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indianguy4u
22 Apr 05,, 12:15
hi guys i wanted 2 start this tread for a good discussions on how much have chinese have develop there socalled jets themsevles.

i had some doubts on this b'coz

here is lavi webpage

http://www.israeli-weapons.com/weapons/aircraft/lavi/Lavi.html

and here J-10 (don't know chinese web site can any one post it)

http://www.aeronautics.ru/news/news002/news095.htm

also this rumour or truth

http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/article.asp?ID=357


Printer friendly version Posted 16/02/2003 Email this article to a friend


Latest Chinese Warplane Flies with US Technology
By David Isenberg - Asia Times 12-3-2


US Technology Appears In New Chinese Warplane Via Israel

The recent unveiling (sort of) of China's first domestically-designed (sort of) fighter jet was the culmination of a long saga of international military-hardware wheeling and dealing that has seen US-designed or -funded high-tech weaponry fall into the hands of potential military rivals.

The showpiece of many years' work, dating back to the late 1980s, recently happened - albeit unobserved - when China confirmed the existence of, but did not unveil, the Jian-10 fighter jet. It had been reported that the J-10 (F-10 being the export version, using North Atlantic Treaty Organization designation) would be shown in public for the first time during the fourth China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition (Airshow China 2002) held in Zhuhai in southern Guangdong province from November 4-10, but the plane did not appear.

The J-10 is a multi-role single-engine and single-seat tactical fighter, with a combat radius of 1,000 kilometers. Although billed as a domestically produced fighter, in truth the J-10 could not have happened without the help of other countries, especially
Israel.

The program began in the late 1980s and is thought to be based on an Israeli design. It contains Israeli and Russian avionics, and is powered by Russian engines.

Chinese engineers developed the J-10 from a single F-16 provided by Pakistan, and with assistance from Israeli engineers associated with Israel's US-financed Lavi fighter program, which was canceled in 1987, according to the Federation of American Scientists website. The Lavi was based on the US F-16 and built with US$1.3 billion in aid from Washington.

In 1983, when US support for the Lavi commenced, the program was opposed vigorously by the Defense Department, partly because of re-export concerns. An early supporter of the Lavi was George Shultz, then secretary of state in the administration of US president Ronald Reagan. Shultz would later label his advocacy of the program a "costly mistake".

Only in early 1995 did the US government make public its concerns about Israel's Lavi-related technology re-exports to China. David Lari, director general of Israel's Ministry of Defense, acknowledged in an Associated Press interview that "some technology on aircraft" had been sold to China and that some Israeli companies may not have "clean hands".

Yet China's acquisition of the Russian Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, is seen by some experts as a sign that China lacks confidence in its domestic industrial
capabilities.

Though it has never been certain precisely what specific technologies and systems Israel provided, it was reported that the Jian-10's radar and fire-control system is the Israeli-made ELM-2021 system, which can simultaneously track six air targets and lock on to the four most threatening targets for destruction.

In December 1991, US intelligence officials announced that Israel planned to open a government-coordinated and sponsored "arms office" in China. Given what the Israelis had to offer, and what the Chinese needed, it was most likely that a transfer of avionics and other technologies developed in the Lavi program would ensue, since there was a void in the Chinese avionics and fire-control system capability due to the 1989 termination of a US-Chinese program in response to Tiananmen Square.

China and Israel started collaboration in the early 1980s and full-scale cooperation was under way officially by 1984. As neither China nor Israel was capable of developing the propulsion system required by the J-10, in 1991 China acquired the AI31F turbofan engine from Russia for incorporation into the J-10 fighter. This engine is also used in the Su-27 air-superiority fighter that Chinese acquired from Russia. As the performance of the AL31F engine is significantly better than that of the American PW1120 originally slated for the Lavi, it may be anticipated that the performance of the J-10 will be accordingly enhanced. Built by the Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corp, the J-10 attempts to rival current fourth-generation Western fighters. China has inked a 10-year deal with the Russian engine maker SRPC Salut for 300 Al-31F engines for its J-10 program and will begin production of the jets next year.

