC affiliate) Fort Worth Texas, begins broadcasting
1951 Allie Reynolds' 2nd no-hitter of 1951; Yanks clinch pennant #18
1951 Norm Van Brocklin of the Rams passes for NFL-record 554 yards
1958 Guinea votes for independence from France
1959 Explorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth
1960 Ted Williams hits his final homer #521
1961 "Purlie Victorious," a farce by Ossie Davis, opens on Broadway
1961 Syria withdraws from United Arab Republic
1961 USN Comdr Forrest S Petersen takes X-15 to 30,720 m
1963 Giuseppe Cantarella roller-skates a record 41.5 kph for 440 yds
1963 Italy's Giuseppe Camtarella skates a record 25.78 MPH
1964 Australia beats US in 1st clay court Davis Cup
1965 Jack McKay in X-15 reaches 90 km
1965 Lava flows kill at least 350 (Taal Phillipines)
1967 Walter Washington elected 1st mayor of Washington, DC
1968 Alberto Giolani of Italy roller skates record 23.133 miles in 1 hr
1968 Atlanta Chiefs beat San Diego Toros 3-0 for NASL championship
1968 Beatles' "Hey Jude," single goes #1 & stays #1 for 9 weeks
1968 Chuck Hixson (Southern Methodist) completes 37 of record 69 passes
1969 Joe Kapp (Minn Vikings) passes for 7 touchdowns vs Balt Colts (52-14)
1970 Intrepid (US) beats Gretel II (Aust) in 22nd America's Cup
1972 Japan & Communist China agree to re-establish diplomatic relations
1974 1st lady Betty Ford undergoes a radical mastectomy
1974 Calif Angel Nolan Ryan 3rd no-hitter beats Minn Twin, 4-0
1974 John Lennon appears as guest dj on WNEW-FM (NYC)
1975 Oakland A's Vida Blue, Glenn Abbott, Paul Linblad & Rollie Fingers, no-hit Calif Angels 5-0
1976 Muhammad Ali retains heavyweight boxing championship in a close 15-round decision over Ken Norton at Yankee Stadium
1978 Israeli Knesset endorses Camp David accord
1979 Larry Holmes (retain championship) KOs Earnie Shavers in 11 rounds
1980 Jaromir Wagner is 1st to fly the Atlantic standing on the wing
1981 Joseph Paul Franklin, avowed racist, sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 2 black joggers in Salt Lake City
1982 1st reports appear of death from cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules
1982 NASA launches Intelsat V
1983 STS-9 vehicle moves to launch pad
1985 NASA launches Intelsat VA
1986 Record 23,000 start in a marathon (Mexico City)
1988 Bronx Museum for the Arts opens
1988 LA Dodger Orel Hershiser sets record for consecutive scoreless inns
1990 Marvin Gaye gets a star on Hollywood's walk of fame
1991 NY Yankees set record of 75 games without a complete pitched game

dave lukins
28 Sep 07,, 16:44
All the best to your Dad Dave , by the way , you spelt Swedish Tanker wrong :))

Naughty boy:eek: :) All the Best to your Dad Dave

Kansas Bear
30 Sep 07,, 05:10
On this day...
1452 1st book published, Johann Guttenberg's Bible
1630 1st execution in America-J Billington hanged in Plymouth, MA
1659 Robinson Crusoe is shipwrecked (according to Defoe)
1659 Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherlands forbids tennis playing during Creligious services
1777 Congress, flees to York Pa, as British forces advance
1791 Mozart's opera "The Magic Flute" premiers in Vienna
1846 Anesthetic ether used for 1st time (Dr Wm Morton extracts a tooth)
1857 US occupies Sand, Baker, Howland & Jarvis Is. south of Hawaii
1867 Midway Islands formally declared a US possession
1877 1st US amateur swim meet (NY Athletic Club)
1878 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
1880 Henry Draper takes that 1st photograph of the Orion Nebula
1885 Bechuanaland becomes a British protectorate
1887 Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure "The Five Orange Pips" (BG)
1887 Volunteer (US) beats Thistle (Scotland) in 8th America's Cup
1895 France proclaims a protectorate over Madagascar
1898 City of NY established
1916 Giants lose to Braves 8-3, ends 26 consecutive win streak
1922 Yanks clinch pennant #2
1927 Babe Ruth hits record setting 60th HR (off Tom Zachary)
1928 Leon Vanderstuyft of Belgium cycles record 76 mi 604 yds in 1 hr
1929 1st manned rocket plane flight (by auto maker Fritz von Opel)
1934 Babe Ruth's final game as a Yankee, goes 0 for 3
1934 FDR dedicates Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam)
1935 Gershwin's "Porgy & Bess" premiers in Boston
1936 Intl Commission of the Straits (Dardanelles & Bosphorus) ends
1938 Munich Agreement-forced Czechoslovakia to give territory to Germany
1939 1st televised college football game (Fordham vs Waynesburg at NYC)
1939 Germany & Russia agree to partition Poland
1941 3,721 Jews are buried alive at Babi Yar ravine (near Kiev) Ukraine
1944 Calais reoccupied by Allies
1945 Hank Greenberg's final day HR wins the pennant for the Tigers
1946 22 Nazi leaders found guilty of war crimes at Nuremberg, Von Ribbentrop & Goering sentenced to death by Nuremberg trial
1947 Yanks beat Dodgers 5-3-largest WS crowd 73,365-1st WS televised
1949 Berlin Airlift ends after 277,000 flights
1950 1st congress of Internat'l Astronautical Federation opens in Paris
1954 1st atomic-powered vessel, submarine Nautilus launched
1956 Phillies Robin Roberts gives up a major league record 46th HR
1960 Flintstones premiers (1st prime time animation show)
1960 On Howdy Doody's last show Clarabelle finally talks "Goodbye Kids"
1962 James Meredith registers for classes at University of Mississippi
1966 Botswana (Bechuanaland) gains independence from Britain (Nat'l Day)
1967 BBC starts their own popular music radio station
1967 Palace of Fine Arts reopens (1st time during 1915 exposition)
1967 USSR's Kosmos 186 & 188 complete the 1st automatic docking
1968 1st Boeing 747 rolls out
1968 Supremes release "Love Child"
1971 Last Wash Senator home game, Yanks win career 5th forfeit Yanks trailing 4-2 in the 9th with 2 outs, fans rush the field
1972 Passenger train derails killing 48 (Rust Stasie South Africa)
1973 Yanks close 50th year at Yankee Stadium losing 8-5
1975 5 drown in flash flood of sewer & water tunnel (Niagara Falls NY)
1977 Ringo releases "Ringo the 4th" album
1978 Major Indoor Soccer League grants 1st 6 franchises to Cincinnati, Cleveland, Houston, New York, Philadelphia & Pittsburgh Phillies win 3rd consecutive NL East Division title
1980 1,754 turn out to see the Phillies play the NY Mets at Shea Stadium
1980 Iran rejects a truce call from Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
1981 Seoul, South Korea is selected to host 1988 Summer Olympics
1984 Bowie Kuhn ends career as Baseball Commissioner
1984 Calif Angel Mike Witt, pitches a perfect game over Texas Rangers, 1-0
1984 NY Yankee Don Mattingly wins AL batting crown with .343 avg
1986 US releases soviet spy Gennadiy Zakharov
1988 Andrei A Gromyko retires
1988 IBM announces shipment of 3 millionth PS/2 personal computer
1988 Louise Ritter, US, jumps 6'8" to win the Olympic gold medal
1988 Robin Givens & Mike Tyson appear on the Barbara Walters Show
1988 LA Dodger Orel Herschiser breaks former Dodger Don Drysdale mark by pitching 59 consecutive scoreless innings
1989 NASA closes down tracking stations in Hawaii & Ascension
1989 Nolan Ryan's perfect game is broken with 1 out in the 8th, but he strikes-out his 300th of the year
1991 Haitian President Jean-Bertand Aristide is ousted

tankie
30 Sep 07,, 14:22
On this day...
1066 William the Conqueror lands in England
1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovers California, at San Diego Bay
1781 Siege of Yorktown begins, last battle of the Revolutionary War
1787 Congress sends Constitution to state legislatures for their approval
1829 Walker's Appeal, racial antislavery pamphlet, published in Boston
1850 Flogging in US Navy & on merchant vessels abolished
1858 Donati's comet becomes the 1st to be photographed
1867 Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario
1868 Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella 2 of Spain to flee to France
1868 Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish Louisiana (200 blacks killed)
1879 Sydney Australia innaugurates steam motor tram route
1906 US troops reoccupy Cuba, stay until 1909
1912 "Kiche Maru" sinks off Japan, killing 1,000
1914 German forces move into Antwerp Belgium (WW I)
1919 Fastest major league game (51 mins), Giants beat Phillies 6-1
1920 8 White Sox indicted, threw 1919 World Series (Black Sox scandal)
1922 Mussolini marches on Rome
1923 Yanks slaughter Red Sox 24-4
1924 2 US Army planes end around-world flight, Seattle to Seattle, 57 stops
1928 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st helicopter flight over English Channel
1928 Yanks clinch pennant #6
1930 Lou Gehrig's errorless streak ends at 885 consecutive games
1936 Brooklyn & Boston play a penalty free NFL game
1937 FDR dedicates Bonneville Dam on Columbia River (Oregon)
1939 Soviet-German treaty agree on 4th partition of Poland (WW II) & gives Lithuania to the USSR
1940 Michigan's Tom Harmon runs 72, 86 & 94 yard touchdowns
1941 Phillies lose club record 111th game
1941 Ted Williams assures his .400 avg on last day with 6 hits
1942 NY Americans NHL team folded
1944 1st TV Musical comedy (The Boys from Boise)
1944 Battle of Arnhem, Germans defeat British airborne in Netherlands
1948 WBAP-TV, (NBC affiliate) Fort Worth Texas, begins broadcasting

8th May 1951 V/E day Tankie was born , i like to think of V/E day as victory for Eric , as he made a break for freedom , and has been trying to return to similar surroundings eversince :biggrin:

1951 Allie Reynolds' 2nd no-hitter of 1951; Yanks clinch pennant #18
1951 Norm Van Brocklin of the Rams passes for NFL-record 554 yards
1958 Guinea votes for independence from France
1959 Explorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth
1960 Ted Williams hits his final homer #521
1961 "Purlie Victorious," a farce by Ossie Davis, opens on Broadway
1961 Syria withdraws from United Arab Republic
1961 USN Comdr Forrest S Petersen takes X-15 to 30,720 m
1963 Giuseppe Cantarella roller-skates a record 41.5 kph for 440 yds
1963 Italy's Giuseppe Camtarella skates a record 25.78 MPH
1964 Australia beats US in 1st clay court Davis Cup
1965 Jack McKay in X-15 reaches 90 km
1965 Lava flows kill at least 350 (Taal Phillipines)
1967 Walter Washington elected 1st mayor of Washington, DC
1968 Alberto Giolani of Italy roller skates record 23.133 miles in 1 hr
1968 Atlanta Chiefs beat San Diego Toros 3-0 for NASL championship
1968 Beatles' "Hey Jude," single goes #1 & stays #1 for 9 weeks
1968 Chuck Hixson (Southern Methodist) completes 37 of record 69 passes
1969 Joe Kapp (Minn Vikings) passes for 7 touchdowns vs Balt Colts (52-14)
1970 Intrepid (US) beats Gretel II (Aust) in 22nd America's Cup
1972 Japan & Communist China agree to re-establish diplomatic relations
1974 1st lady Betty Ford undergoes a radical mastectomy
1974 Calif Angel Nolan Ryan 3rd no-hitter beats Minn Twin, 4-0
1974 John Lennon appears as guest dj on WNEW-FM (NYC)
1975 Oakland A's Vida Blue, Glenn Abbott, Paul Linblad & Rollie Fingers, no-hit Calif Angels 5-0
1976 Muhammad Ali retains heavyweight boxing championship in a close 15-round decision over Ken Norton at Yankee Stadium
1978 Israeli Knesset endorses Camp David accord
1979 Larry Holmes (retain championship) KOs Earnie Shavers in 11 rounds
1980 Jaromir Wagner is 1st to fly the Atlantic standing on the wing
1981 Joseph Paul Franklin, avowed racist, sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 2 black joggers in Salt Lake City
1982 1st reports appear of death from cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules
1982 NASA launches Intelsat V
1983 STS-9 vehicle moves to launch pad
1985 NASA launches Intelsat VA
1986 Record 23,000 start in a marathon (Mexico City)
1988 Bronx Museum for the Arts opens
1988 LA Dodger Orel Hershiser sets record for consecutive scoreless inns
1990 Marvin Gaye gets a star on Hollywood's walk of fame
1991 NY Yankees set record of 75 games without a complete pitched game

:)) :)) :))

Callmecur
01 Oct 07,, 08:14
All the best to your Dad Dave , by the way , you spelt Swedish Tanker wrong :))I wasn't talking about Sven-Goran Eric....:biggrin:

tankie
01 Oct 07,, 12:10
I wasn't talking about Sven-Goran Eric....:biggrin:

Oh ,, ok then , silly me eh ?:))

