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tantalus
28 Mar 14,, 03:12
The World Health Organization has declared its South East Asia region polio-free.

The certification is being hailed a "historic milestone" in the global fight to eradicate the deadly virus.

It comes after India officially recorded three years without a new case of polio.

The announcement means 80% of the world is now officially free of polio, although the disease is still endemic in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan.

Other countries in the WHO South East Asia region, such as Sri Lanka, Maldives and Bhutan, have been free of the virus for more than 15 years.

However, despite the "huge global significance" of the announcement, the WHO admits there are still major challenges to overcome if the world is the reach the goal of eradicating polio everywhere by 2018.

There have also been outbreaks in conflict-hit countries such as Syria, which had previously managed to stamp out the virus.

Polio mainly affects children under five years old. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water, and multiplies in the intestine. It can then invade the nervous system, causing paralysis in one in every 200 infections.

South East Asia is the fourth of six WHO regions to be declared polio-free after the Americas, Western Pacific and Europe regions. Eastern Mediterranean and Africa have yet to gain a similar status.

Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, WHO South East Asia regional director, said: "This is very significant because before this region was certified polio-free, we had half the world's population polio free.

"With the South East Asia region being added we now have 80% of the population polio free.

"This was a problem the region was struggling with for a long time, but now finally, we are polio free."

Rise in polio cases
Many experts thought India would be the last country in the world to get rid of polio says Deepak Kapur, of Rotary International's India National Polio Plus Committee.

He said India faced several enormous challenges including its large population.

He said: "India has close to 170 million children under five who needed to be immunised.

"Then there's the existence of insanitary conditions which helped the polio virus to proliferate - and impure drinking water because polio is a water borne disease."

But he said the fact that India had managed it and now the whole of South East Asia could be declared polio free sent a powerful and optimistic message to the three remaining polio-endemic countries.

The world signed up to eradicating polio in 1988. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched, which is a partnership between governments and organisations such as Unicef, the WHO and Rotary International. The aim was to banish polio once and for all.

In 1988 there were 350,000 recorded cases. By 2012 cases had fallen to 223. But last year there was a rise in cases to 406 new infections.

"Every child is still at risk"

The increase is largely down to vaccination campaigns being interrupted by conflict. In October 2013, Syria reported its first case of polio since 1999. By March 2014 there were 25 cases.

An outbreak in the Horn of Africa, which started in May 2013, has seen 217 new cases in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia.

While Thursday's announcement clearly marked an important milestone, there was still a long way to go, said Mr Kapur.

"Every child in the world is at risk of contracting polio until such a time as the wild polio virus is completely eradicated from every part of the world," he said.

"Until then no child - be it in North America or Europe - will be free of polio potentially hunting them down all over again.

"The only way to ensure the wild polio virus no longer exists in any part of the world is to wipe it out of every community in the world.

"It is not good enough to wipe it out on one continent and not the rest of the world because today the world is just one global village.

"The only way to keep polio away is through immunisation."

He said if every child on the planet were immunised, there would be nowhere for the virus to flourish and spread.

"Today's a big occasion for the entire global polio eradication initiative because if India - which had the most difficult of situations - can do it, others around the world can do it too," Mr Kapur said.

"So Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria need to replicate the example of India and go after this virus.

"Global eradication could and should be achieved in the very near future."
BBC News - World now 80% polio free, World Health Organization says (http://www.bbc.com/news/health-26763385)

With regard to most of the key issues central to WAB, rarely does it ever seem there is much resolution between the members, and that is juch a microcosm for the wider global community, left vs right, nationalist vs nationalist etc etc. Yet, There is much agreement on a matters such as this, leaving a few fundamentalist groups to the side, who are impeding the quest to eliminate polio. If ever humanity looks back to the 20th and 21st centuries from a future century of great peace and wisdom (you never know), they may look to achievements such as this, as the beginning. The beginning of tangible success that required real global cooperation, achievements of truly historic proportions.

I feel we would do well to notice it, and acknowledge it for what it is...

JAD_333
28 Mar 14,, 08:00
Well, we're all good with this news.

Grew up during the polio era in Washington. My brother got it--mild case, thankfully.

Back then, hospitals had rooms full of iron lungs.

The world will have to stay alert. Polio is one disease that can rebound quickly.

Doktor
28 Mar 14,, 08:11
We are good? Are we?

There is this mass hysteria about all sorts of vaccines looming in many places.