The plane is said to have capabilities similar to the Su-27, the Russian MiG-29 and the US F-16 fighter jets, but with an estimated cost of less than $10 million, it could rival other jet makers on the international market.

In March 1997, despite official denials from Israeli officials, the US Office of Naval Intelligence in its unclassified "Worldwide Challenges to Naval Strike Warfare" restated more strongly than it had the previous year its belief that US-derived technology from the canceled Israeli Lavi fighter was being used on China's new F-10 fighter. It said, "The design has been undertaken with substantial direct external assistance, primarily from Israel and Russia, with indirect assistance through access to US technologies." In fact, according to the annual intelligence report, "the F-10 is a single-seat, light multi-role fighter based heavily on the canceled Israeli Lavi program".

Until it was canceled in 1987, much of Lavi technological development was paid for by the United States. Ironically, the potential capability of F-10 fighters was cited by both the US Navy and Air Force as one of the future threats justifying the expenditure of billions on new tactical aircraft, such as the F-22, F/A-18F, and Joint Strike Fighter. The fact that possibly US-derived technology provided by an ally might be contributing to that potential threat is a delicate subject.

However, this is not the first time accusations of illegal technology have been made. A March 1992 report by State Department inspector general Sherman Funk, "Report of Audit: Department of State Defense Trade Controls", states that alleged Israeli violations of US laws and regulations "cited and supported by reliable intelligence information show a systematic and growing pattern of unauthorized transfers ... dating back to about 1983".

The 1992 Funk report was the first time the US government had publicly released evidence that Israel was improperly re-exporting US-origin weapons technology. Israel and some of its US supporters quickly denounced it. So that their work would not be classified - and thus off-limits to the public - the writers of the report referred to Israel only as a "major recipient" of US technology, and misdeeds were not specified in detail. The classified version, of course, did name Israel as well as other states, and it cited instances of unauthorized retransfers, US officials said in interviews.

The Funk report criticized State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs for ignoring scores of intelligence reports of apparent violations of Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and International Traffic in Arms regulations retransfer restrictions and for not reporting them to senior officials and Congress, as required by law. Israel denounced the report, especially as its release followed allegations of improper transfer by Israel of Patriot missile technology to China.

In the summer of 2000, the Washington Times reported that a memo circulating inside the Pentagon's Defense Threat Reduction Agency told analysts they no longer had to gain input from the Defense Intelligence Agency before deciding whether controlled technology should be transferred to Israel. The DIA had compiled evidence that Israel had violated US export regulations by transferring missile, laser and aircraft technology to China.

Subsequently, when Israel tried to sell the Phalcon to India, the US government demanded that Israel limit arms exports. Israel was told that it must inform the US of all weapons transfers to 27 nations regarded as "countries of concern" such as China, India and Yugoslavia.

"Israel ranks second only to Russia as a weapons-system provider to China and as a conduit for sophisticated military technology, followed by France and Germany," stated a report this year by the US-China Security Review Commission, a panel established by Congress to examine security and economic relations between the two countries. "Recent upgrades in target acquisition and fire control, probably provided by Israeli weapons specialists, have enhanced the capabilities of the older guided missile destroyers and frigates" in the Chinese navy's inventory, it said.

The commission cited Israel as a supplier to Beijing of radar systems, optical and telecommunications equipment, drones and flight simulators.

Arms exports have not only played a crucial role in offsetting Israel's trade imbalance but have also performed a key role in furthering its diplomatic efforts. The sale of arms and technology has become one of the most effective techniques to furthering
Israeli goals overseas. The quiet ties with China and India and the growing alliance with Turkey in the 1980s and the 1990s are good examples of strong links based on such cooperation.

The J-10 is hardly the only result of Israeli-Chinese military cooperation. For example, the Chinese F-8, the same type of plane that collided with the US reconnaissance plane last year, is armed with Israeli Python-3 missiles. The Python, adapted from the US ALM-9L Sidewinder missile, has a high degree of US technology. Ironically for Israel, China apparently sold its version of Python-3, called the PL-8, to Iraq.