Kansas Bear
01 Oct 07,, 13:57
On this day...
2016 -BC- Origin of Era of Abraham
331 -BC- Alexander the Great of Macedon defeats Persian army at Gaugamela
110 -BC- Origin of Sidonian Era
366 St Damasus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1661 Yachting begins in England; King Charles II beats his brother James
1791 1st session of the new French legislative assembly
1800 Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty
1837 "Racer's" Hurricane (Gulf of Mexico)
1837 Treaty with Winnebago Indians
1847 Maria Mitchell discovers a non-naked-eye comet
1851 1st Hawaiian stamps issued
1869 1st postcards are issued (Vienna)
1879 Cincinnati Enquirer publishes 1st report on baseball reserve clause
1885 Special delivery mail service begins in US
1886 US mint at Carson City, Nevada closes
1889 Washington voters adopt state constitution in referendum
1890 Yosemite National Park established
1893 3rd worst hurricane in US history kills 1,800 (Mississippi)
1894 Civic organization, Knights of Ak-Sar-Ben founded in Omaha, Nebraska
1896 Sherlock Holmes adventure "The Veiled Lodger" takes place (BG)
1898 Henry Huntington buys the LA Railway
1898 Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia
1903 1st baseball World Series, Pitts Pirates vs Boston Pilgrims (Red Sox)
1908 Henry Ford introduces the Model T car (costs $825)
1908 Jack Chesbro's final Yankee victory, beats Walter Johnson 2-1
1910 Berkshire Cattle Fair held in Pittsfield Mass (1st state fair)
1912 Yanks lose game #100 en route to a 50-102 season
1919 World Series #16 begins as a best of 9 affair, White Sox intentionally throw this series to satisfy gamblers (The Black Sox Scandal)
1921 1st all NY series to be played entirely in 1 stadium (the Polo Grounds) & 1st NY Yankee World Series begins (World Series #18)
1922 Former Chicago Staleys play 1st NFL game as Chicago Bears, win 6-0
1928 Leon Vanderstuyft of Belgium bicycled 76 miles 504 yards in 1 hour
1932 Babe Ruth's points & hits a HR there, off of Cubs Charlie Root
1932 NHL readmits Ottawa & drops Pittsburgh
1933 Packers make 5 1st downs, the Giants make 0, but still win 10-7
1933 Wash Senator coach Nick Altrock plays in a game at age 57
1936 Gen Francisco Franco establishes the state of Spain
1937 Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
1938 Germany annexes Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia)
1939 Winston Chruchill refers to Soviet policy as "a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"
1940 Pennsylvania Turnpike, pioneer toll thruway, opens
1942 Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, makes maiden flight
1943 Allied forces captured Naples during WW II
1944 Newspaper editor Alejandro C¢rdova assassinated in Guatemala
1944 St Louis Browns win their only AL pennant
1945 Heavyweight champ Joe Louis is discharged from the army
1946 1st NL playoffs, Dodgers vs Cards (St Louis wins 2 games to 0)
1946 Bob Feller 348th strikeout of the season
1947 1st helicopter air mail & express service, LA, Ca
1947 NHL Pension Society founded
1947 US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends
1948 Calif Supreme Court voids state statute banning interracial marriages
1948 Radio Denmark begins transmitting
1949 People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Tse-tung (National Day)
1949 Republic of China (Taiwan) forms on the island of Formosa
1950 Phillies win NL pennant on last day of season (10th inning HR)
1951 1st treaty signed by woman ambassador-Eugenie Anderson
1951 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black military unit, deactivated
1952 1st ultra high frequency (UHF) television station, Portland Or
1953 Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
1954 British colony of Nigeria becomes a federation
1955 "Honeymooners" premieres
1956 Johnny Heckmann rides 7 winners at Chicago Hawthorne Horse track
1957 B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack
1958 Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia
1958 Inauguration of NASA
1958 Vanguard Project transferred from military to NASA
1959 1st World Series (World Series #56) since 1948 not to feature a NY team (LA vs Chic)
1960 Nigeria gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1961 A believed extinct volcanco erupts in Tristan da Cunha
1961 East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon
1961 Roger Maris sets record of 61 HRs, last off of Tracy Stallard
1962 Barbra Streisand signs her 1st recording contract (with Columbia)
1962 Brian Epstein signs a contract to manage the Beatles through 1977
1962 James Meredith became 1st black at U of Mississippi
1962 Johnny Carson hosts his 1st Tonight Show, Joan Crawford guests
1962 The Lucy Show premiers
1962 US National Radio Astronomy Obs gets a 300' (91m) radio telescope
1963 Nigeria becomes a republic within the Commonwealth
1964 Free Speech Movement launched at U of California, Berkley
1964 SF cable cars declared a national landmark
1968 "Night of the Living Dead" premieres in Pittsburgh
1969 Guernsey & Jersey begin issuing their own postage stamps
1970 Last game at Philadelphia's Connie Mack Stadium, Phils-2 Expos-1
1971 Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida opens
1972 1st games of the World Hockey Association
1973 Leo Durocher resigns as Houston Astro manager
1975 Britain grants internal self-government to Seychelles
1975 Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, take name "Tuvalu"
1975 Reunion Island stops prints stamps, France takes over production
1977 Brazilian soccer great Pele' retires with 1,281 goals in 1,363 games
1977 Yanks win 2nd consecutive AL East title
1978 Tuvalu (Ellice Islands) gains independence from Britain
1978 Yanks lose 9-2 to Indians forcing a playoff game with Red Sox
1979 US returns Canal Zone to Panama after 75 years (but not the canal)
1980 Cosmonauts Ryumin & Popov break space endurance record of 176 days
1982 EPCOT Center opens in Orlando Florida
1982 West Germany's Parliament ousts chancellor Helmut Schmidt
1984 Gary Trudeau's Doonesbury comic strip resumes after 2-year hiatus
1984 Peter Ueberroth replaces Bowie Kuhn as 6th commissioner of baseball
1986 President Carter's presidential library/museum dedicated in Atlanta
1987 6 killed by an earthquake measuring 6.1 in LA
1988 Lowest batting avg for NL champion (Tony Gwynn .313)
1988 Robert Englund the actor who plays Freddie Kruger weds Nancy Booth
1989 Dallas Cowboy, Ed "Too Tall" Jones records his 1,000th NFL tackle
1989 Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany
1989 US issues a stamp, labeling an apatosaurus as a brontosaurus
1990 Pres Bush at the UN, condemns Iraq's takeover of Kuwait
1991 Howard Stern adds Baltimore to his radio network (WJFK-AM)

Kansas Bear
08 Oct 07,, 14:21
On this day...
451 Council of Chalcedon (4th ecumenical council) opens
1604 The supernova called "Kepler's nova" is 1st sighted
1775 Officers decide to bar slaves & free blacks from Continental Army
1818 2 English boxers are 1st to use padded gloves
1822 1st eruption of Galunggung (Java) sends boiling sludge into valley
1840 1st Hawaiian constitution proclaimed
1860 Telegraph line between LA & SF opens
1862 Battle of Perryville, KY-Confederate invasion halted
1865 Earthquake in Santa Cruz Mountains
1871 Great Fire kills 200, destroys over 4ýmiles (10 kmý) of Chicago buildings, & original Emancipation Proclamation
1886 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure "The Noble Bachelor" (BG)
1887 Phillies set club record 16th straight victory
1896 Dow Jones starts reporting an average of industrial stocks
1904 1st Vanderbilt Cup auto race (Hicksville, Long Island, NY)
1906 Karl Nessler demonstrates 1st 'permanent wave' for hair, in London
1909 Chicago Cubs beat NY Giants 4-2 in a playoff to win NL pennant
1912 1st Balkan War begins
1915 Phillies win their 1st & only World Series (World Series #12) game before 1980, beating Red Sox, 3-1, with an 8th inning 2 run rally
1918 Sgt Alvin York single-handedly kills 25, captures 132 Germans
1922 NY Giants beat Yankees, 4 games to 0, with a tie in 19th World Series
1927 NY Yankees sweep Pirates in 24th World Series
1928 Eastern Soccer League forms in US
1930 Phila A's beat St Louis Cards, 4 games to 2 in 27th World Series
1933 Coit Tower dedicated in SF, a monument to firefighters
1934 Bruno Hauptmann is indicted for murder of Lindbergh's son
1935 Ozzie Nelson marries Harriet Hilliard (Ozzie & Harriet)
1939 Germany annexes Western Poland
1939 NY Yankees sweep Reds in 36th World Series, 4th straight WS win
1940 Cin Reds beat Detroit Tigers, 4 games to 3, in 37th World Series
1944 "Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet" debut on CBS radio
1945 Truman announced atomic bomb secret shared with Britain & Canada
1951 Ford C Frick replaces Happy Chandler as 3rd commissioner of baseball
1951 Warren C Giles becomes president of baseball's National League
1952 2 trains collide with a derailed commuter train, kills 112 (England)
1955 Worlds most powerful aircraft carrier, Saratoga (US), launched
1956 Don Larsen, NY, pitches only perfect world series game, vs Brooklyn (World Series #53)
1957 Brooklyn Dodgers announce move to Los Angeles
1957 Turkish & Syrian border guards exchange fire
1959 LA Dodgers beat Chicago White Sox, 4 games to 2 in 56th World Series
1960 Bobby Richarson hits a world series grand slammer (World Series #57)
1962 Algeria admitted as 109th member of the UN
1962 N Korea reports 100% election turnout, 100% vote for Workers' Party
1963 Sultan of Zanzibar cedes his mainland possessions to Kenya
1964 Gilroy Roberts becomes 1st US chief engraver to retire (than die)
1964 Ringo Starr takes & passes his driving test
1966 Wyoming's Jerry DePoyster kicks 3 field goals over 50 yds (54, 54, 52)
1970 Soviet author Alexander I Solzhenitsyn awarded Nobel Prize for Lit
1971 John Lennon releases his megahit "Imagine"
1977 Largest baseball crowd in Penns, 64,924 see Dodgers beat Phillies 4-1 in 4th NL championship game (Dodgers win pennant)
1978 Ken Warby set the world water speed record at 319.627 mph
1978 Kenneth Warby sets world speed record on water (514 kph)
1978 Yanks win 3rd straight AL Championship, all against Kansas City
1981 USAC appeals panel restores disputed Indy 500 victory to Al Unser
1981 Pres Reagan greeted predecessors Jimmy Carter, Gerald R Ford & Richard Nixon before sending them to Egypt for Anwar Sadat's funeral
1982 NJ Devils 1st victory, beating NY Rangers 3-2 at the Meadowlands
1982 Poland bans Solidarity
1983 1st regular season Islander OT game beat Caps 8-7
1983 Washington Capitals 1st NHL overtime game losing to NY Islanders 8-7
1986 Mike Scott ties playoff record of 14 strikeouts, beats Mets 1-0
1988 Fire in Seattle's Space Needle causes evacuation, $2,000 damage
1990 Israeli police kill 17 Palestinian rioters
1990 US doctors Joseph E Murray & E Donnall Thomas win Nobel Prize

Kansas Bear
15 Oct 07,, 18:14
On this day...
1520 King Henry VIII of England orders bowling lanes at Whitehall
1582 Many Catholic countries switch to Gregorian calendar, skip 10 days
1641 Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve claims Montreal
1655 Jews of Lublin are massacred
1783 Jean Pilƒtre de Rozier makes captive-balloon ascent
1789 1st presidental tour-George Washington in New England
1846 Dr William Thomas Green Morton 1st public use of ether
1860 11-year-old Grace Bedell writes to Lincoln, tells him to grow a beard
1863 Cliff House opens in SF (1st of many on the site)
1877 45th Congress (1877-79) convenes
1878 Edison Electric Light Company incorporated
1880 K”ln cathedral completed, 633 years after it begun
1881 1st American fishing magazine, American Angler published
1883 Supreme Court declares Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional
1885 Hoss Radbourne pitches his 60th win of the season
1890 Alabama Penny Savings Bank organizes in Birmingham
1914 ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers) founded
1914 Clayton Antitrust Act passed
1917 Chicago White Sox beat NY Giants, 4 games to 2 in 14th World Series
1919 14 horses begin 300-mile race from Vt to Mass for $1000 prize money
1923 NY Yankees 1st World Series win beating NY Giants, 4 games to 2 (World Series #20)
1925 Pitts Pirates beat Wash Senators, 4 games to 3 in 22nd World Series
1928 German dirigible "Graf Zeppelin" lands in Lakehurst, NJ
1933 Philadelphia Eagles play 1st NFL game, lose to NY Giants 56-0
1935 NHL's St Louis Eagles fold
1937 Ernest Hemingway novel "To Have & Have Not" published
1939 LaGuardia Airport opens in NYC
1941 Jews caught outside the Polish Ghetto walls could be put to death
1946 Enos Slaughter scores from 1st on a single in the 43rd World Series
1946 St Louis Cards beat Boston Red Sox, 4 games to 3 in 43rd World Series
1949 Administration of territory of Manipur taken over by Indian govt
1949 Billy Graham begins his ministry
1949 Tripura accedes to the Indian union
1951 "I Love Lucy" debuts on CBS TV
1956 William J Brennan Jr appointed to the Supreme Court
1959 "Untouchables" premieres
1962 Byron R White appointed to the Supreme Court
1964 Craig Breedlove sets auto speed record of 846.97 kph
1964 Kosygin & Brezhnev replace Soviet premier Nikita Krushchev
1964 St Louis Cardinals beat NY Yankees, 4 games to 3 in 61st World Series (NY Yankees appears in 14 & win 9 of last 16 World Series)
1965 Dodgers & Sandy Koufax win 7th game of 62nd World Series vs Twins
1966 LBJ signs a bill creating Dept of Transportation
1969 Bank of America World Headquarters (555 California) dedicated
1969 Madison Square Garden TV Network begins (Rangers vs North Stars)
1969 Oriole Earl Weaver becomes 1st manager ejected in a world series (World Series #66)
1969 Vietnam Moratorium Day; millions nationwide protest the war
1970 Baltimore Orioles beat Cin Reds, 4 games to 1 in 67th World Series
1974 National Guard mobilizes to restore order in Boston school busing
1974 Washington Capitals 1st NHL tie, playing LA Kings to 1-1 tie
1976 1st debate of major-ticket VP nominees Mondale (D) vs Dole (R)
1976 Ringo releases "A Dose of Rock 'n' Roll"
1977 Arkansas' Steve Little kicks a record tying 67 yard field goal
1977 Debbie Boone's "You Light Up My Life," goes #1 & stays #1 for 10 weeks
1979 1st Monday night game from NYC, Jets beat Vikings 14-7 (Shea Stad)
1979 NY Knicks retire 2nd number, # 10, Walt Frazier
1981 Yanks defeat A's 4-0 & win 33rd pennant
1983 Black Hawks & Maple Leafs combine for fastest 5 goals (84 seconds)
1983 Columbia beats Yale 21-18 in football, will lose next 44 games
1983 US Marine sharpshooters kill 5 snipers at Beirut Intl Airport
1985 Shuttle Columbia carries Spacelab into orbit
1985 Shelley Taylor of Australia makes fastest swim ever around Manhattan Island, doing it in 6 hours 12 minutes 29 seconds
1986 Longest post season game, Mets beat Astros 7-6 in 16 & win NL pennant
1987 NFL Players Assn orders an end to the 24 day strike
1988 Amnesty International's Global Concert Tour ends in Buenos Aires
1988 NCAA record rushing yardage (768 yards-Oklahoma)
1988 With 2 outs in bottom of 9th, an injured Kirk Gibson hits dramatic 2 run HR to gives Dodgers a 5-4 win in 1st game of 85th World Series
1989 Billy Graham is given the 1,900th star on Hollywood Blvd
1989 S Afr pres FW de Klerk frees Sisulu & 4 other political prisoners
1989 Wayne Gretsky passes Gordie Howes as NHL's all time top scorer
1991 Clarence Thomas is confirmed as Supreme Court Justice (52-48)

Ironduke
16 Oct 07,, 23:25
On this day in 1813, the Battle of Leipzig began. Fought toward the end of the Napoleonic Wars, it involved over 500,000 men. It was the largest battle to be fought in Europe's history until WWI.

Napoleon and his allies suffered a devastating defeat.

Blackleaf
17 Oct 07,, 20:15
On this day (October 17th) in 1346, the English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross near to the city of Durham in north east England. The battle was part of the Second War of Scottish Independence.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a4/BNMsFr2643FroissartFol97vBatNevilleCross.jpg/300px-BNMsFr2643FroissartFol97vBatNevilleCross.jpg
The Battle of Neville's Cross, 1346

After the battle, Scotland's King David II was captured by England's King Edward III in Calais and imprisoned in the Tower of London for 11 years.

Despite the fact that the English were hugely outnumbered (the Scots numbered 12,000 and the English just 3000), amazingly 7000 Scots were killed and just 300 English.
****************

Also on this day in 1660, the year that Charles II came to the Throne and the English monarchy was restored after being a republic since 1649 following the English Civil War, nine of the regicides who signed the death warrant of King Charles I (he was beheaded after the Roundheads beat the Royalists in the Civil War) were brutally hanged, drawn and quarted, and another was hanged, under the orders of Charles II, the son of Charles I.

http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Literature/21L-703Spring-2005/7AF8ADC9-3ED3-42F5-A6BE-C8E96A4160E6/0/chp_charles1.jpg
The beheading of King Charles I in London, January 1649. The Roundheads (supporting Parliament) defeated the Cavaliers (supporting the Monarchy) in the English Civil War but in 1660, after 11 years of being being a republic, the Monarchy was restored and King Charles II ordered the execution of the Regicides.

Not only that, but the body of Oliver Cromwell, massively decomposed since his death in 1658, was exhumed under the orders of Charles II and given a posthumous beheading and hanging.

In 1661, his body was hanged in chains at Tyburn (the notorious execution place in London which was infamous for its Triple Tree gallows, a tripod-shaped structure that could hang up to 12 felons at a time). Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Abbey until 1685 as a deterrent.

Yuck.

I think it's time that Britain reverted back to the harsh punishments of yesteryear to get its crime figures down.

Blackleaf
18 Oct 07,, 19:45
October 18th 1016 - The Danes fought the Anglo-Saxons (the English) at the Battle of Ashingdon, at Assandun which is now believed to be the village of Ashingdon in Essex. It was a victory for the Danes, led by Canute the Great, who triumphed over the English army led by King Edmund II ('Ironside'). The battle was the conclusion to the Danish reconquest of England.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e4/Assandun-sign.jpg
The sign for the village of Ashingdon in Essex, south east England, commemorates the Battle of Ashingdon (1016) and the construction of St Andrews memorial church (1020). Ashington may have been called Assandun centuries ago.


COMMANDERS
Danes - Canute the Great, Thorkell the High and Eiríkr Hákonarson
English - Edmund Ironside, Eadric Streona

http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/f/f5/Edmond_II_d%27Angleterre.jpg
England's King Edmund II ("Ironside")


The Battle of Ashingdon was fought on October 18, 1016, at Assandun, which is now believed to be Ashingdon in southeast Essex, England, though the location is still debated. It was a victory for the Danes, led by Canute the Great, who triumphed over the English army led by King Edmund II ('Ironside'). The battle was the conclusion to the Danish reconquest of England.