JAD_333
28 Mar 14,, 08:45
We are good? Are we?

There is this mass hysteria about all sorts of vaccines looming in many places.


I'm not hysterical.

Vaccines looming? You don't by any chance mean viruses?

bonehead
28 Mar 14,, 09:08
I am either good to go or messed up for life. I was shot twice..the second time kicking and screaming, and an oral dose for good measure.

Doktor
28 Mar 14,, 09:50
I'm not hysterical.

Vaccines looming? You don't by any chance mean viruses?

Hysteria is looming.

The worrying rise of the anti-vaccination movement - The Week (http://theweek.com/article/index/257110/the-worrying-rise-of-the-anti-vaccination-movement)

Bigfella
28 Mar 14,, 11:50
Hysteria is looming.

The worrying rise of the anti-vaccination movement - The Week (http://theweek.com/article/index/257110/the-worrying-rise-of-the-anti-vaccination-movement)

There will be a push back in Western nations. To some extent it has already begun. If children start dying in significant numbers people will either be compelled to vaccinate or will face effective segregation of their children. I'm also betting that people with unvaccinated kids will face law suits if their kid infects another.

At the moment the overhang of the 'golden era of vaccination' is protecting these people & others from their own stupidity. If they ever gain enough numbers to create a serious issue to public health they will discover the limits of individual conscience. Sometimes the 'greater good' really does require sacrifice.

Doktor
28 Mar 14,, 11:55
There will be a push back in Western nations. To some extent it has already begun. If children start dying in significant numbers people will either be compelled to vaccinate or will face effective segregation of their children. I'm also betting that people with unvaccinated kids will face law suits if their kid infects another.

At the moment the overhang of the 'golden era of vaccination' is protecting these people & others from their own stupidity. If they ever gain enough numbers to create a serious issue to public health they will discover the limits of individual conscience. Sometimes the 'greater good' really does require sacrifice.

I am somewhere in the middle. For instance if the vaccine is proven to be working, great, I am all for it.

However there are some cases where it goes to the other limits. Vaccine for flu? Gimme lots of Magnesium and Vitamin C - said the doctor (with C, not K) ;)

Monash
28 Mar 14,, 12:08
I am somewhere in the middle. For instance if the vaccine is proven to be working, great, I am all for it.

However there are some cases where it goes to the other limits. Vaccine for flu? Gimme lots of Magnesium and Vitamin C - said the doctor (with C, not K) ;)

That depends on a number of factors. For instance you may get by now chugging vitamin C and herbal remedies but what happens when you get older or you develop a long term medical condition that weakens your system, you might change your tune then. Also if a really lethal strain turns up one year as per recent bird flu scares in Asia (only this time one with legs) then watch us all start lining up for shots.

Monash
28 Mar 14,, 12:14
There will be a push back in Western nations. To some extent it has already begun.

I note the recent change to legislation in NSW mandating proof of vaccination before allowing children to register for school. Also there was talk of making parents pay for their children's hospital bills (which can run 10's of thousands of dollars) if they have refused to have them vaccinated.

Doktor
28 Mar 14,, 12:18
That depends on a number of factors. For instance you may get by now chugging vitamin C and herbal remedies but what happens when you get older or you develop a long term medical condition that weakens your system, you might change your tune then. Also if a really lethal strain turns up one year as per recent bird flu scares in Asia (only this time one with legs) then watch us all start lining up for shots.
It was in the midst of bird fly hype. The doc was early 60. To give you an idea, he is not our regular doc who never left his cabinet, but worked a lot in Africa, Thailand and Scandinavia. So he picked up a lot.

Bigfella
28 Mar 14,, 12:29
I am somewhere in the middle. For instance if the vaccine is proven to be working, great, I am all for it.

However there are some cases where it goes to the other limits. Vaccine for flu? Gimme lots of Magnesium and Vitamin C - said the doctor (with C, not K) ;)

Agree entirely doc. Safe, proven & necessary do it for me. I tend to get a bit more bolshie about it when the disease is transmissible. For instance, I don't think the human papilloma virus vaccine should be mandatory, but I'd be tempted to jail any parent who refuses to give it to their kid because they think it encourages promiscuity.

Bigfella
28 Mar 14,, 12:31
I note the recent change to legislation in NSW mandating proof of vaccination before allowing children to register for school. Also there was talk of making parents pay for their children's hospital bills (which can run 10's of thousands of dollars) if they have refused to have them vaccinated.