And, as was widely publicized, Israel was set to sell China the Phalcon, an airborne early-warning radar system, until it was forced by the United States to cancel the deal. The US Central Intelligence Agency also believed Israel was marketing its STAR cruise missile in China. The STAR incorporates sensitive US technology.

And former US officials report that both Israel and the Dutch company Delft made unauthorized sales of US thermal-imaging tank sights to, among others, China. The sights were installed on China's 69 MOD-2 tanks, some of which were sold to Iraq. The United States acquired physical evidence of this transfer after these tanks were used against US marines in the 1991 Gulf War.
http://atimes.com/atimes/China/DL04Ad01.html
Courtesy Manfred Stricker at Togethernet

Printer friendly version Email this article to a friend

Last updated 15/08/2004

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i would like netizens here to have good & insightfull disco plz

indianguy4u
22 Apr 05,, 12:29
go it from china defence

http://www.china-defense.com/aviation/greatleapforward/greatleapforward04.htm

bull
23 Apr 05,, 07:30
hi guys i wanted 2 start this tread for a good discussions on how much have chinese have develop there socalled jets themsevles.

i had some doubts on this b'coz

here is lavi webpage

http://www.israeli-weapons.com/weapons/aircraft/lavi/Lavi.html

and here J-10 (don't know chinese web site can any one post it)

http://www.aeronautics.ru/news/news002/news095.htm

also this rumour or truth

http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/article.asp?ID=357


Printer friendly version Posted 16/02/2003 Email this article to a friend


Latest Chinese Warplane Flies with US Technology
By David Isenberg - Asia Times 12-3-2


US Technology Appears In New Chinese Warplane Via Israel

The recent unveiling (sort of) of China's first domestically-designed (sort of) fighter jet was the culmination of a long saga of international military-hardware wheeling and dealing that has seen US-designed or -funded high-tech weaponry fall into the hands of potential military rivals.

The showpiece of many years' work, dating back to the late 1980s, recently happened - albeit unobserved - when China confirmed the existence of, but did not unveil, the Jian-10 fighter jet. It had been reported that the J-10 (F-10 being the export version, using North Atlantic Treaty Organization designation) would be shown in public for the first time during the fourth China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition (Airshow China 2002) held in Zhuhai in southern Guangdong province from November 4-10, but the plane did not appear.

The J-10 is a multi-role single-engine and single-seat tactical fighter, with a combat radius of 1,000 kilometers. Although billed as a domestically produced fighter, in truth the J-10 could not have happened without the help of other countries, especially
Israel.

The program began in the late 1980s and is thought to be based on an Israeli design. It contains Israeli and Russian avionics, and is powered by Russian engines.

Chinese engineers developed the J-10 from a single F-16 provided by Pakistan, and with assistance from Israeli engineers associated with Israel's US-financed Lavi fighter program, which was canceled in 1987, according to the Federation of American Scientists website. The Lavi was based on the US F-16 and built with US$1.3 billion in aid from Washington.

In 1983, when US support for the Lavi commenced, the program was opposed vigorously by the Defense Department, partly because of re-export concerns. An early supporter of the Lavi was George Shultz, then secretary of state in the administration of US president Ronald Reagan. Shultz would later label his advocacy of the program a "costly mistake".

Only in early 1995 did the US government make public its concerns about Israel's Lavi-related technology re-exports to China. David Lari, director general of Israel's Ministry of Defense, acknowledged in an Associated Press interview that "some technology on aircraft" had been sold to China and that some Israeli companies may not have "clean hands".

Yet China's acquisition of the Russian Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, is seen by some experts as a sign that China lacks confidence in its domestic industrial
capabilities.

Though it has never been certain precisely what specific technologies and systems Israel provided, it was reported that the Jian-10's radar and fire-control system is the Israeli-made ELM-2021 system, which can simultaneously track six air targets and lock on to the four most threatening targets for destruction.

In December 1991, US intelligence officials announced that Israel planned to open a government-coordinated and sponsored "arms office" in China. Given what the Israelis had to offer, and what the Chinese needed, it was most likely that a transfer of avionics and other technologies developed in the Lavi program would ensue, since there was a void in the Chinese avionics and fire-control system capability due to the 1989 termination of a US-Chinese program in response to Tiananmen Square.