Canute had besieged London with major support from the English nobility against the Saxon hierarchy; particularly the Southampton nobles. The siege was in response to Edmund's reconquest of recently Danish-occupied Wessex, as well as conducting various indecisive offensives against Canute's army. London had withstood the siege and Edmund repulsed the Danes, but needed troops following a successful attack against the Danes in Mercia.

Leaving London, Edmund risked travelling into the countryside, dominated by enemies and at risk of being attacked by Danish soldiers. Canute's intelligence became aware of Edmund's movements, and while marching through Essex, Edmund's army was intercepted by Canute. The surprise interception overwhelmed the English, causing some of them to desert, and the Danes poured on the English, killing much of the nobility. Some sources claim that the Danes were losing ground, and that Eadric Streona had previously made a deal with Canute to desert the other English forces.

Following his defeat King Edmund II was forced to sign a treaty with Canute in which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Canute, and when one of the kings should die, the other king would take all of England; his sons being the heir to the throne. After Edmund's death on 30 November, Canute ruled the whole kingdom.

A few years later saw the construction of St. Andrews memorial church in 1020 on the hill of the site of the Battle in Ashingdon, which still stands to this day. The church was founded after Canute's succession to the throne in 1020.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (written in Old English between the 9th Century and 1154) has a brief account of the battle.


“ When the king learned that the enemy army had gone inland, for the fifth time he collected all the English nation, and pursued them and overtook them in Essex at the hill which is called Ashingdon, and they stoutly joined battle there. Then Ealdorman Eadric did as he had often done before, he was the first to start the fight with the Magonsæte [i.e. of Herefordshire], and thus betrayed his liege lord and all the people of England. There Cnut had the victory and won for himself all the English people. There was Bishop Eadnoth killed, and Abbot Wulfsige, and Ealdorman Ælfric, and Godwine, the ealdorman of Lindsey, and Ulfcetel of East Anglia, and Æthelweard, son of Ealdorman Æthelwine, and all the nobility of England was there destroyed.”

The battle is also mentioned briefly in Knýtlinga saga which quotes a verse of skaldic poetry by Óttarr svarti, one of Canute's court poets.

“ King Knut fought the third battle, a major one, against the sons of Æthelred at a place called Ashington, north of the Danes' Woods. In the words of Ottar:

[At Ashington, you worked well
in the shield-war, warrior-king;
brown was the, flesh of bodies
served to the blood-bird:
in the slaughter, you won,
sire, with your sword
enough of a name there,
north of the Danes' Woods. ”

The most detailed account of the battle is in Encomium Emmae.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ashingdon"

Kansas Bear
18 Oct 07,, 20:05
On this day...
707 John VII ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1016 Danes defeat Saxons at Battle of Assandun (Ashingdon)
1648 1st US labor organization forms (Boston Shoemakers)
1685 Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes, outlaws Protestantism
1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ends War of Austrian Succession
1767 Boundary between Md & Pa, the Mason Dixon line, agreed upon
1776 Col John Glover & Marblehead regiment meet British Forces in Bronx
1776 In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, customer orders "**** tail"
1862 Morgan's raiders capture the federal garrison at Lexington, KY
1867 US takes formal possession of Alaska from Russia ($7.2 million)
1873 Columbia Princeton Rutgers & Yale set rules for collegiate football
1887 Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure "A Case of Identity" (BG)
1889 1st all NYC world series NY Giants (NL) play Brooklyn (AA) (World Series #86)
1890 John Owen is 1st man to run 100 yd dash in under 10 seconds
1891 1st international 6-day bicycle race in US (MSG, NYC) begins
1892 1st commercial long-distance phone line opens (Chicago-NY)
1898 American flag raised in Puerto Rico
1908 Belgium annexes Congo Free State
1909 Comte de Lambert of France sets airplane altitude record of 300 m
1912 Beginning of the 1st Balkan War
1912 Italo-Turkish war ends
1918 NHL's Qu‚bec Bulldogs sold to a Toronto businessman P J Quinn
1922 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) established
1924 Harold "Red" Grange, finest collegiate football game (4 long TD runs)
1924 Notre Dame beats Army 13-7, NY Herald Tribune dubs them (4 Horsemen)
1930 Joseph Sylvester becomes 1st jockey to win 7 races in 1 day
1944 Soviet troops invade Czechoslovakia during WW II
1950 Connie Mack retires as manager of the A's after 50 years
1953 Willie Thrower becomes 1st black NFL quarterback in modern times
1954 Hurricane Hazel (3rd of 1954) becomes most severe to hit US
1955 Track & Field names Jesse Owens all-time track athlete
1960 Casey Stengel retired by NY Yankees (won 10 pennants in 12 years)
1960 In Britain, the News Chronicle & Daily Mail merge, & The London Evening Star merges with the Evening News
1962 Tony Sheridan & the Beat Brothers record "Let's Dance"
1962 US launches Ranger 5 for lunar impact; misses Moon
1962 Dr Watson (US) & Drs Crick & Wilkins (Britain) win Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA
1963 IOC votes Mexico City to host 1968 Olympics
1967 Soviet Venera 4 becomes the 1st probe to send data back from Venus
1967 Walt Disney's "Jungle Book" is released
1967 AL votes to allow Athletics to move from KC to Oakland & expand the league to 12 teams in 1971 with KC & Seattle teams
1968 Bob Beamon of USA sets the long jump record (29"2«") in Mexico City
1968 Circus Circus opens in Las Vegas
1968 John Lennon & Yoko One fined œ150 for marijuana possession
1968 Lee Evans sets world record of 43.8 seconds in 400 meter dash
1968 Police find 219 grains of cannabis resin in John & Yoko's apt
1968 US Olympic Committee suspends Tommie Smith & John Carlos for giving "black power" salute as a protest during victory ceremony
1969 Federal govt bans use of cyclamates artificial sweeteners
1969 Soyuz 8 returns to Earth
1973 Congress authorizes bi-centennial quarter, half-dollar & dollar coin
1974 Wings (Country Hams) release "Walking in the Park with Eloise"
1974 Chicago Bull Nate Thurmond becomes 1st in NBA to complete a quadruple double-22 pts, 14 rebounds, 13 assists & 12 blocks
1977 1st Islander 0-0 tie-Kings at Nassau-25th time shutout-Resch's 15th
1977 Reggie Jackson hits 3 consecutive homers tying Ruth's series record
1977 Yanks beat Dodgers 8-4 for 21st world championship, 1st in 15 years
1978 1st daughter Susan Ford announces engagement to Charles F Vance
1978 NY Islanders 1st scoreless tie, vs LA Kings
1979 "Beatlemania" opens in London
1980 Detroit blocks 21 Atlanta shots setting NBA record (double
1981 NY Giant Joe Danelo ties NFL record of 6 field goals in a game
1984 Discovery moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51A mission
1988 Israel's supreme court uphold's ban on Kahane`s Kach Party as racist
1989 US 62nd manned space mission STS 34 (Atlantis 5) launches into orbit

Kansas Bear
21 Oct 07,, 16:45
On this day...
2137 -BC- 1st recorded total eclipse of the sun China
310 St Eusebius ends his reign as Catholic Pope
686 Conon begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1520 Magellan entered the strait which bears his name
1553 Volumes of the Talmud are burned
1797 US Navy frigate Constitution, Old Ironsides, launched in Boston
1805 Battle of Trafalgar, Adm Nelson defeats French & Spanish fleet & dies
1861 Battle of Balls Bluff, Va
1868 Severe earthquake at 7:53 AM, centered in Hayward, Calif
1869 1st shipment of fresh oysters comes overland from Baltimore
1871 1st US amateur outdoor athletic games (NY)
1879 Thomas Edison perfects the carbonized cotton filament light bulb
1897 Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago is dedicated
1905 England Pilgrim Assn beats All NY 11, 7-1 in soccer at Polo Grounds
1915 1st transatlantic radiotelephone message, Arlington, Va to Paris
1917 1st Americans to see action on the front lines of WW I
1918 Margaret Owen sets world typing speed record of 170 wpm for 1 min
1923 Deutsches Museum, Mnchen, 1st Walther Bauersfeld Zeiss Planetarium
1935 Hank Greenberg selected AL MVP unanimously
1944 During WWII, US troops capture Aachen, 1st large German city to fall
1945 Women in France allowed to vote for 1st time
1948 Facsimile high-speed radio transmission demonstrated (Washington DC)
1950 Chinese forces occupy Tibet
1950 Tom Powers of Duke scores 6 touchdowns
1959 Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens (NYC)
1960 JFK & Nixon clashed in 4th & final presidential debate (NYC)
1966 144 die as a coal waste landslide engulfs a school in S Wales
1967 Thousands opposing Vietnam War try to storm the Pentagon
1969 Bloodless coup in Somalia (National Day)
1970 777 Unification church couples wed in Korea
1970 Caledonian Airways takes over British United Airways
1971 Nixon nominates Lewis F Powell & William H Rehnquist to US Supreme Court, following resignations of Justices Hugo Black & John Harlan
1973 A's manager Dick Williams quits after A's beat Mets in 70th World Series
1974 1st Islander shut-out opponent-Billy Smith 5-0 vs Caps
1975 Mexico City's 1st major subway accident takes 26 lives
1975 Red Sox Carlton Fisk's 12th inning HR beats Reds 7-6 in game 6 of WS
1975 Venera 9, first craft to orbit the planet Venus launched
1976 American Saul Bellow wins Nobel Prize for Literature
1976 Cin Reds sweep NY Yankees, in 73rd World Series
1976 NY Knicks retire 1st number, # 19, Willis Reed
1977 US recalls William Bowdler, ambassador to South Africa
1979 Greta Waitz wins woman participation in NYC marathon (02:27:33)
1980 1st (& only) time Phillies win the World Series (in 98 years) (World Series #77)
1984 Steve Jones runs Chicago Marathon in world record 2:08:05
1987 Senate debate begins rejecting Robert Bork's Supreme Ct nomination
1988 Boston Celtics beat Yugoslavia 113-85 in Madrid
1988 Ferdinand & Imelda Marcos indicted on racketeering charges
1989 Buck Helm found alive after being buried 4 days, in SF earthquake
1989 Houston becomes 1st major college team to gain 1000 yards in a game
1989 1st black owners (Betram Lee & Peter Bynoe) to own a major sports team, purchasing Denver Nuggets for $65m
1991 24 die in a fire in Oakland Calif

Blackleaf
28 Oct 07,, 20:35
On this day (28th October) in 1216 - King Henry III is crowned King of England - aged just 9 years old. He was the first English monarch to be crowned as a child since the Norman Invasion of 1066. He was the youngest son of King John, the monarch who signed Magna Carta.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/Henry_III_of_England_-_Illustration_from_Cassell%27s_History_of_England_-_Century_Edition_-_published_circa_1902.jpg/250px-Henry_III_of_England_-_Illustration_from_Cassell%27s_History_of_England_-_Century_Edition_-_published_circa_1902.jpg
King Henry III of England reigned 18-19 October 1216 - 16 November 1272. He was crowned on 28th October 1216 in Gloucester.



Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" (King John) as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. Medieval English monarchs did not use numbers after their names, and his contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the Norman Conquest. Despite his long reign, his personal accomplishments were slim and he was a political and military failure. England, however, prospered during his century and his greatest monument is Westminster, which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor.

He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal, but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta[citation needed] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament" in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine.

Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle. He was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême.

After his father John’s death in 1216, Henry, who was nine at the time, was hastily crowned in Gloucester Cathedral; he was the first child monarch since the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Under John's rule, the barons were supporting an invasion by Prince Louis of France because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry's regents immediately declared their intention to rule by Magna Carta, which they proceeded to do during Henry’s minority. Magna Carta was reissued in 1217 as a sign of goodwill to the barons and the country was ruled by regents until 1227.
**************

Also on this day in 1664: King Charles II of England approves plans for a foot regiment to serve on ships. They became the world's first marines.

Blackleaf
01 Nov 07,, 20:49
On this day (1st November) in 1210: King John of England begins imprisoning the country's Jews. This follows years of anti-Jewish feelings in England and throughout Europe.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/3a/Lackland_smaller.JPG
King John of England, reigned 1199-1216.

John (24 December 1166 – 18/19 October 1216) reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199, until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known in later times as "Richard the Lionheart"). John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" (Sans Terre in French) for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France, and of "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude. He was a Plantagenet or Angevin king.
----------------------------------------------------


In 1144, Jews in the English town of Norwich, Norfolk, are accused of ritual murder after a boy (William of Norwich) is found dead with stab wounds.

William of Norwich (1132? – March 1144) was an English boy whose death was blamed on the Jewish community of Norwich in the first medieval example of blood libel against Jews. He was an apprentice tanner who regularly came into contact with Jews and visited their homes as part of his trade. Immediately after his death he was venerated as a martyr and was soon regarded as a local saint in Norwich after miracles were attributed to him.

A Jewish community is thought to have been established in Norwich by 1135, although a man called 'Isaac' is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Most lived in a Jewish quarter or Jewry, located in what is now the Haymarket and White Lion Street. This is very close to Norwich Castle, a pattern seen in other towns which may have been for reasons of security. The Norwich community subsequently became one of the most important in England.

Anti-Jewish sentiment erupted in 1144, with William's death. His body was found upon Mousehold Heath, an extensive woodland to the North-East of Norwich that still exists. It has been speculated he may in fact have died either from ingestion of poisonous fungi or died of some sort of fit, however the local people, with leadership of the clergy, accused the Jews of torturing and murdering him, in one of the earliest examples of the blood libel. Only the intervention of the local sheriff, representing the king, saved the Jews from the mob. A long aftermath of accusations continued, reinforcing anti-Jewish stereotypes.

In 1189, a Jewish deputation attending the coronation of King Richard the Lionheart (Richard I) of England is attacked by the crowd. Pogroms in London follow and spread around England.

On 6th February 1190 all the Norwich Jews found in their houses were slaughtered, except few who found refuge in the castle.

In 1190, the 150 Jews of the city of York in northern England took refuge in York castle from an angry mob. Nearly all of the 150 Jews were killed.....

In 1190 the wooden tower of York Castle was the last refuge of the 150 Jewish residents in York. Richard de Malbis (Richard Malebisse) was a debtor of Aaron of Lincoln, an influential Jewish banker of the late 12th century.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Cliffords_Tower_from_behind.jpg/300px-Cliffords_Tower_from_behind.jpg
York Castle, where 150 Jews took refuge from an angry mob in 1190


When a fire broke out in the city of York, de Malbis used the opportunity to incite a mob to attack the home of a recently deceased agent of Aaron of Lincoln named Benedict of York, killing his widow and children and burning the house. Joce (Joseph), the leader of the Jewish community of York, obtained the permission of the warden of York Castle to remove his wife and children and the rest of the Jews into the castle, where they probably took refuge in a tower that stood where Clifford's Tower now stands. The mob surrounded the castle, and when the warden left the castle the Jews, fearing the entry of the mob, would not readmit him. The warden appealed to the sheriff, who called out the county militia. The militia lay siege to the tower for several days till on 16 March 1190 the tower caught fire. Many Jews either perished in the flames or took their own lives rather give themselves up to the mob; those who did surrender were killed. In all around 150 Jews died.


A plaque on the hill on which the tower stands reads:

“ On the night of Friday 16 March 1190 some 150 Jewish people of York, having sought protection in the Royal Castle on this site from a mob incited by Richard Malebisse and others, chose to die at each other's hands rather than renounce their faith. „


The walls of the stone tower still stand, but the roof and central pillar are gone.The king's Chancellor dismissed the sheriff and constable for failing to prevent the massacre and imposed a heavy fine on York's citizens. However, the ringleaders had fled and could not be brought to justice.

ALSO ON THIS DAY IN:

1604 - William Shakespeare's tragedy Othello is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.

1611 - William Shakespeare's romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.

1683 - The British colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.