Expect more of that. We tend to tolerate the selfishness, stupidity & ignorance of others to the point where it ends up costing us a bomb or threatening other people's kids. Then we get serious.

astralis
28 Mar 14,, 14:47
in the US, anyway, it's a horrible confluence of the usual right-wing anti-government suspects combined with left-wing anti-corporatist types.

this is one of the rare situations where i think lawsuits are a boon to humanity, absent the old village beatdown.

Bigfella
28 Mar 14,, 14:54
in the US, anyway, it's a horrible confluence of the usual right-wing anti-government suspects combined with left-wing anti-corporatist types.

this is one of the rare situations where i think lawsuits are a boon to humanity, absent the old village beatdown.

Fortunately the former don't have much of a toehold (yet) in Oz, so it is mostly driven by the latter & by a 'drugs are bad/unnatural' element. To be fair, many of those who get sucked in are neither. Often they are educated people who think they are smarter then they are & believe their children can live risk free lives until they leave home in their late 20s.

bonehead
28 Mar 14,, 15:35
in the US, anyway, it's a horrible confluence of the usual right-wing anti-government suspects combined with left-wing anti-corporatist types.

this is one of the rare situations where i think lawsuits are a boon to humanity, absent the old village beatdown.

We have tens of millions of illegals who simply walked across our border. Very few of them have all their shots. Old village beat down? please. All you have to do is mention they need vaccinations and they will play the racist card. If and when they do get sued they will pay nothing and simply fade away and reappear somewhere else.

Doktor
28 Mar 14,, 16:00
Racist card? Your illegal immigrants come in all the colors.

Blademaster
28 Mar 14,, 17:53
Next hurdle is tuberculosis which I heard can be the next nightmare scenario. 1/3 of the population have tuberculosis but 95% of them are passive and inactive. Scary to think that if immune system is weakened, it can suddenly flare up to life. I noticed that in western countries, the number of TB incidence is very low as compared to Asian and African countries. Even though it is airborn, the fact that western countries have modern sanitary facilities and the TB cases occurs more often in urban areas as opposed to rural areas in western countries would lead to a conclusion that having modern sanitary facilities and proper air filter is a big must.

There is this deadly form of tuberculosis called XDR strain. It is the most scary of all because it is impervious to all known treatments. Nothing works and the patients will waste away and die.

Yeah I was watching Frontline the other day.

Albany Rifles
28 Mar 14,, 18:00
Yeah too many people listen to fvcktards like Jenny McCarthy claiming that vaccines cause autism and she uses her own child as an example...ignoring the fact that she was a coke whore who drank like a fish and smokes like a chimney.

Remind me again what school of public health did she go to for her doctorate in communicable diseases?

astralis
28 Mar 14,, 18:34
bonehead,


We have tens of millions of illegals who simply walked across our border. Very few of them have all their shots. Old village beat down? please. All you have to do is mention they need vaccinations and they will play the racist card. If and when they do get sued they will pay nothing and simply fade away and reappear somewhere else.

uh, we've had the immigration issue for years. yet it's only now that these diseases are re-appearing. it's pretty clear that this is not a problem being driven by illegal immigration, rather mostly by our homegrown dumbasses.

YellowFever
28 Mar 14,, 19:31
uh, we've had the immigration issue for years. yet it's only now that these diseases are re-appearing. it's pretty clear that this is not a problem being driven by illegal immigration, rather mostly by our homegrown dumbasses.

We've had "homegrown" dumbasses alot longer than we had immigration issues...so WHY are these diseases re-appearing?

Blaming this on immigrants is stupid but so is blaming it on "homegrown dumbasses"

bonehead
28 Mar 14,, 19:33
bonehead,



uh, we've had the immigration issue for years. yet it's only now that these diseases are re-appearing. it's pretty clear that this is not a problem being driven by illegal immigration, rather mostly by our homegrown dumbasses.

The problem has many drivers. Having millions of people come into the country who are not immunized is playing with fire.

YellowFever
28 Mar 14,, 19:36
Racist card? Your illegal immigrants come in all the colors.


Don't let the lefty press fool you.

You're comparing drops to a tsunami

bonehead
28 Mar 14,, 19:37
Yeah too many people listen to fvcktards like Jenny McCarthy claiming that vaccines cause autism and she uses her own child as an example...ignoring the fact that she was a coke whore who drank like a fish and smokes like a chimney.

Remind me again what school of public health did she go to for her doctorate in communicable diseases?

Neither the wife nor I did illegal drugs or smoked and we rarely drink yet our son has autism. I am not saying the link is there (with vaccinations) but it wouldn't be the first time the government has withheld information.

bonehead
28 Mar 14,, 19:37
Racist card? Your illegal immigrants come in all the colors.

The vast majority come from south of the border.

bonehead
28 Mar 14,, 19:40
Next hurdle is tuberculosis which I heard can be the next nightmare scenario. 1/3 of the population have tuberculosis but 95% of them are passive and inactive. Scary to think that if immune system is weakened, it can suddenly flare up to life. I noticed that in western countries, the number of TB incidence is very low as compared to Asian and African countries. Even though it is airborn, the fact that western countries have modern sanitary facilities and the TB cases occurs more often in urban areas as opposed to rural areas in western countries would lead to a conclusion that having modern sanitary facilities and proper air filter is a big must.

There is this deadly form of tuberculosis called XDR strain. It is the most scary of all because it is impervious to all known treatments. Nothing works and the patients will waste away and die.

Yeah I was watching Frontline the other day.

It is no secret that TB is becoming resistant. It can spread pretty quickly too.

Doktor
28 Mar 14,, 20:50
Don't let the lefty press fool you.

You're comparing drops to a tsunami


The vast majority come from south of the border.

I do realize that the South border is the easiest route there is, since everything else includes sea or plane, but what about those who overstay their visas for example?

Back in the day US Embassy here asked for various health papers in order to issue any visa, not sure what's the situation now.

YellowFever
28 Mar 14,, 21:04
that's the problem dok.

there are people that overstays their visas and such but they are miniscule in numbers compared to those walking across the border from south

and if people try to point out that most of the illegals are from down south, they are branded as racists..

Bigfella
29 Mar 14,, 00:28
We've had "homegrown" dumbasses alot longer than we had immigration issues...so WHY are these diseases re-appearing?

Blaming this on immigrants is stupid but so is blaming it on "homegrown dumbasses"

What you haven't had for long is a movement dedicated to opposing vaccination that is able to scare people using the internet. What you haven't had is a people so used to being healthy that they can convince themselves that the health systems that produced this aren't necessary. This particular set of dumbasses is a new phenomenon. It is partly an outgrowth of positive developments such as better health, greater education & greater willingness to question the medical profession. Unfortunately that phrase about a little knowledge applies here.

My parents & grandparents grew up in an era when people tended to have more trust in government & medical profession. More importantly, they grew up in a time when they could remember in a direct & personal way what happened in societies where vaccination rates were low. They could recall people being sick or even dying from easily preventable diseases. The people leading this are my age & younger - people who benefitted from that widespread vaccination to the point where not only have they never encountered a polio victim or someone who died of childhood measles, but they don't even know of any cases by extension. Under such circumstances it is easy to focus on the handful of vaccinations that do produce bad outcomes or imaginary links with a condition like autism, which seems much more real.

The dumbasses are eternal, this particular collection of them is new.

Oh, and illegals are to blame for all America's problems. To state otherwise is simply proof that you hate America.

Gun Grape
29 Mar 14,, 02:59
that's the problem dok.

there are people that overstays their visas and such but they are miniscule in numbers compared to those walking across the border from south

and if people try to point out that most of the illegals are from down south, they are branded as racists..

You have that backward. Both the State Dept and DHS say, and have for a long time that Visa overstayers constitute around 55% of the illegal immigration in the US.


That fact rarely comes out, because its easier to get money/drum up money for the cause by showing videos of people coming over our southern border.

YellowFever
29 Mar 14,, 05:03
Bigfella, you were doing pretty good with your argument but your last sentence.....



Oh, and illegals are to blame for all America's problems. To state otherwise is simply proof that you hate America.

Can you clarify that?

Since you posted in response to my post, I'm assuming it was meant for me?

YellowFever
29 Mar 14,, 05:07
You have that backward. Both the State Dept and DHS say, and have for a long time that Visa overstayers constitute around 55% of the illegal immigration in the US.


That fact rarely comes out, because its easier to get money/drum up money for the cause by showing videos of people coming over our southern border.


Since the exact quote I found on the DHS website is "anywhere between 27% to 57%" and even if we use the lowest figure (27%), your figure of 55% is much more accurate than my "miniscule", I concede the point.