Blackleaf
11 Nov 07,, 20:55
On this day (11th November) in 1724, the British highwayman Joseph "Blueskin" Blake was hanged at Tyburn, in London. He was hanged for attacking the Thief-Taker (a forerunner to the police) Jonathan Wild by slashing his throat with a pocket-knife. But Wild was not only a Thief-Taker - but also a thief himself (very much a bent cop, but that was common in 18th Century Britain)! Blueskin was hanged five days before Jack Sheppard, the highwayman who was renowned throughout England for finding it annoyingly easy to escape from prison (he escaped fron Newgate four times)


Britain in the 1700s was notorious for its highwaymen - and also for its cruel and barbaric punishments. Even children could be hanged, and it was a capital offence to steal mundane items such as a loaf of bread, a hat or even lace. Even wandering the streets at night with your face painted black was a capital offence.

Tyburn was Britain's most notorious place of execution. It consisted of a tripod-shaped gallows with THREE horizontal beams to execute many felons at once. Around the gallows were stadium-like grandstands - as executions were a great family day out in those days. People had to pay to use the grandstands. Felons would spend the night in the notorious Newgate Gaol, and in the morning would be taken in the back of a horse-drawn cart (alongside their coffins) the three miles to Tyburn. People would line the streets shouting abuse at the felon (or praise if they saw him as a hero) and throwing rotten cabbages and dead cats at him. The cart would even stop at several pubs along the route to give the condemned a final drink of beer!

Anyway, the highwayman Blake was drawn to Tyburn along the traditional route, stopping at the Griffin tavern on Holborn for a stiff drink. In his drunkenness, he slurred his speech from the scaffold before he was hanged.

His body was laid out for a few days, and he was buried in the churchyard at St Andrew, Holborn. Sheppard was hanged 5 days after Blake, on Monday 16 November.
**********************


Joseph "Blueskin" Blake (baptised 31 October 1700 - 11 November 1724) was an 18th century English highwayman and felon.

Blake was the son of Nathaniel and Jane Blake. He was baptised at All-Hallows-the-Great in London. His parents had the means to send him to the parish school of St Giles-without-Cripplegate for about six years.

A school friend, William Blewitt, introduced him to the self-styled "Thief-Taker General" (and thief) Jonathan Wild in around 1714. He left school and became a professional thief. By the age of 17, he was earning his living as a pickpocket, working with Edward Pollitt (or Pawlett or Pollard), and had been nicknamed "Blueskin". The origin of his soubriquet is uncertain: it is probably due to his swarthy complexion, but possibly due to excessive facial hair or a port-wine birthmark, or perhaps a punning reference to his friend Blewitt.

By 1719, Blake was working with Irish highwayman James Carrick, and, by 1722, he was a member of a gang of street robbers led by Robert Wilkinson. Several of his colleagues were arrested that summer, and three were hanged in September. Blake escaped this time, perhaps due to influence deployed on his behalf by Wild, but he received a sabre cut to the head as he resisted his arrest by Wild in December 1722. He turned King's evidence against several former associates, including Blewitt. Three accomplices (John Levee, Richard Oakey and Matthew Flood) were hanged on the strength of Blake's testimony in February 1723. Blueskin expected to be released and to receive some of the reward money for securing the convictions, but he was confined in Wood Street Compter instead, under threat of transportation.

Eventually, Blake found sureties for his good behaviour, and was released in June 1724. He quickly joined forces with notorious thief and gaol-breaker Jack Sheppard. They burgled the house of William Kneebone (Sheppard's former apprentice master) on Sunday 12 July, stealing a quantity of cloth and some other trinkets, but this burglary was to prove their undoing. Having stored the goods near the horse ferry at Westminster, they approached one of Wild's fences, William Field, to sell the stolen goods. Word of the crime soon reached Wild, who was determined to punish Sheppard because he had refused to work for Wild. After a brief interlude as highwaymen on the Hampstead Road on Sunday 19 July and Monday 20 July, Sheppard was arrested at Blueskin's mother's brandy shop in Rosemary Lane (later renamed Royal Mint Street), east of the Tower of London, on 23 July by Wild's henchman, Quilt Arnold. He was detained in Newgate Prison pending trial, accused of the Kneebone robbery. Kneebone, Wild and Field gave evidence against Sheppard, and he was convicted of the burglary on 12 August.


Arrest

Meanwhile, Wild took against Blake, his former underling, probably due to his recent association with Sheppard. Blake was arrested by Wild, Arnold and Abraham Mendez Ceixes at his lodgings in St Giles on Friday 2 October 1724. Blueskin was tried on Thursday 15 October, with Field and Wild again due to give evidence. Outside the courtroom, Blake tried to persuade Wild to put in a good word for him, but Wild refused. Blake attacked Wild, slashing his throat with a pocket-knife. Wild was quickly attended by passing surgeons, and taken away. Blake's attack caused an uproar which spread to the adjacent prison, and the disturbance continued into the evening. Sheppard, having escaped from Newgate on 4 September and been recaptured five days later, used the distraction inside the prison to cover his fourth, and most audacious, escape.

Despite the altercation outside the court, Blake's trial went ahead in Wild's absence. Field's evidence was enough to ensure that Blake was convicted, although his account was not consistent with the evidence that he gave at Sheppard's trial. Blake was sentenced to be hanged, but showed no remorse for his crimes. He tried to escape from Newgate without success.

Meanwhile, Sheppard was recaptured for a final time on 1 November. On Wednesday 11 November 1724, the day after Sheppard's death sentence was confirmed, Blake was drawn to Tyburn along the traditional route, stopping at the Griffin tavern on Holborn for a stiff drink. In his drunkenness, he slurred his speech from the scaffold before he was hanged. His body was laid out for a few days, and he was buried in the churchyard at St Andrew, Holborn. Sheppard was hanged 5 days after Blake, on Monday 16 November.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/ca/Sheppard_Cruikshank.jpg
This engraving gives you an idea of what the tripod-shaped Tyburn gallows looked like.

There are no contemporary pictures of Blake but he is featured in the second image of "The Last Scene" engraved by George Cruikshank in 1839 to illustrate William Harrison Ainsworth's serialised novel, Jack Sheppard. The caption reads: "Blueskin cutting down Jack Sheppard". In reality Blueskin was already dead by the time of Sheppard's execution.


wikipedia.org

Blackleaf
15 Nov 07,, 20:48
On this day (15th November) in 655, King Penda of the kingdom of Mercia is defeated by King Oswiu of the kingdom of Bernicia in the Battle of Winwaed.

At the time, what is now England was actually several, independent Germanic kingdoms, each with their own king or queen and royal family, and these kingdoms often waged war with each other. Bernicia was where England's northeast is now, and Mercia covered a huge chunk of what is now central England. The most powerful was the kingdom of Wessex, in what is now southwest England.

Sometime in the 800s these Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were unified together by King Alfred (king of Wessex) who became the first king of all England and is known today by the English as the Father of England.

BATTLE OF WINWAED, 655AD

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Penda_of_Mercia.jpg/330px-Penda_of_Mercia.jpg
Stained glass window from the cloister of Worcester Cathedral showing the death of Penda of Mercia.


Although said to be the most important battle between the northern and southern divisions of the Anglo-Saxons in early Britain, few details are available. For instance, the two armies met on the banks of a river named the Winwaed, but this river has never been identified. Possibly it was a tributary of the Humber. There is good reason to believe it may have been the river now known as Co ck Beck in the ancient kingdom of Elmet, which winds its way through Pendas Fields, Leeds, before joining the River Wharfe (which eventually feeds into the Humber). Another possibility is the River Went (a tributary of the River Don, situated to the north of modern-day Doncaster).

The roots of the battle lay in Penda's success in dominating England through a number of military victories, most significantly over the previously dominant Northumbrians. In alliance with Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd he had defeated and killed Edwin of Northumbria at Hatfield Chase in 633, and subsequently he defeated and killed Oswald of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield in 642. Maserfield effectively marked the overthrow of Northumbrian supremacy, and in the years that followed the Mercians apparently campaigned into Bernicia, besieging Bamburgh at one point; the Northumbrian sub-kingdom of Deira supported Penda during his 655 invasion.

Battle

Penda, after gathering allies from East Anglia and Wales, marched with a force "thirty legions strong". Oswiu, who was Oswald's brother but had only succeeded him in Bernicia, the northern part of Northumbria, was besieged by them at a place called Iudeu (identified with Stirling) in the north of his kingdom by Penda. Apparently Oswiu was desperate enough to offer a great deal of treasure to Penda in exchange for peace. Although the sources are unclear, it is likely that some sort of agreement was reached at Iudeu: although Bede says that Oswiu's offers of treasure were rejected by Penda, who Bede says was determined to destroy Oswiu's people "from the highest to the lowest", he does mention that Oswiu's young son Ecgfrith was being held hostage by the Mercians, perhaps as part of a deal. The Historia Brittonum contradicts Bede regarding the treasure, saying that Penda distributed it among his British allies, which would presumably mean that he accepted it. The recorded events may be interpreted to mean that Penda and his army then began marching home, but for some reason the two armies met and fought at a place called the River Winwaed, which may be identified with the River Went (a tributary of the River Don, situated to the north of modern-day Doncaster) — this could mean that Oswiu pursued the Mercians and their allies and took advantage of a vulnerability on Penda's part; Breeze (2004) argues that Penda and his army were in a difficult strategic location along the Went during their withdrawal, giving Oswiu a good opportunity to attack. It is almost certain that the Northumbrians were considerably outnumbered by the Mercians and their allies. According to Bede, before the battle Oswiu prayed to God and promised to make his daughter a nun and grant twelve estates for the construction of monasteries if he was victorious.

Penda's army was apparently weakened by desertions. According to the Historia Brittonum, Penda's ally Cadafael ap Cynfeddw of Gwynedd (thereafter remembered as "Cadomedd" (="battle-shirker") abandoned him, along with his army, and Bede says that Aethelwald of Deira withdrew from the battle to await the outcome from a place of safety. Penda was soundly defeated, and both he and the East Anglian King Aethelhere were killed. The battle was fought by the river in the midst of heavy rains, and Bede says that "many more were drowned in the flight than destroyed by the sword". Bede mentions that Penda's head was cut off. Writing in the 12th century, Henry of Huntingdon emphasized that Penda, in dying violently on the battlefield, was suffering the same fate he had inflicted on others during his aggressive reign.


Aftermath

The battle had a substantial effect on the relative positions of Northumbria and Mercia. Mercia's position of dominance, established after the battle of Maserfield, was destroyed, and Northumbrian dominance was restored; Mercia itself was divided, with the northern part being taken by Oswiu outright and the southern part going to Penda's Christian son Peada, who had married into the Bernician royal line (although Peada survived only until his murder in 656). Northumbrian authority over Mercia was overthrown within a few years, however.

Significantly, the battle marked the effective demise of Anglo-Saxon Paganism. Penda had continued in his Paganism despite the widespread conversions of Anglo-Saxon monarchs to Christianity, and a number of Christian kings had suffered death in defeat against him; after Penda's death, Mercia was converted, and all the kings who ruled thereafter (including Penda's sons Peada, Wulfhere and Æthelred) were Christian.

wikipedia.org

Blackleaf
22 Nov 07,, 20:56
On this day (22nd November) in 1718, British pirate Blackbeard (real name Edward Teach), was killed off the coast of North Carolina, then a British colony, during an engagement with the Royal Navy who often patrolled the area on the lookout for pirates. Most pirates in the world in the eighteenth century were British. This was probably due to the fact that Britain probably had more ships than any other nation (in both the Royal Navy and merchant navy) and that the captains, and many of the crew, of British merchant ships and Royal Navy ships were notoriously harsh, violent madmen and combined with the awful conditions on board many British ships they eventially became pirates. As Simon Newman of Glasgow University has said:

"it seems likely that the huge size and terrible working conditions of Britain's merchant and royal navies meant that those who served on British ships were not only more numerous but also far more likely to experience the harsh discipline of the world's largest and most efficient system for the transportation of raw materials and manufactured goods. It is more than coincidence that the most advanced mercantile capitalist nation on earth (Britain) produced the majority of early-eighteenth-century pirates, and that most pirates who renounced nationality were rejecting Britain."

Anyway, Edward Teach was certainly a terrifying sight to behold. During battle, he often tried to frighten the enemy by lighting matches that were woven into his beard. Many people the world over actually thought he was the Devil.

Teach was also incredibly tough. On the day of his death, 22nd November 1718, whilst fighting the Royal Navy, Teach was reportedly shot five times and stabbed more than twenty times before he eventually died and was decapitated.

Legends about his death immediately sprang up, including the oft-repeated claim that Teach's headless body, after being thrown overboard, swam between 2 and 7 times around the Adventure before sinking.

His severed head was attached to the bowsprit of the British warship by Captain Maynard. This was a trophy so that Maynard could collect his prize money once he returned to Britain. After the sheer terror of the battle with the pirates, and the wounds that the crew received, Maynard still only acquired his meager prize of £100 from Spotswood. Later, Teach's head hung from a pike in Bath in south western England.
*********************

Edward Teach (c. 1680 – November 22, 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious British pirate in the Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic during the early 18th century, a period referred to as the Golden Age of Piracy. His best known vessel was the Queen Anne's Revenge, which is believed to have run aground near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina in 1718.

Blackbeard often fought, or simply showed himself, wearing a big feathered tricorn, and having multiple swords, knives, and pistols at his disposal. It was reported in the General History of the Pirates that he had hemp and lighted matches woven into his enormous black beard during battle. Accounts of people who saw him fighting say that they thought he "looked like the devil" with his fearsome face and the smoke cloud around his head. This image, which he cultivated, has made him the premier image of the seafaring pirate.

Blackbeard's real name is thought to be Edward Teach. Nevertheless, he is referred to in some documents as Edward Thatch or even Edward Drummond.

He is thought to have been born in Bristol. Teach went to sea at an early age. He served on a British ship in the War of the Spanish Succession, privateering in the Spanish West Indies and along the Spanish Main. After Britain withdrew from the war in 1713, Teach, like many other British privateers, turned to piracy.

According to Charles Johnson, Blackbeard fought a running duel with the British thirty-gun man-of-war HMS Scarborough, which added to his notoriety. However, historian David Cordingly has noted that the Scarborough's log has no mention of any such battle.

Blackbeard would plunder merchant ships, forcing them to allow his crew to board their ship. The pirates would seize all of the valuables, food, liquor, and weapons. Ironically, despite his ferocious reputation, there are no verified accounts of him actually killing anyone. He generally prevailed by fear alone.

However, colourful legends and vivid contemporary newspaper portrayals had him committing acts of cruelty and terror. One tale claims he shot his own first mate, saying "if he didn’t shoot one or two [crewmen] now and then, they’d forget who he was." Another legend is that having had too much to drink, he said to his crew, "Come, let us make a hell of our own, and try how long we can bear it."

Going into the ship's hold, they closed the hatches, filled several pots with brimstone and set it on fire. Soon the men were coughing and gasping for air from the sulphurous fumes. All except Blackbeard scrambled out for fresh air. When Blackbeard emerged, he snarled, "Damn ye, ye yellow-bellied sapsuckers! I'm a better man than all ye milksops put together!"

According to Captain Charles Johnson's A General History of the Robberies & Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates:


"Before he sailed upon his adventures, he married a young creature of about sixteen years of age . . . and this I have been informed, made Teach's fourteenth wife . . . with whom after he had lain all night, it was his custom to invite five or six of his brutal companions to come ashore, and he would force her to prostitute herself to them all, one after another, before his face."