I stand corrected.

Bigfella
29 Mar 14,, 05:27
Bigfella, you were doing pretty good with your argument but your last sentence.....



Can you clarify that?

Since you posted in response to my post, I'm assuming it was meant for me?

Not meant for you YF. Should have used an emoticon of some sort. Just making fun of people who manage to blame every single problem in America on the Je......oops, I meant illegal immigrants. Sort of a catch all excuse for everything. There should be a corollary to Godwin's law about any discussion on the US eventually ending up with 'illegals' copping the blame. Your failure to toe the party line has been duly noted & passed on to the appropriate authorities. ;)

bonehead
29 Mar 14,, 07:48
You have that backward. Both the State Dept and DHS say, and have for a long time that Visa overstayers constitute around 55% of the illegal immigration in the US.


That fact rarely comes out, because its easier to get money/drum up money for the cause by showing videos of people coming over our southern border.

You have some leverage over visa holders, ie get immunized or no visa. You have nothing on those who simply waltz across the border.

Doktor
29 Mar 14,, 08:02
You have some leverage over visa holders, ie get immunized or no visa. You have nothing on those who simply waltz across the border.

Not quite.

From US Embassy site:


The vaccination report is not required for K - fiance(e)s - K3/K4 and V visa applicants. All other immigrant visa applicants, however, must submit this report as part of the examination process.

Bigfella
29 Mar 14,, 08:58
Don't remember anyone asking about my immunization status last time I went to the US. Might have been one or two 'do you have this disease' questions, but I don't recall. Even if there are, people may not know or may not say. The biggest danger comes in every day through airports, not 'dirty Mexicans' walking across the border.

Blademaster
29 Mar 14,, 11:24
Not quite.

From US Embassy site:

This is not true since fiances on K-visas have to apply for green cards as a requisite to stay in America longer and part of the green card requirements is that the applicant must submit a vaccination report which include polio and others. I know because I speak from experience.

Doktor
29 Mar 14,, 11:30
This is not true since fiances on K-visas have to apply for green cards as a requisite to stay in America longer and part of the green card requirements is that the applicant must submit a vaccination report which include polio and others. I know because I speak from experience.

The quote is from US Embassy site for travelling visa.

Blademaster
29 Mar 14,, 15:43
The quote is from US Embassy site for travelling visa.

K-visa is not a tourist visa, it is an entrance visa with the purpose of obtaining a green card to stay in US indefinitely. It is only for fiances of US citizens and they are required to get married and follow up on the green card application which mandates polio vaccinations. So essentially, it is the same thing.

Doktor
29 Mar 14,, 16:02
K-visa is not a tourist visa, it is an entrance visa with the purpose of obtaining a green card to stay in US indefinitely. It is only for fiances of US citizens and they are required to get married and follow up on the green card application which mandates polio vaccinations. So essentially, it is the same thing.

I don't know what kind of visa is what, I know what I have read and what BF amended, and that is that some people wont be asked to show vaccination card to enter USA. That was the topic, IIRC.

Blademaster
29 Mar 14,, 16:56
I don't know what kind of visa is what, I know what I have read and what BF amended, and that is that some people wont be asked to show vaccination card to enter USA. That was the topic, IIRC.

From high risk prone to polio areas, even for tourist visas, the US embassy will ask for evidence of polio vaccination. Several years ago, if you wanted to apply for a tourist visa to US, you had to have an interview with a consular officer and submit proof that you are polio vaccination. From countries that have eradicated polio, US won't ask for vaccination card but for immigration purposes and with intent to stay longer than 6 months, everyone has to show polio vaccination records or get vaccinated, no exceptions.

bigross86
29 Mar 14,, 23:16
Those bloody illegal aliens, taking all of the available jobs!!!

36146

Just a quick moment of levity, we now return you to your originally planned discussion.

Albany Rifles
30 Mar 14,, 03:24
Don't remember anyone asking about my immunization status last time I went to the US. Might have been one or two 'do you have this disease' questions, but I don't recall. Even if there are, people may not know or may not say. The biggest danger comes in every day through airports, not 'dirty Mexicans' walking across the border.

Well that's cause your an Aussie and we figure if you could survive all the things that can kill you on your island paradise then there is no way in hell some damn disease would stand a chance!

Bigfella
30 Mar 14,, 03:40
Well that's cause your an Aussie and we figure if you could survive all the things that can kill you on your island paradise then there is no way in hell some damn disease would stand a chance!