Blackbeard's death

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Blackbeard_head_bow.gif/200px-Blackbeard_head_bow.gif
Blackbeard's severed head hanging from Maynard's bowsprit



Blackbeard operated in coastal waters; it was difficult for ships of the line to engage him in battle. As such, two smaller hired sloops were therefore put under the command of Lieutenant Robert Maynard, with instructions from Spotswood to hunt down and destroy Blackbeard, offering a reward of £100, and smaller sums for the lesser crew members. Maynard sailed from James River on November 11, 1718, in command of thirty men from HMS Pearl, and twenty-five men and a midshipman of HMS Lyme, and in command of the hired sloops, the Ranger and Jane (temporarily commissioned as His Majesty's Ships to avoid accusations of piracy themselves). Maynard found the pirates anchored in a North Carolina inlet on the inner side of Ocracoke Island, on the evening of November 21. Maynard and his men decided to wait until the following morning because the tide would be more favourable. Blackbeard's Adventure had a crew of only nineteen, "Thirteen white and six Negroes", as reported to the Admiralty. A small boat was sent ahead at daybreak, was fired upon, and quickly retreated. Blackbeard's superior knowledge of the inlet was of much help, although he and his crew had been drinking in his cabin the night prior. Throughout the night Blackbeard waited for Maynard to make his move. Blackbeard cut his anchor cable and quickly attempted to move towards a narrow channel. Maynard made chase; however his sloops ran aground, and there was a shouted exchange between captains. Maynard's account says, "At our first salutation, he drank Damnation to me and my Men, whom he stil'd Cowardly Puppies, saying, He would neither give nor take Quarter", although many different versions of the dialogue exist. Eventually, Maynard's sloops were able to float freely again, and he began to row towards Blackbeard, since the wind was not strong enough at the time for setting sail. When they came upon Blackbeard's Adventure, they were hit with a devastating broadside attack. Midshipman Hyde, captain of the smaller HMS Jane, was killed along with six other men. Ten men were also wounded in the surprise attack. The sloop fell astern and was little help in the following action. Maynard continued his pursuit in HMS Ranger, managing to blast the Adventure's rigging, forcing it ashore. Maynard ordered many of his crew into the holds and readied to be boarded. As his ship approached, Blackbeard saw the mostly empty decks, assumed it was safe to board, and did so with ten men.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Blackbeard_battle_colour.jpg
Blackbeard and Royal Navy captain Maynard do battle


Maynard's men emerged, and the battle began. The most complete account of the following events comes from the Boston News-Letter


“ Maynard and Teach themselves begun the fight with their swords, Maynard making a thrust, the point of his sword against Teach's cartridge box, and bent it to the hilt. Teach broke the guard of it, and wounded Maynard's fingers but did not disable him, whereupon he jumped back and threw away his sword and fired his pistol which wounded Teach. Demelt struck in between them with his sword and cut Teach's face pretty much; in the interim both companies engaged in Maynard's sloop. Later during the battle, while Teach was loading his pistol he finally died from blood loss. Maynard then cut off his head and hung it from his bow. ”

Despite the best efforts of the pirates (including a desperate plan to blow up the Adventure), Teach was killed, and the battle ended. Teach was reportedly shot five times and stabbed more than twenty times before he died and was decapitated. Legends about his death immediately sprang up, including the oft-repeated claim that Teach's headless body, after being thrown overboard, swam between 2 and 7 times around the Adventure before sinking. Teach's head was placed as a trophy on the bowsprit of the ship (it was also required by Maynard to claim his prize when he returned home). After the sheer terror of the battle with the pirates, and the wounds that the crew received, Maynard still only acquired his meager prize of £100 from Spotswood. Later, Teach's head hung from a pike in Bath.

wikipedia.org


Also on this day in:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Charlesgrey2.jpg/180px-Charlesgrey2.jpg

1830: Charles Grey (2nd Earl Grey) becomes British Prime Minister. Earl Grey Tea is named after him.

1864 - American Civil War: Sherman's March to the Sea: Confederate General John Bell Hood invaded Tennessee in an unsuccessful attempt to draw Union General William T. Sherman from Georgia.

1880 - Vaudeville actress Lillian Russell made her debut at Tony Pastor's Theatre in New York City.

1917 - In Montreal, Canada, the National Hockey Association broke up (on November 26 it was replaced with the National Hockey League).

Blackleaf
25 Nov 07,, 20:50
On this day (25th November) in 1120, the White Ship sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast, killing William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England. This disaster led to a period of Civil War in England known as The Anarchy.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/WhiteShipSinking.jpg
The White Ship sinking, 1120

The White Ship, a twelfth-century vessel, sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur, on November 25, 1120. Those drowned included William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England.

William of Malmesbury (a 12th Century English historian) wrote:

"Here also perished with William, Richard, another of the King's [Henry I] sons, whom a woman of no rank had borne him, before his accession, a brave youth, and dear to his father from his obedience; Richard d'Avranches, second Earl of Chester, and his brother Otheur; Geoffrey Ridel; Walter of Everci; Geoffrey, archdeacon of Hereford; [Matilda] the Countess of Perche, the king's daughter; the Countess of Chester; the king's niece Lucia-Mahaut of Blois; and many others..." Only one of those aboard survived. "No ship ever brought so much misery to England," wrote William of Malmesbury.

Shipwreck

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Henry1.jpg/200px-Henry1.jpg
The son of England's King Henry I (reigned 1100-1135) died in the sinking

The White Ship was a new ship owned by Thomas FitzStephen, whose father Stephen had been sea captain for William the Conqueror when he invaded England in 1066. He offered to let Henry I of England use it to return to England from Barfleur. Henry had already made travelling arrangements, but suggested that his son William Adelin travel on it instead.

But when the White Ship set off in the dark, its port side struck a submerged rock (this rock can still be seen from the cliffs of Barfleur), and the ship quickly capsized. The only survivor was a butcher from Rouen. He was wearing thick ramskins that saved him from exposure, and was picked up by fishermen the next morning.

In his account of the disaster, chronicler Orderic Vitalis claimed that when Thomas FitzStephen came to the surface after the sinking and learned that William Adelin had not survived, he let himself drown rather than face the King. The accuracy of this account is debatable — it describes a full moon, but sky tables show that the moon was actually new that night, although this issue is further complicated by the need to convert modern sky tables based upon the Gregorian Calendar to the Julian Calendar in use during the twelfth Century.

The cause of the shipwreck remains unclear. Various stories surrounding its loss feature a drinking binge by the crew and passengers (it is also suggested that the captain was dared to try and overtake the King's ship ahead of them), and mention that priests were not allowed on board to bless the ship in the customary manner. However, the Channel has often proven a notoriously treacherous stretch of water.


Repercussions

Stephen of Blois, King Henry I's nephew by his sister Adela, had allegedly disembarked just before the ship sailed. Orderic Vitalis attributes this to a sudden bout of diarrhoea. If true, it is a cruel twist of fate, since, as a direct result of William's death, Stephen later usurped the English throne, resulting in the period of Civil War in England known as the Anarchy.

The death of William Adelin in this shipwreck led to the chaos following the death of King Henry I. The English Barons were reluctant to accept Matilda as Queen Regnant, leading Stephen to usurp the throne. Even in the sixteenth century, the example of that time contributed to Henry VIII's many marriages in the search for a male heir.

"The White Ship was the Titanic of the Middle Ages, a much-vaunted high-tech vessel on its maiden voyage, wrecked against a foreseeable natural obstacle in the reckless pursuit of speed," Robert Lacey has observed.


ALSO ON THIS DAY:

1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scotland, dies (the Scottish and English/Welsh Crowns didn't unify until 1603). Donnchad, the son of his second daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherits the throne.

1177 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.

1491 - The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins.

1542 - Battle of Solway Moss. The English army defeats the Scots.

1667 - A deadly earthquake rocks Shemakha, Caucasia, killing 80,000 people.

1703 - The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest storm ever recorded in Britain, reaches its peak intensity and maintains it through November 27. Winds gust up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people perish in the mighty gale.

1758 - French and Indian War: British forces capture Fort Duquesne from French control. The British rename the town after new British Prime Minister William Pitt: Pittsburgh

wikipedia.org

Blackleaf
16 Dec 07,, 19:53
On this day (16th December) in 1653, Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord High Protector of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. The years 1649-1660 were an unusual period in British history - England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland were republics, after King Charles I was beheaded in 1649 follwing the Roundheads' (Parliament's) victory over the cavaliers (Royalists) in the English Civil War. When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard became Lord Protector, but his reign lasted until 1660 when the Monarchy was restored and Charles II became King. The British Republic was a dictatorship in all but name, with theatres, football, gambling and working on Sundays banned under the Puritan regime. Even Christmas and Easter were banned.

So when the Monarchy was brought back in 1660, there was much rejoicing and Charles II was a hero.

To get his revenge on the killers of his father, Charles II ordered Oliver Cromwell's decomposed corpse to be dug up and beheaded as part of a posthumous execution.

Britain has been a Monarchy ever since, thankfully. With such bad memories of the time when England was a Republic, it's no wonder that the British are overwhemingly Royalist today.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Cooper%2C_Oliver_Cromwell.jpg/262px-Cooper%2C_Oliver_Cromwell.jpg
Oliver Cromwell was the leader of the English Republic from 1653-1658. His son took over until 1660 when England became a Monarchy again

http://www.casahistoria.net/commonwealth%20flag.gif
The Flag of the Republic

The English Interregnum (Republic) was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. It began with the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and ended with the restoration of Charles II in 1660.

This era in English history can be divided into four periods.

The first period of the Commonwealth of England from 1649 until 1653
The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell from 1653 to 1658
The Protectorate under Richard Cromwell from 1658 to 1659
The second period of the Commonwealth of England from 1659 until 1660


Life during the Interregnum

After the Parliamentarian victory in the Civil War, the Puritan views of the majority of Parliament and its supporters began to be imposed on the rest of the country. The Puritans advocated an austere lifestyle and restricted what they saw as the excesses of the previous regime. Most prominently, holidays such as Christmas and Easter, which were thought to have pagan origins, were suppressed. Pastimes such as the theatre and gambling were also banned. However, some forms of art that were thought to be 'virtuous', such as opera, were encouraged. These changes are often blamed upon Oliver Cromwell, though they were originally introduced by the Commonwealth Parliament; and Cromwell, when he came to power, was a liberalising influence.

His son and successor, Richard Cromwell, gave up his position as Lord Protector with little hesitation, resigning or "abdicating" after a demand by the Rump Parliament. This was the beginning of a short period of restoration of the Commonwealth of England.


Jews in England

Rabbi Menasseh ben Israel met Oliver Cromwell concerning the admission of Jews into England in 1655.[2] Cromwell did not agree to all the rights that ben Israel requested, but the opening of Jewish synagogues and burial grounds was tolerated under Cromwell's Protectorate. The practice of the Jewish faith in England was still not done openly, since Cromwell's move had been controversial and many in England were still hostile toward the Jews. Life for the Jews in England improved in that they could no longer be prosecuted if caught worshipping, but discrimination continued.


Ireland

Life for both Irish and English Catholics in Ireland became increasingly difficult under Cromwell's rule, and Cromwell remains a despised figure in Ireland to this day.

Cromwell's sweeping campaign in Ireland began in August 1649. He left in May 1650, but the campaign continued until 1653. Its effects devastated Ireland's Catholic population, roughly one-third of whom were killed or exiled by the war. Famine and plague were the biggest killers, produced in large part from the scorched earth tactics used by Parliamentary forces. Some Irish prisoners of war were sold as indentured labourers in the West Indies. The Catholic landowning class was dispossessed en masse. Thousands of New Model Army soldiers and the Parliament's creditors were settled on confiscated Irish lands. Those Catholic landowners deemed innocent of rebellion against the Parliament but who had not shown "constant good affection" still had their land confiscated and were forced to re-locate to Connacht, where the soil was poorer. See also Plantations of Ireland and Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652.

The practice of Catholicism was banned and many of the soldier/settlers set up dissenting religious communities, such as Quakers or Baptists, under the protection of the Parliamentary forces. The Scottish Presbyterian community was also disadvantaged by the Interregnum regime, as most of them had taken the Solemn League and Covenant and had fought with the Scots against the Parliament in the Third English Civil War (1649-50). Charles Fleetwood the parliamentary commander in Ireland from 1652-1655 was viewed as being hostile to Catholics, Presbyterians, and the pre-war English Protestant settlers at the expense of the radical new settlers. Henry Cromwell, who replaced Fleetwood in 1655, was seen as a more conservative influence, conciliating the "Old Protestant" landed class and allowing the harshest legislation against Catholics (such as a ban on their living in towns) to lapse. Towards the end of the Interregnum, Parliamentarian generals Charles Coote and Richard Boyle (who were also pre-war English settlers) seized the strong points in Ireland in preparation for the Restoration of the monarchy.


ALSO ON THIS DAY:

1773 - American Revolution: Boston Tea Party - Members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks dump crates of tea into Boston harbor as a protest against the Tea Act.

wikipedia.org

Blackleaf
30 Dec 07,, 19:57
On this day (30th December) in 1460, the Battle of Wakefield, part of the Wars of the Roses, takes place. The Wars of the Roses were a series of battles - a civil war - that took place in England between the two main houses of the Plantagenet Royal Dynasty - the Lancastrians and the Yorkists.

The Battle of Wakefield, which took place in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, was a decisive Lancastrian victory.

After the battle the heads of the Yorkist leaders in the battle - the Duke of York, Duke of Rutland and Duke of Salisbury - were stuck on poles and displayed in York at Micklegate Bar, the Duke wearing a paper crown and a sign saying "Let York overlook the town of York".


The children's nursery rhyme, "Grand Old Duke of York", may have been derived from this battle.


The Battle of Wakefield took place at Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, on December 30, 1460, and was one of the major actions of the Wars of the Roses. The opposing factions were a royal army, nominally commanded by Margaret of Anjou, and the supporters of Richard, Duke of York, rival claimant to the throne. York's forces were destroyed and he himself was killed in the battle.



Background to the Wars of the Roses

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Roses-Lancaster_victory.svg/300px-Roses-Lancaster_victory.svg.png
The Yorkist symbol was the White Rose, and the Lancastrian symbol was the Red Rose: Hence the name of the war - the Wars of the Roses

The House of Lancaster had established itself on the throne of England in 1399, when Henry Bolingbroke had deposed his cousin, the unpopular King Richard II. There had always been doubts over the legitimacy of their claim to rule. Bolingbroke's grandson, Henry VI of England, who became King as an infant, proved as he grew up to be an ineffective King, and prone to spells of mental illness. Many nobles rallied behind the Duke of York, who many felt had a better claim, and was respected as an administrator. But in 1460, when his supporters captured the feeble-witted Henry at the Battle of Northampton and he attempted to claim the throne, nobody was prepared to support such a drastic step.

Instead, York succeeded in obtaining a promise from Parliament that, on Henry's death, the crown would pass to him and his heirs (The Act of Accord). Henry's Queen Margaret was unwilling to accept this promise, which had been obtained by force, and was determined to protect the inheritance of her only son, Edward, Prince of Wales, then aged about six. She began gathering a large force in the north, obviously preparing to challenge York openly.


Battle

To disperse this threat, York took his retainers north. He was accompanied by his second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and his brother in law, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury. His army occupied Sandal Castle, near Wakefield. Margaret's army advanced to offer battle. It is very unlikely that Margaret was actually on the field of battle and she was more likely to have been in Scotland at the time. The Duke of Somerset and the Earl of Northumberland are much more likely to have led the Lancastrian forces. Lord Ros also probably led a contingent.

Many people are familiar with William Shakespeare's melodramatic version of events, notably the murder of York's second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland. In reality nothing can be quite certain of what transpired, although it is known that York accepted battle in the open, rather than remaining behind the walls of Sandal Castle. The actual date of the battle is not known for sure, nor is the exact location of the battlefield itself, although the most likely site is the area to the north of Sandal Castle known as Wakefield Green, now largely developed. The monument erected on the spot where the Duke of York perished is positioned slightly south of the more likely spot where an older monument once stood, but which was destroyed during the English Civil War.

In Shakespeare's play Henry VI Part 3, Act 1, York's son Edmund is depicted as a small child, and following his unnecessary slaughter by Lord Clifford, Margaret torments his father, York, before murdering him also. In fact, the Duke of York was killed during the battle, and Rutland, at seventeen, was more than old enough to be an active participant in the fighting. Salisbury was also captured, and executed after the battle.

York's defeat was probably the result of his own over-confidence, as he apparently refused to wait for reinforcements to arrive before sallying from Sandal Castle to meet the Lancastrians, although it is also likely that the Duke was tricked by John Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby, riding under false colours, into thinking his own force was greater than it actually was.


Aftermath

After the battle the heads of the Duke of York, Rutland and Salisbury were stuck on poles and displayed in York at Micklegate Bar, the Duke wearing a paper crown and a sign saying "Let York overlook the town of York".

York's death left his eldest son, Edward, as the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Salisbury's son, the Earl of Warwick, Edward's close ally, also became the wealthiest and most influential landholder in England. Edward, though young, would prove an outstanding battle commander and a consummate politician, and would eventually reign as King Edward IV of England.

The battle is said by some to be the source for the mocking nursery rhyme, The Grand Old Duke of York, and the mnemonic for remembering the traditional colours of the rainbow, Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain.

Blackleaf
17 Jan 08,, 20:08
On this day (17th January) in 1670, French-born British highwayman Claude Duval is found guilty, in London, of six robberies and sentenced to death. He was hanged at London's infamous "Triple Tree" gallows at Tyburn four days later after being imprisoned in the horrific Newgate Gaol.

As was custom at the time for Newgate's condemned, who had to ride in horse-drawn carts alongside their coffins through London's streets on the three mile journey to Tyburn, Duval was allowed to have a quick drink of ale at a pub on his journey to the gallows. This was the Swann Inn on Bayswater Road.

After his body was cut down from the gallows, it was gruesomely exhibited at the Tangier Inn where it drew large crowds, until it was taken to St Paul's churchyard, Covent Garden, where it was buried.

Duval's ghost is today supposed to haunt the very tavern in which he was arrested - the Hole-in-the-Wall, Chandos Street, London.

http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/images/cduval_dance.jpg
Claude Duval
(1643-1670)
Born: 1643 at Domfront,
Normandy, France
Highwayman
Died: 21st January 1670
at Tyburn, Middlesex

Claude Duval (or Du Vall) was born of poor parents at Domfront, Normandy, in 1643. A report which was current during his lifetime, that he was the son of a cook in Smock Alley, Without Bishopsgate, is sufficiently discredited. At the age of fourteen, he was sent to Paris, where he remained in service till the Restoration, when he came to England in attendance on the Duke of Richmond. He rented a house in Wokingham and it was not long before he joined the ranks of the highwaymen, in which capacity he became notorious throughout the land, his fame resting hardly less on his gallantry to ladies than on his daring robberies. It is related, for instance, among many similar exploits, that, on one occasion, he stopped a coach in which a gentleman and his wife were travelling with £400 in cash. The lady, with great presence of mind, began to play on a flageolet, whereupon she was asked, by Duval, to dance with him on the roadside turf. His request was granted and a coranto solemnly executed, the husband looking on. The latter was then asked to pay for his entertainment and Duval, taking £100 only, allowed the coach to proceed on its way. This episode is variously said to have occurred on Hounslow Heath (Middlesex) or Bagshot Heath at Swinley (Berkshire). His gallantry notwithstanding, the name of Duval soon became a terror to travellers and large rewards were offered for his capture. So hot was the pursuit that Duval was compelled to flee to France; but after a few months' time, he returned and, shortly afterwards, was taken, while drunk, from the Hole-in-the-Wall, Chandos Street (London). On 17th January 1670, he was arraigned at the Old Bailey and, being found guilty on six indictments out of a much greater number - which could have been proved if necessary, was condemned to death. Many great ladies are said to have interceded for his life, but the King, on Duval's capture, had expressly excluded him from all hope of pardon; and on the Friday following (21st January), he was executed at Tyburn. His body was cut down and laid in state at the Tangier Tavern, St. Giles' where it was visited by great crowds of all ranks, amid such unseemly demonstrations that the exhibition was stopped by a judge's order. Duval was buried in the centre aisle of Covent Garden Church, under a stone inscribed with an epitaph beginning:

Here lies DuVall: Reder, if male thou art,
Look to thy purse; if female, to thy heart.
Much havoc has he made of both; for all
Men he made to stand, and women he made to fall
The second Conqueror of the Norman race,
Knights to his arm did yield, and ladies to his face.
Old Tyburn’s glory; England’s illustrious Thief,
Du Vall, the ladies’ joy; Du Vall, the ladies’ grief

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d8/Tyburn_tree.jpg
The three-beamed gallows at Tyburn hanged thousands of felons from the 12th century to 1783

The only full account of the life and adventures of Duval is the 'Memoirs of Du Vail: containing the History of his Life and Death', published immediately after his execution and ascribed to the pen of William Pope. This pamphlet was copied, almost literally, by Alexander Smith in his 'Lives of the Highwaymen' and is also reproduced in ' Celebrated Trials' (Volume 2); but some of the incidents narrated in it, especially those dealing with Duval's relations with ladies of rank, appear unworthy of credence - a view which is to some extent borne out by the author's declaration on the title-page, that his work was "intended as a severe reflection on the too great fondness of English ladies for French footmen; which at that time of day was a too common complaint." The tradition, however, that Duval was particularly successful in winning the favour of women is supported by Titus Oates, who sneers at the "divers great personages of the feminine sex that on their knees made supplication for that insipid highwayman," adding, "it is true, he was a man of singular parts and learning, only he could neither read nor write." The same characteristic of Duval is also dwelt on at length by Samuel Butler in the satiric glorification of the highwayman which he called a Pindaric Ode "To the Happy Memory of the Most Renowned Du-Val."

A 2005 Travel Channel Haunted Hotels documentary on hauntings claims that Claude Duval's ghost presently haunts the tavern wherein he was arrested before being condemned to death.


Berkshire History: Biographies: Claude Duval (1643-1670) (http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/cduval.html)

Blackleaf
20 Jan 08,, 20:31
On this day (20th January) in 1649, King Charles I of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland was put on trial for treason, during the English Civil War. The Civil War was fought between the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and the Royalists (Cavaliers) and was a Parliamentarian victory - thus the subsequent beheading of Charles I and England becoming a Republic.

Charles I was beheaded outside the Banqueting Hall of Whitehall Palace in London on 30th January 1649. Because, in those days, the New Year actually started in March and not January, some people say he was beheaded in 1648.

At the exact moment of his beheading, a moan was heard throughout the watching crowd, and many people dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood.

His last words were, "I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Carolus_I.jpg
King Charles I of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland - reigned 1625-1649

Trial

Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and there after to Windsor Castle. In January 1649, in response to Charles's defiance of Parliament even after defeat, and his encouraging the second Civil War while in captivity, the House of Commons passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial. After the first Civil War, the parliamentarians still accepted the premise that the King, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, and that he would still be entitled to limited powers as King under a new constitutional settlement. It was now felt that by provoking the second Civil War even while defeated and in captivity, Charles showed himself incorrigible, dishonourable, and responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed.

The idea of trying a king was a novel one; previous monarchs had been deposed, but had never been brought to trial as monarchs. The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 Commissioners (all firm Parliamentarians); the prosecution was led by Solicitor General John Cook.

His trial on charges of high treason and "other high crimes" began on 20 January 1649, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch. He believed that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God when he was crowned and anointed, and that the power wielded by those trying him was simply that which grew out of a barrel of gunpowder. The court, by contrast, proposed that no man is above the law. Over a period of a week, when Charles was asked to plead three times, he refused. It was then normal practice to take a refusal to plead as pro confesso: an admission of guilt, which meant that the prosecution could not call witnesses to its case. However, the trial did hear witnesses. Fifty-nine of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant, on 29 January 1649. After the ruling, he was led from St. James's Palace, where he was confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House.


Execution

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Contemporary_German_print_depicting_Charles_I%27s_ beheading.jpg
King Charles I's execution, January 1649 (notice the blood squirting from the decacipated king's neck). England then became a republic, from 1649 to 1660.

Charles was beheaded on 30 January 1649, though at the time the new year did not occur until March, so his death is often recorded as occurring in year 1648. At the execution it is reputed that he wore a heavy cotton shirt as to prevent the cold January weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness. He put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. His last words were, "I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."

Philip Henry records that moments after the execution, a moan was heard from the assembled crowd, some of whom then dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood, thus starting the cult of the Martyr King. However no other eyewitness source including Samuel Pepys records this. Henry's account was written during the Restoration, some 12 years after the event. Henry was 19 when the King was executed and he and his family were Royalist propaganda writers.

There is some debate over the identity of the man who beheaded the King, who was masked at the scene. It is known that the Commissioners approached Richard Brandon, the common Hangman of London, but that he refused, and contemporary sources do not generally identify him as the King's headsman. Ellis's Historical Inquiries, however, names him as the executioner, contending that he stated so before dying. It is possible he relented and agreed to undertake the commission, but there are others who have been identified. An Irishman named Gunning is widely believed to have beheaded Charles, and a plaque naming him as the executioner is on show in Galway, Ireland. William Hewlett was convicted of regicide after the Restoration.[11] In 1661, two people identified as "Dayborne and Bickerstaffe" were arrested but then discharged. Henry Walker, a revolutionary journalist, or his brother William, were suspected but never charged. Various local legends around England name local worthies. An examination performed in 1813 at Windsor suggests that the execution was done by an experienced headsman.

It was common practice for the head of a traitor to be held up and exhibited to the crowd with the words "Behold the head of a traitor!"; although Charles's head was exhibited, the words were not used. In an unprecedented gesture, one of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwell, allowed the King's head to be sewn back on his body so the family could pay its respects. Charles was buried in private and at night on 7 February 1649, in the Henry VIII vault inside St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. The King's son, King Charles II, later planned an elaborate royal mausoleum, but it was never built.

Ten days after Charles's execution, a memoir purporting to be from Charles's hand appeared for sale. This book, the Eikon Basilike (Greek: the "Royal Portrait"), contained an apologia for royal policies, and proved an effective piece of royalist propaganda. William Levett, Charles's groom of the bedchamber, who had accompanied Charles on the day of his execution, would later swear in a statement that he had witnessed the King writing the Eikon Basilike. John Cooke published the speech he would have delivered if Charles had entered a plea, while Parliament commissioned John Milton to write a rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes ("The Iconoclast"), but the response made little headway against the pathos of the royalist book.

Various prodigies were recorded in the contemporary popular press in relation to the execution - a beached whale at Dover died within an hour of the King; a falling star appeared that night over Whitehall; a man who had said that the King deserved to die had his eyes pecked out by crows.

wikipedia.org

Parihaka
20 Jan 08,, 20:55
Love what you're doing with this thread Blackleaf:)

astralis
20 Jan 08,, 22:10
i love the pictures. :biggrin:

Blackleaf
31 Jan 08,, 20:31
On this day (31st January) in 1606, Catholic terrorist Guy Fawkes and some of his henchmen were hanged, drawn and quartered for plotting to blow up the Houses of Parliament and King James I.

Fawkes, however, managed to avoid the worst of this execution by jumping from the scaffold where he was supposed to be hanged, breaking his neck before he could be drawn and quartered

The story of the Gunpowder Plot

The status of Catholics

In 1602, as Queen Elizabeth I's reign was drawing to an end, English Catholics looked forward to better times. For decades, the authorities had regarded Catholics as potential enemies of the state. High-born Catholics could not get advancement at court; Catholics unprotected by rank or wealth were often harassed and even attacked. They were obliged to attend Church of England services – those who refused, known as recusants, were heavily fined.

Catholic hopes were pinned on Elizabeth's successor, James VI of Scotland. Although he was Protestant, he was the son of Catholic heroine and martyr Mary Queen of Scots. In 1602, Thomas Percy, a young nobleman from an influential Catholic family, rode secretly to Edinburgh and received what he thought was James's assurance that he would allow Catholics freedom of worship.

However, James was well aware of anti-Catholic sentiment in England, and when he succeeded to the throne as James I in 1603, he did not repeal the laws against recusants. The following year, under pressure from Parliament, he expelled Catholic priests from the country. Catholics felt betrayed, and on 20 May 1604, five men met to plot James's overthrow.


The plot is hatched

Four of the plotters were young men from well-connected recusant families: Thomas Percy, Jack Wright, John Winter and their leader, the charismatic Robert Catesby. The fifth, older man was a Yorkshire-born mercenary soldier who had just returned from fighting for the Catholic cause in the Netherlands. He called himself Guido Fawkes. Catesby had recruited him for his expertise with gunpowder.

Their plan, devised by Catesby, was staggeringly ambitious: to blow up the Houses of Parliament during its next opening ceremony. The explosion would kill not only the king but the country's lords, bishops and judges. And crucially, the heir to the throne would also die, plunging the country into a succession crisis. In the upheaval, Catesby hoped that Catholicism would re-establish itself.

The blast is prepared

Thomas Percy installed Guido Fawkes in his lodgings in Westminster. Throughout the summer and autumn of 1604, they laid in supplies of gunpowder and planned the attack. After a number of delays, Parliament's opening was finally set for 5 November 1605, which gave Catesby time to plan a widespread Catholic uprising. He proposed to raise a troop of cavalry from the stables of rich Catholic families. After the explosion, he would lead it to Coventry and kidnap James's elder daughter, Elizabeth. The Catholic population would rise up in support of them and they would then install Elizabeth as queen and rule England through her as a Catholic country. During the summer of 1605, Percy leased a cellar beneath Parliament House. Gunpowder, firewood and fuses were smuggled in, while Catesby began recruiting potential cavalry leaders. In October, he approached Francis Tresham, who he hoped would rally the Midlands. But this proved to be a misjudgement. Tresham had many friends in the House of Lords; horrified by the violence of the plot, he tried to persuade Catesby to abandon it.

Betrayal?

On 26 October, Lord Monteagle – a closet Catholic married to Catesby's first cousin Elizabeth Tresham – was handed a letter that had been delivered by a mysterious stranger. The anonymous letter urged Monteagle to 'Retire yourself into the country for ... they shall receive a terrible blow this Parliament and yet they shall not see who hurts them.' By his own account, Monteagle immediately took the letter to James I's secretary of state Robert Cecil.

When the conspirators heard about the Monteagle letter, Catesby accused Tresham of betraying them; he vigorously denied it. As no names had been mentioned, and no action was taken against them, the conspirators decided it was safe to go ahead with the plan.

The plot is foiled

But Cecil was just biding his time. After showing the letter to James, who had been away on a hunting trip, the decision was taken to search the Houses of Parliament. On Monday, 4 November, as Catesby was riding to the Midlands to raise his cavalry, the king's men searched the cellar. Fawkes was arrested and a warrant issued for Percy's arrest. Hearing the news, the other plotters fled after Catesby.

Catesby now led them into a brave, if forlorn, last stand. On 5 November, as news of the foiled plot spread across London and people lit celebratory bonfires, the conspirators rode round Catholic estates urging an uprising. But Catholics had heard rumours of the king's death and were afraid; none of them joined Catesby's cause. The next morning, the sheriff of Worcestershire and a posse of 200 armed men surrounded the conspirators: Catesby and three others were killed; the rest were taken to the Tower. Subsequently, others who had been drawn into the plan were arrested, including Francis Tresham, who died in prison.

Guido Fawkes, tortured on the rack, gave names and details of the plot. He and the other surviving conspirators were tried in Westminster Hall and publicly hanged, drawn and quartered.

The Gunpowder Plot had been decisively defeated. Cecil lost no time in turning the affair to James's advantage, claiming it as God's deliverance and proof that he was on the side of Protestant England. As Catholics had feared, new restrictions were placed on them, and in the immediate aftermath of the failed plot, it became even more dangerous to practise their religion.


Treason (http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/treason/story_t.html)

Blackleaf
10 Feb 08,, 19:48
On this day (10th February) in 1355, the St Scholastica Day riot takes place in Oxford, England. Around 93 people were killed in the riots. What caused the riots? A dispute about beer in The Swindlestock Tavern!

Though they aren't the worst riots England as ever experienced - the worst ever were the Gordon Riots of June 1780 in London in which 285 people were killed and Newgate Gaol was burnt town and the prisoners freed.


The St. Scholastica Day riot of February 10, 1355, is one of the notorious events in the history of Oxford. Following a dispute about beer in The Swindlestock Tavern (now the site of the Abbey Bank on Carfax) between townspeople and two students of the University of Oxford, the insults that were exchanged grew into armed clashes between locals and students over the next two days which left 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead. The scholars were eventually routed.

The dispute was eventually settled in favour of the university when a special charter was created. Annually thereafter, on February 10, the town mayor and councillors had to march bareheaded through the streets and pay to the university a fine of one penny for every scholar killed. The penance ended 440 years later, in 1825 when the mayor of the time refused to take part.