Fair point. Ten foot high & bullet proof us. If we could survive the drop bears then piddling little diseases have no chance. :biggrin:

On a slightly serious note, as a continent we have made remarkably little contribution to the history of pandemics. Perhaps it is because we were settled later or didn't have large aggregations of people previous to that, but such fatal diseases as we have produced don't appear to have racked up much of a death toll.

Albany Rifles
30 Mar 14,, 04:59
Bigfella did the introduction of Europeans to Australia cause a pandemic amongst the aboriginal community as it did in much of the rest of the world?

Bigfella
30 Mar 14,, 10:27
Bigfella did the introduction of Europeans to Australia cause a pandemic amongst the aboriginal community as it did in much of the rest of the world?

Yup. Virgin population. Absolutely devastating. Some diseases were introduced in the north by maccassan traders before white contact, bout those populations were relatively sparse. On the more densely populated east coast the effect was much like the US, with limited and casual early contact producing epidemics largely out of the sight of whites and making subsequent conquests somewhat easier.

Ironically Australia's distance from Europe meant that white populations rapidly lost immunity to new strains of common diseases. The result was waves of infection among white settlers as transport links became more commonplace and faster.

Albany Rifles
30 Mar 14,, 21:45
Thanks. Hence all the badass plants and animals as a way to payback.

Bigfella
30 Mar 14,, 21:48
Thanks. Hence all the badass plants and animals as a way to payback.

Yep.

Batista
09 Jul 14,, 15:25
Ok so India is 100% Polio free.

Interestingly in our neighborhood the Polio workers are killed.

tantalus
15 Nov 14,, 02:33
Yes, its, amongst other things, Taliban bashing time, a popular hobby for civilized human beings the world over...


A "major milestone" in the battle to eliminate polio globally has been reached, the US Centres for Disease Control (CDC) has said.

Its experts think a second of the three forms of poliovirus has been eliminated after mass vaccination campaigns.

Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected for more than two years. Type 2 was eradicated in 1999.

Experts said the world was "closer than ever" to defeating polio but the situation in Pakistan was worrying.

Polio is highly infectious and causes paralysis in up to one in 200 people. Some children die when the muscles that help them breathe stop working.

But there has been huge progress in eliminating the disease. Cases have fallen from 350,000 in 1988 to 416 in 2013.

The last case of type 3 poliovirus was detected in Pakistan in November 2012, according to the CDC report.

Endemic
"We may have eradicated a second of three; that's a major milestone," said Dr Stephen Cochi, a senior adviser at the CDC's Centre for Global Health.

However, a formal process - involving the Polio Global Certification Commission - is required before type 3 can be officially declared eradicated. That will not take place for at least another year.

ype 1 remains endemic in three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria.

Dr Cochi told the BBC: "It's the most prickly one. For reasons that are unclear, this is the most common cause of polio outbreaks and the most frequent cause of paralytic polio."

There has been progress in Nigeria, where cases have fallen to six so far this year from 53 in 2013.

"But our biggest problem is getting worse in Pakistan," said Dr Cochi.

Cases have leap from 59 last year to 236 and counting in 2014.

Mass exodus
The Pakistani Taliban stopped polio vaccination programmes in some tribal areas of the country for about two years.

Since the summer there has been a mass exodus of people from the region after military operations by Pakistan's army.

Dr Cochi added: "The good news is now those children are accessible in refugee camps or other parts of the country so they are getting vaccinated.

"But the bad news is the poliovirus has spread all over the country and there have been cases from Karachi and Punjab province."

It means there is a serious risk of polio spreading to other countries. The virus travelled from Pakistan to Syria in 2013.

Prof Walt Orenstein, from the vaccine centre at Emory University in the US, told the BBC: "Type 3 appears to be gone - I think it is overwhelmingly likely that we are there, but it's too soon to say we're definitely there.

"So it's not a total victory, but it is very promising."

But he warned: "Pakistan is a major concern, about 85% of wild type 1 poliovirus this year has been in Pakistan, but in Nigeria there is real hope we can get rid of type 1 even by the end of this year."

BBC News - Polio eradication programme reaches 'major milestone' (http://www.bbc.com/news/health-30056311)

The war in Syria could prove a major hindrance. Taliban opposition to vaccination has probably been a major factor that has allowed polio case numbers to increase in Pakistan. Still, amazing progress, surely it's only a matter of time.