Also on this day:

1542 - Queen Catherine Howard of England is confined in the Tower of London to be executed three days later for treason (adultery).

1567 - An explosion destroys the Kirk o' Field house in Edinburgh, Scotland. The second husband of Mary Queen of Scots, Lord Darnley is found strangled, in what many believe to be an assassination.

1763 - French and Indian War: The 1763 Treaty of Paris ends the war and France cedes Quebec to Great Britain.

1840 - Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

1846 - First Anglo-Sikh War: Battle of Sobraon - British defeat Sikhs in final battle of the war

1863 - The world-famous dwarfs General Tom Thumb and Lavinia Warren get married in New York City.

wikipedia.org

dave lukins
11 Feb 08,, 00:50
"On this day (10th February) in 1355, the St Scholastica Day riot takes place in Oxford, England. Around 93 people were killed in the riots. What caused the riots? A dispute about beer in The Swindlestock Tavern!


Not suprised, have you ever tasted their bitter...:eek: :))

Parihaka
26 Mar 08,, 23:11
Thought I'd revive this old thread and (apologies to Kansas Bear) merge the two threads together

Parihaka
26 Mar 08,, 23:13
1979: Israel and Egypt shake hands on peace deal

Israel and Egypt have ended 30 years of war with an historic peace treaty brokered by the United States.

The ceremony on the White House lawn in Washington was broadcast live on television. The two leaders sealed the deal with a firm handshake, watched by a smiling President Jimmy Carter.

Both President Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt, and the Israeli Prime Minister, Menachem Begin, described the ceremony as an "historic turning point".
http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38889000/jpg/_38889185_campdavid238.jpg

We must not minimalise the obstacles that lie ahead

US President Jimmy Carter
Mr Sadat praised President Carter as "the man who performed the miracle".

"Without exaggeration," he said, "what he did constitutes one of the greatest achievements of our time".

Mr Carter, however, was more cautious, saying the treaty was "a first step on a long and difficult road."

"We must not minimalise the obstacles that lie ahead," he said.

Deep divisions between the two sides remain, and even in their speeches following the ceremony the two presidents revealed how far there is still to go.

Mr Begin spoke emotionally of how the city of Jerusalem could never be divided; while Mr Sadat was unreservedly frank about the question of Palestinian autonomy.

News of the signing ceremony was greeted with angry demonstrations throughout the Arab world. Crowds stormed the Egyptian Embassy in Kuwait, and there was a strike in the West Bank.

The PLO leader, Yasser Arafat, told a rally in West Beirut: "Let them sign what they like. False peace will not last."

He accused President Sadat of betraying the Egyptian people, and said they would eventually eliminate him.

The normally moderate King Hussein of Jordan has now joined President Assad of Syria and President Hassen al Bakr of Iraq in calling a summit conference of opponents of the treaty.

Egypt is thought likely to be expelled from the Arab League as a symbolic gesture of anger at the decision to go it alone in negotiating peace with Israel.

Even in the West, the response to the treaty has been lukewarm. A statement from the nine European Community nations praised the efforts of President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to make peace.

But, in a comment bound to anger the Israelis, it added that a settlement could only happen if the Palestinian people were given a homeland.

T_igger_cs_30
26 Mar 08,, 23:21
03/26/1910
US forbid immigration to criminals, anarchists, paupers and the sick

How the world changes.

03/26/1915
Stanley Cup: Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) sweep Ottawa Senators

:biggrin: Nothing changes

03/26/1936
1st parliamentary debate on NZ radio

Al I could find Pari

Blackleaf
02 Jul 08,, 19:55
On this day (2nd July) in 1644, the Battle of Marston Moor, during the English Civil War, took place.

The battle was a decisive Parliamentarian victory against the Royalists.

Marston Moor was one of THIRTY NINE battles of the first English Civil War of 1642-1646.


BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR, 2ND JULY 1644 (English Civil War)

BELLIGERENTS

Parliamentarians (Roundheads) VS Royalists (Cavaliers)

PARLIAMENTARIAN COMMANDERS

Earl of Leven; Earl of Manchester; Lord Fairfax

ROYALIST COMMANDERS

Prince Rupert; Marquess of Newcastle,

PARLIAMENTARIAN ARMY STRENGTH

22,500+:
7,000+ horse,
500+ dragoons,
15,000+ foot,
30 - 40 guns

ROYALIST ARMY STRENGTH

17,000:
6,000 horse,
11,000 foot,
14 guns

PARLIAMENTARIAN CASUALTIES

300 killed

ROYALIST CASUALTIES

4,000 killed,
1,500 prisoners

http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/32/100832-004-5BD22151.jpg

The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on July 2, 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven and the Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle.

During the summer of 1644, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians had been besieging York which was defended by the Marquess of Newcastle. Prince Rupert had gathered an army which marched through the northwest of England to relieve the city, gathering fresh recruits on the way. The convergence of these forces made the ensuing battle the largest of the Civil Wars.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Marston_Moor_JBarker.jpg

On July 1, Rupert had outmanoeuvred the Scots and Parliamentarians to relieve the city. The next day, he sought battle with them, even though he was outnumbered. He was dissuaded from attacking immediately, and during the day both sides gathered their full strength on Marston Moor, an expanse of wild meadow west of York. Towards evening, the Scots and Parliamentarians themselves launched a surprise attack. After a confused fight lasting two hours, Parliamentarian cavalry under Oliver Cromwell routed the Royalist cavalry from the field and annihilated the remaining Royalist infantry.

After their defeat the Royalists effectively abandoned the north of England. Not only did they lose much of the manpower from the counties which were strongly Royalist in sympathy, and access to the continent of Europe through the ports on the North Sea coast, but they were then restricted to Wales and the southwest of England. Although they partially retrieved their fortunes with victories later in the year in the south of England, the loss of the north was to prove a fatal handicap the next year, when they tried unsuccessfully to link up with the Scottish Royalists under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose.

wikipedia.org

Blackleaf
12 Oct 08,, 16:40
Today (October 12th) in 1216, King John of England loses the Crown Jewels in the Wash...


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/3a/Lackland_smaller.JPG/180px-Lackland_smaller.JPG

Retreating from a French invasion, on 12th October 1216, King John took a safe route around the marshy area of the Wash (square-mouthed estuary on the northwest margin of East Anglia on the east coast of England, where Norfolk borders Lincolnshire) to avoid the rebel-held area of East Anglia. His slow baggage train (including the Crown Jewels), however, took a direct route across it and was lost to the unexpected incoming tide.

This loss dealt John a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind. Succumbing to dysentery and moving from place to place, he stayed one night at Sleaford Castle before dying on 18 October (or possibly 19 October) 1216, at Newark Castle (then in Lincolnshire, now on Nottinghamshire's border with that county). Numerous accounts circulated soon after his death that he had been killed by poisoned ale, poisoned plums or a "surfeit of peaches".

Blackleaf
28 Dec 08,, 20:53
On this day (28th December) in 1065, Westminster Abbey, in London, opened. It was built by King Edward the Confessor. It is the traditional site of the coronation of a new monarch - and is also the site where monarchs are buried. Every English (and, later, British) monarch has been crowned there since Harold II, except Edward V and Edward VIII (who didn't have coronations). Edward the Confessor died just a week after it opened, and Harold II took to the Throne, who himself was killed during the Battle of Hastings just months later. It was a cathedral from 1545-1556 and is currently a Royal Peculiar, a place of worship that falls directly under the jurisdiction of the British monarch, rather than a diocese. The concept dates to Anglo-Saxon times, when a church could ally itself with the monarch and therefore not be subject to the bishopric of the area. The abbey was subsequently demolished, and rebuilt by Henry III in 1245.

http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/01253/Hotspots%20in%20Europe/Westminster_Abbey_4141.jpg
Westminster Abbey opened on 28th December 1065, but the current abbey was rebuilt in 1245

The Abbey at Westminster is built upon what was once an island - Thorney Island - a marshy retreat from the City of London. The island was at one time flanked by two channels of the Tyburn River, which flowed where Downing Street and Great College Street now run.

There may have been a Christian church on Thorney Island as early as 604 AD, just eight years after the first Christian mission under St Augustine landed near Canterbury in 596 AD. In that same year of 604, Ethelbert, uncle of the king of the East Saxons, founded St Paul's in the City of London.

Later royals followed the pattern; King Edgar (957-75) gave land for a church, and several kings, including Canute and Ethelred, donated relics. St Dunstan endowed a place for a dozen monks in 960 AD. But it is to one man that we owe the marvellous church we can see today. Edward the Confessor (1042-1066) had a vision of an eclesiastic-royal complex including a palace with a large monastery and an abbey church suitable for royal functions and burials.

Devout though Edward certainly was, he was also driven by guilt in his building project. Earlier in his reign he had been forced to flee from a Danish invasion into exile in Normandy. He made a solemn vow that if he ever regained his throne he would make a pilgrimage to Rome in gratitude.

He did indeed manage to oust the Danes and regain the throne, but the politically uncertain climate made it unwise for him to leave for Rome. Pope Leo, being an understanding sort, excused Edward from his vow - on condition that the king re-endow the monastery of Westminster.

So Edward went to work. He rebuilt the old Saxon church in the new Romanesque style and began his palace nearby. The work was consecrated on December 28, 1065, but Edward himself lived only another eight days.

Harold Godwinson followed him as king (Harold II), and he may have begun the tradition of royal coronations in the Abbey. Certainly Harold's successor, William the Conqueror, was crowned here, on December 25, 1066.

www.britainexpress.com

Blackleaf
18 Feb 09,, 19:24
On this day (18th February) in 1478, George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence was executed by being drowned in a butt (105 gallons, or 3 hogsheads) of Malmsey wine during the Wars of the Roses. He was the brother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d6/George_of_York%2C_Duke_of_Clarence.jpg

George was born on 21st October 1449 and was created Duke of Clarence in 1461 following the accession of his elder brother Edward to the Throne.

On 11 July 1469, George married Isabel Neville, elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick ("Warwick the Kingmaker"). Following her father's death, Clarence was jure uxoris Earl of Warwick.

Clarence had actively supported his elder brother's claim to the throne, but, following his marriage, he began to play a dangerous game. When his father-in-law, the Earl of Warwick, became discontented and jealous, and deserted Edward to ally himself with Margaret of Anjou, consort of the deposed King Henry VI, Clarence joined him in France, taking his pregnant wife, Isabel. She gave birth to their first child, Anne, (who died shortly afterwards) on 16 April 1470, in a ship off Calais.

After a short time, Clarence realised that his loyalty to his father-in-law was misplaced: Warwick married his youngest daughter, Anne, to Edward of Westminster, King Henry VI's heir. Since it now seemed unlikely that Warwick would replace Edward IV with Clarence, Clarence changed sides. Henry VI rewarded Clarence by making him next in line to the throne after Edward of Westminster (justifying the exclusion of Edward IV either by attainder for his treason against Henry or on the grounds of his alleged illegitimacy).

Warwick's efforts to return Henry VI to the throne having failed, and Warwick himself having been killed in battle, George was restored to royal favour, but now saw his main rival as his younger brother, Richard Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Gloucester, who had married the widowed Anne Neville. In 1475, his wife Isabel, Anne's sister, finally gave birth to a son, Edward, later Earl of Warwick.

Like the first lords of Richmond, Peter II of Savoy and Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland before him, George was endowed with the lordship of Richmondshire but without the peerage.

The Neville sisters were heiresses to their mother's considerable estates, and their husbands vied with one another for pride of place, with Richard eventually winning out. Clarence, who had made the mistake of plotting against his brother Edward IV, was imprisoned in the Tower of London and put on trial for treason.

On 18th February 1478, at the Tower of London, Clarence was executed by being drowned in a butt (105 imperial gallons) of Malmsey wine, an unusual method of execution when the usual way to go was to have your head sliced off.


wikipedia.org

Albany Rifles
18 Feb 09,, 20:54
USS Neosho, a river monitor gunboat, launched in 1863 at Carondolet, MO.

seskissinger
19 Feb 09,, 05:59
In 19th Feb 1997 ,China's great leader DengXiaoPing passed away.

Deng make modern China open to the world and make China strong than ever.

It's also Deng who get HongKong back to China.

Western people may dislike him.

But a leader who make one billion people have their food should not called "bad".

Is that right?

Officer of Engineers
19 Feb 09,, 06:08
Western people may dislike him.Whatever gave you that impression?

seskissinger
19 Feb 09,, 06:34
Whatever gave you that impression?

Most western people do not like China.I get that impression from west media.

xinhui
19 Feb 09,, 08:05
There is no such a thing as "western media" get over it. You have to realize that people can have different opinions.

you, as a subjective self, should use every means to gain an understand of your surrendering, that is the lease you can do. Think for yourself.

seskissinger
19 Feb 09,, 08:40
There is no such a thing as "western media" get over it. You have to realize that people can have different opinions.

you, as a subjective self, should use every means to gain an understand of your surrendering, that is the lease you can do. Think for yourself.

1 I never say people can not have different opinions

2 I can not get what you mean.thanks

xinhui
19 Feb 09,, 09:37
If you respect others view, than you will know there is no such a think of "western media"

seskissinger
19 Feb 09,, 10:23
If you respect others view, than you will know there is no such a think of "western media"

Westen media means media in West countries such as BBC ,CNN .

Welcome

Parihaka
19 Feb 09,, 11:16
The Soviets have opened a new phase in space exploration with the launch of the world's biggest space station, Mir.

The successful launch of Mir comes just over three weeks after the American space shuttle Challenger disaster, in which seven astronauts died.

At next week's Communist Party congress in Moscow the Mir project is likely to be hailed as proof that the Soviets are leading the peaceful exploration of space.

Mir, which means both peace and world in Russian, is intended to provide a base for a permanently manned complex orbiting the Earth.

Too costly

It succeeds the Soviet Salyut models, the last of which, Salyut 7, was launched in April 1982 and is still in orbit.

The Americans also had a space station, Skylab, which suffered damage on its initial launch and eventually proved too costly to maintain and fell back to Earth in 1979.

Soviet officials say their new craft represents the transition from research to large-scale production activities in space.

The station has six docking stations, which means other modules or laboratories can be added to it, expanding its size and capability.

Remain in orbit

The deputy head of the Soviet cosmonaut training centre, Alexei Leonov, said it would only be possible to determine how long Mir would remain in orbit after it had completed its first flight.

He said the cosmonauts, now taking part in a special training programme, would have separate cabins with windows and even individual desks and armchairs.

Mr Leonov explained that Salyut 7 was too small for the plans now being implemented by Soviet experts.

It has only two docking stations and can support a crew of only three, whereas Mir can carry between six and ten people.

The main work of the first cosmonauts on board Mir will be to continue with the experiments in materials processing, begun on Salyut 6 and 7.

Other activities will include observation of the Earth using high-powered cameras, as well as helping locate mineral deposits on Earth and monitor the seas for trawlers.

http://www.skyrocket.de/space/img_sat/mir__3.jpg

BD1
19 Feb 09,, 21:09
some minor scientific equipment for Mir was made in the small community i grew up.
During snowball fight 9 year old me threw a snowball through the glass of the assembly room, where the instruments were. I got yelled at by my dad, but at least i feel part of history now. :)

Albany Rifles
20 Feb 09,, 17:13
1864 Confederates win the Battle of Olustee, FL
1947 ADM Louis Montbatten is made viceroy of India
1962 John Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth.

Parihaka
20 Feb 09,, 20:49
The American President Richard Nixon has arrived in China at the start of a week-long summit aimed at ending 20 years of frosty relations between the two countries.

His visit began with an unexpected audience with Chairman Mao Zedong at the leader's home. Few details have been released, but officials said the one-hour meeting involved a "serious and frank discussion".

After a modest reception at Peking airport, the president was formally welcomed at a lavish banquet held in the Great Hall of the People and hosted by Prime Minister Chou En-lai.

Years of tension

Mr Chou described Mr Nixon's long journey to China as a "positive move" responding to the wishes of the peoples of both countries.

He hinted at the years of tension between China and the United States - largely due to American support for nationalists in Taiwan - and credited both governments for "common efforts" to open the gate to better contacts at last.

The president responded positively. "There is no reason for us to be enemies," he said. "Neither of us seeks the territory of the other; neither of us seeks domination over the other; neither of us seeks to stretch out our hands and rule the world."

Using one of Mao's own quotations, Mr Nixon said it was time to seize the day and seize the hour "for our two peoples to rise to the heights of greatness which can build a new and better world".

There followed an elaborate round of toasts, in which the 800 guests at the banquet wandered from table to table clinking thimble-sized glasses containing Chinese firewater.

Commentators said the elaborate banquet was in marked contrast to the coolness of the president's reception at the airport.

This historic visit was engineered by the president's national security adviser, Dr Henry Kissinger, during two visits to China last year. It is part of a policy of rapprochement aimed at restoring diplomatic relations between the two sides
http://leonardo.sfasu.edu/mbarringer/Images/nixon%20china.jpg

One question. What exactly is Chinese Firewater, and where can I get some?

gunnut
20 Feb 09,, 21:47
One question. What exactly is Chinese Firewater, and where can I get some?

Chinese supermarket?

astralis
20 Feb 09,, 22:05
pari,


One question. What exactly is Chinese Firewater, and where can I get some?

that was the most masochistic statement i've heard in quite a while. :eek:

xinhui
20 Feb 09,, 22:09
triple distill rice wine. 53% alcohol.

Here is the picture of the most famous firewater.

Parihaka
20 Feb 09,, 22:15
Thank you Gentlemen. Astralis, I'll try anything once, in fact quite often twice.
So from what Xinhui says, it could be roughly equated to a potent saki?
If so, I'll try it thrice, and I think I recognise that bottle from wandering through the aisles of Yans Supermarket.

gunnut
20 Feb 09,, 22:28
triple distill rice wine. 53% alcohol.

Here is the picture of the most famous firewater.

Oh that. I haven't seen that for a long time. Is it aged at all? Doesn't sound like it. I remember long ago my dad opened a bottle and the smell was just not right. So he poured it down the drain.

xinhui
20 Feb 09,, 22:49
I stop drink that S**T since college, it is not worth it.

gunnut
20 Feb 09,, 22:57
I stop drink that S**T since college, it is not worth it.

Bad tatoos, eh?:biggrin:

Parihaka
20 Feb 09,, 23:03
Bad tatoos, eh?:biggrin:

:))

So if that make is rotgut, is there a good brand? Kinda like Wilsons whisky vs Glenmorangie?

xinhui
20 Feb 09,, 23:08
Bad tatoos, eh?:biggrin:

My brain hurts just to think about all those long mornings :redface:

xinhui
20 Feb 09,, 23:09
:))

So if that make is rotgut, is there a good brand? Kinda like Wilsons whisky vs Glenmorangie?

It requires a different taste, I guess, not your everyday sake, which goes down easy. Thank wild turkey.

xinhui
20 Feb 09,, 23:10
Maotai is about as good as you can get.
Don't do it man, it is not worth it.

Parihaka
20 Feb 09,, 23:14
Maotai is about as good as you can get.
Don't do it man, it is not worth it.

Lovely, thanks Xinhui. At the ripe old age of 49, I'm contemplating my first tattoo.:biggrin:

xinhui
21 Feb 09,, 00:24
Here it goes, this is actually petty funny.


Saying No to Baijiu


062508bottle.jpgBy Ernie Tadla

I attended many banquets, but one, as the guest of the chairman of Jia Ling Motorcycles, was more memorable than the rest. Jia Ling produced more than one million motorcycles a year plus over one and a half million motorcycle engines for other manufacturers. DMG was staging a large international exhibition for Jai Ling in Chongqing in Sichuan Province. We planned it as a Las Vegas style event: strobe lights, large overhead movie screens, blasting music, and many gorgeous, leggy ladies.

We were mobbed. The mayor, who heard of our sound and light show, couldn’t get near our area. The press of the people damaged the stands and the grounds and caused us problems with the building management. We ran out of literature. For a guy from North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada, it was an amazing spectacle to be at the center of.

On the last evening, the Jia Ling chairman staged a banquet for DMG’s senior people. Protocol stipulates that the most senior person from each company sit together at the head of the round table with the rest sitting in descending order. As group general manager, I sat next to the chairman. Business dining is a ritualistic affair based on guanxi and face.

A row of drinking glasses was placed in front of me — for water, beer, wine, and maotai. Maotai, a type of baijiu - or Chinese liquor - is made from wheat and sorghum and has an alcohol content of 55 per cent. It is a clear, white liquid and you drink it from small, shot-type glasses. Clearly from some foreigners, like me a, it is a lethal drink. Chairman Mao served maotai at state dinners during Richard Nixon’s state visit to China. I’d had maotais before and it was awful, had a nasty aftertaste and didn’t agree with my body.

The waiter filled the chairman’s glass and then mine. I was crushed with cultural and male, macho pressure.

I wanted to match my honored host, not lose face with my Chinese managers and be one of the boys. So when the chairman toasted us and downed his maotai, we all drank. As soon as the stuff hit my system, I knew that if it continued, and it does, my concern would not be about losing face, but losing it all. I had a choice: drink another maotai and get sick there or rush to the washroom, or put my hand over the glass as the waiter started to fill it. I could hold my own with the beer and red wine, but I couldn’t handle the maotai.

I put my hand over the empty glass.

The second, the very second, the chairman observed my action, he ordered everyone’s maotai glasses removed from the table. This was his way of showing me respect and saving my face. If I didn’t drink maotai, no one would. In actual fact, I felt I had lost face because my behavior had affected the drinking enjoyment of everyone else. They loved maotais and company banquets were some of the few times they could enjoy them. But that was a Western reaction. The Chinese are non-judgmental and acritical. So we never skipped a beat, drank red wine and beer and continued with the party. No fuss, no embarrassment, just Confucian face saving.

And apparently, I’m not the only one who saved my dining grace - if not face - by passing up maotai.

In the excellent book, Nixon in China: The Week That Changed the World, Margaret MacMillian detailed the former U.S. president’s encounter with maotais. Future secretary of State, Alexander Haig, having witnessed Nixon’s slight tolerance for alcohol and having experienced the potent Chinese maotai himself, warned in a top-secret cable, “UNDER NO, REPEAT, NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE PRESIDENT ACTUALLY DRINK FROM HIS GLASS IN RESPONSE TO BANQUET TOASTS.”

gabriel
21 Feb 09,, 01:01
IT's not difficult to imagine what would happen if he tasted some of this Irish stuff (http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/785672). :))

xinhui
21 Feb 09,, 01:31
what is what I am missing in my life! Give me Poteen

gabriel
21 Feb 09,, 01:37
I wish i could post the song also but for some reason , it gets censored...
:biggrin:

gunnut
21 Feb 09,, 02:44
White lightning is probably close to maotai. Clear spirits without aging. Not a big fan of those. I have a taste for scotch and cognac. It's all the Colonel's fault.

snowhole
22 Feb 09,, 14:35
Many would claim Huangjiu to be more dangerous... For its alcohol power comes very slowly... You would think 'this is no alcohol... and taste weird'. Those who claim it's dangerous usually end up drinking too much before they realize...

Parihaka
21 Jun 09,, 12:54
1945: US troops take Okinawa
The Japanese island of Okinawa has finally fallen to the Americans after a long and bloody battle.

The island, situated 340 miles (550km) south of the Japanese mainland, will now provide the Americans with an invaluable air and naval base from which to launch a sustained and forceful attack on the mainland.

It is estimated more than 90,000 Japanese troops were killed in the 82-day conflict.



America also suffered heavy losses - at this stage 6,990 servicemen have been reported killed or missing and 25,598 wounded.

Mopping up

In a statement issued today US Fleet Admiral Chester W Nimitz said: "After 82 days of fighting the battle of Okinawa has been won.

"Organised resistance ceased on June 21. Enemy garrisons in two small pockets are being mopped up."

The Japanese fought a desperate battle until the bitter end with many hiding out in caves on the southern-most tip of the island.

As the US forces closed in many threw themselves off 150ft (45.7m)cliffs or waded into the sea to drown rather than be taken prisoner.

More than 4,000 Japanese have so far been captured.

The conflict began on 1 April, when America's newly-formed 10th Army, led by Lieutenant-General Simon Bolivar Buckner, landed on Okinawa's western coast.

By 21 April most of the island had been taken by US troops but a stalemate developed in the south around Okinawa's capital city, Naha.

The Japanese were able to secure a strong defensive position in the rugged, cave-riddled terrain and it took several weeks to finally win the battle.


http://bp2.blogger.com/_473nrD5vEv8/RnvBRl47SWI/AAAAAAAAAEM/2dyrZ_WXWGA/s400/battle-okinawa.jpg

Parihaka
21 Jun 09,, 12:57
1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union
German forces have invaded the Soviet Union.

In a pre-dawn offensive, German troops pushed into the USSR from the south and west, with a third force making their way from the north towards Leningrad.

At 0500 GMT, an hour after the invasion began, the Nazi Minister for Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, went on national radio to read a proclamation by Adolf Hitler promising that the mobilisation of the German army would be the "greatest the world has ever seen".

The invasion breaks the non-aggression pact signed by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939.

The pact has since been described by the German leader, Adolf Hitler, as a stain on Germany's record.

Initial reports suggest that the German troops have made rapid progress.

A correspondent with the German Army on the northern front reported the Soviet Army opened fire immediately at the German advance, but German soldiers overran the first of the Soviet positions and within a few minutes had captured the frontier posts.

Germany is thought to have committed a massive force of more than three million men, supported by more than 3,000 tanks, 7,000 guns and nearly 3,000 aircraft.

They are nonetheless vastly outnumbered by the Red Army which has about nine million men under arms with another 500,000 in reserve.

Soviet arms and ability, however, are considered vastly inferior to the Germans.

The Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin, appears to have been taken completely by surprise.

Despite warnings from Britain and secret intelligence reports that war was imminent, Stalin has refused to prepare for an invasion, insisting that it would not happen until next summer.

In London the War Cabinet met early this morning to discuss the implications.

The Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, condemned the invasion in a broadcast on BBC radio, in which he said it marked a turning point in the war.

Calling Hitler a "bloodthirsty guttersnipe", he said his own outspoken opposition to communism had "faded away" in the light of today's events, and pledged Britain's help for the Soviet Union in any way possible.

"The Russian danger is... our danger," he said, "and the danger of the United States, just as the cause of any Russian fighting for his hearth and home is the cause of free men and free peoples in every quarter of the globe."

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/images/highres_30018917%20copy.jpg

zraver
21 Jun 09,, 20:38
On this day in 1788 New Hampshire ratified the US Constitution becoming the 9th state to do so and giving the required majority for the document to go into effect.

On June 21, 1964, three civil rights workers disappeared in Philadelphia, Miss. Their bodies were found buried in an earthen dam six weeks later. Eight members of the Ku Klux Klan went to prison on federal conspiracy charges; none served more than six years.

On June 21st 2005 Edgar Ray Killen, an 80-year-old former Ku Klux Klansman, was found guilty of manslaughter in the deaths of three civil rights workers in Philadelphia, Miss., 41 years to the day earlier. (He is serving a 60-year prison sentence.)

Parihaka
21 Jun 09,, 21:44
On June 21, 1964, three civil rights workers disappeared in Philadelphia, Miss.
That's very interesting Zraver but don't call me Miss.

Blackleaf
27 Sep 09,, 19:43
On this day (27th September) in 1825, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first in the world, opened. The huge speed of the "steam horse" - 15mph - so unnerved one man that he fell off the train at one point during the journey and was injured.

The line was 26 miles long, and ran between the two northern English towns of Stockton and Darlington.

The world's first railway locomotive, Locomotion, was finished in September 1825.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAstocktonRA.jpg
Crowds gather at the opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825

http://school.mech.uwa.edu.au/~dwright/DANotes/buckling/intro/BerwickBIG.jpeg
The same location today

On 27th September 1825, large crowds saw George Stephenson at the controls of the Locomotion as it pulled 36 wagons. Twelve wagons of coal and flour, six of guests and fourteen wagons full of workmen. The initial journey of just under 9 miles took two hours. However, during the final descent into the Stockton terminus, speeds of 15 mph, were reached. These increased speeds surprised one man and he fell from one of the wagons and was badly injured.

The train also included a purpose built railway passenger coach called the Experiment. The carriage seated 18 passengers and as it had no springs it must have provided an uncomfortable ride but for the first time in history, a steam locomotive had hauled passengers on a public railway.

The Darlington & Stockton Railroad began running trains every day except Sundays. The company received 1d (a penny) per ton of coal for every mile carried. The following year this was reduced to half-penny a mile. Local colliery owners reported that locomotive transport was a third cheaper than horse transport.


From the Durham County Advertiser (1st October, 1825)

The hour of ten arrived before all was ready to start. About this time the locomotive engine, or steam horse, as it was more generally termed, gave note of preparation. The scene, on the moving of the engine, sets description at defiance. Astonishment was not confined to the human species, for the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air seemed to view with wonder and awe the machine, which now moved onward at a rate of 10 or 12 mph with a weight of not less than 80 tons attached to it.

The distance from Brussleton to Stockton is twenty and a half miles, the entire length from Witton Park Colliery, nearly 25 miles, being, we believe, the largest railway in the Kingdom. The whole population of the towns and villages within a few miles of the railway seem to have turned out, and we believe we speak within the limits of truth, when we say that not less than 40 or 50,000 persons were assembled to witness the proceedings of the day.

Spartacus Educational - Home Page (http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk)

tankie
28 Sep 09,, 19:42
Thats where i come from B/L and Darlo must have the worlds lousiest rail museum , there is a much better one at Shildon 15 miles away , the Timothy Hackworth , its a good day out ;)

And no Knaur , i wasnt the stoker on the first train , or the rear gunner , or as you would Say ghonne,ria :tongue:

Shamus
28 Sep 09,, 19:53
And no Knaur , i wasnt the stoker on the first train , or the rear gunner , or as you would Say ghonne,ria :tongue:Must have been head conductor then,couldn't see them letting you drive that thing;):biggrin:

tankie
28 Sep 09,, 19:54
Must have been head conductor then,couldn't see them letting you drive that thing;):biggrin:

Sniped again :mad::P:biggrin:

Shamus
28 Sep 09,, 19:58
Sniped again :mad::P:biggrin:You need to stop wearing that shirt with the bullseye on the front and back:tongue::biggrin:.

tankie
28 Sep 09,, 20:13
Must have been head conductor then,couldn't see them letting you drive that thing;):biggrin:

I have been on it , it stood on Darlington station (bank top ) for a long time , us children played on it untill some grumpy jobs worth kicked us up the arse to get off :biggrin: it now resides in the museum on north road , the great north road the A1 where the museum is and the worlds oldest working station , i believe so anyways , and its where the latest steam train was built , the tornado , seeing the foto,s im getting nostalgic now and cant wait to get back there , the viaduct in the pic is still there , it spans the river tees at Yarm , a place i have fished many times and sailed up in my boat , there is also a boozer named after the train in newton aycliffe , i have been in there as well , a good eatery to boot .

Knaur Amarsh
30 Sep 09,, 15:01
And no Knaur , i wasnt the stoker on the first train , or the rear gunner , or as you would Say ghonne,ria :tongue:

Thats all right mate, I know you ain't that young, rear gunner did you say, must'ev been one of those strapping young Spartan blokes I suppose :P


I know Tankie crewed a cent, but wasn't his first platoon sergeant a centurion as well?

tankie
30 Sep 09,, 19:57
thats all right mate, i know you ain't that young, rear gunner did you say, must'ev been one of those strapping young spartan blokes i suppose :p

im sparticus ;)

Shamus
30 Sep 09,, 20:08
im sparticus ;)I'd believe Farticus after a few beers:rolleyes::biggrin:.

tankie
30 Sep 09,, 20:13
I'd believe Farticus after a few beers:rolleyes::biggrin:.

:rolleyes: aww ,, ok then ;)

Kernow
30 Sep 09,, 21:17
Back on thread.

1 Oct 1962 Brian Epstein signs a contract to manage Beatles through 1977.

Knaur Amarsh
16 Dec 09,, 10:38
16th Dec, 1971 - Liberation of Bangladesh :))