China and Israel started collaboration in the early 1980s and full-scale cooperation was under way officially by 1984. As neither China nor Israel was capable of developing the propulsion system required by the J-10, in 1991 China acquired the AI31F turbofan engine from Russia for incorporation into the J-10 fighter. This engine is also used in the Su-27 air-superiority fighter that Chinese acquired from Russia. As the performance of the AL31F engine is significantly better than that of the American PW1120 originally slated for the Lavi, it may be anticipated that the performance of the J-10 will be accordingly enhanced. Built by the Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corp, the J-10 attempts to rival current fourth-generation Western fighters. China has inked a 10-year deal with the Russian engine maker SRPC Salut for 300 Al-31F engines for its J-10 program and will begin production of the jets next year.

The plane is said to have capabilities similar to the Su-27, the Russian MiG-29 and the US F-16 fighter jets, but with an estimated cost of less than $10 million, it could rival other jet makers on the international market.

In March 1997, despite official denials from Israeli officials, the US Office of Naval Intelligence in its unclassified "Worldwide Challenges to Naval Strike Warfare" restated more strongly than it had the previous year its belief that US-derived technology from the canceled Israeli Lavi fighter was being used on China's new F-10 fighter. It said, "The design has been undertaken with substantial direct external assistance, primarily from Israel and Russia, with indirect assistance through access to US technologies." In fact, according to the annual intelligence report, "the F-10 is a single-seat, light multi-role fighter based heavily on the canceled Israeli Lavi program".

Until it was canceled in 1987, much of Lavi technological development was paid for by the United States. Ironically, the potential capability of F-10 fighters was cited by both the US Navy and Air Force as one of the future threats justifying the expenditure of billions on new tactical aircraft, such as the F-22, F/A-18F, and Joint Strike Fighter. The fact that possibly US-derived technology provided by an ally might be contributing to that potential threat is a delicate subject.

However, this is not the first time accusations of illegal technology have been made. A March 1992 report by State Department inspector general Sherman Funk, "Report of Audit: Department of State Defense Trade Controls", states that alleged Israeli violations of US laws and regulations "cited and supported by reliable intelligence information show a systematic and growing pattern of unauthorized transfers ... dating back to about 1983".

The 1992 Funk report was the first time the US government had publicly released evidence that Israel was improperly re-exporting US-origin weapons technology. Israel and some of its US supporters quickly denounced it. So that their work would not be classified - and thus off-limits to the public - the writers of the report referred to Israel only as a "major recipient" of US technology, and misdeeds were not specified in detail. The classified version, of course, did name Israel as well as other states, and it cited instances of unauthorized retransfers, US officials said in interviews.

The Funk report criticized State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs for ignoring scores of intelligence reports of apparent violations of Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and International Traffic in Arms regulations retransfer restrictions and for not reporting them to senior officials and Congress, as required by law. Israel denounced the report, especially as its release followed allegations of improper transfer by Israel of Patriot missile technology to China.

In the summer of 2000, the Washington Times reported that a memo circulating inside the Pentagon's Defense Threat Reduction Agency told analysts they no longer had to gain input from the Defense Intelligence Agency before deciding whether controlled technology should be transferred to Israel. The DIA had compiled evidence that Israel had violated US export regulations by transferring missile, laser and aircraft technology to China.

Subsequently, when Israel tried to sell the Phalcon to India, the US government demanded that Israel limit arms exports. Israel was told that it must inform the US of all weapons transfers to 27 nations regarded as "countries of concern" such as China, India and Yugoslavia.

"Israel ranks second only to Russia as a weapons-system provider to China and as a conduit for sophisticated military technology, followed by France and Germany," stated a report this year by the US-China Security Review Commission, a panel established by Congress to examine security and economic relations between the two countries. "Recent upgrades in target acquisition and fire control, probably provided by Israeli weapons specialists, have enhanced the capabilities of the older guided missile destroyers and frigates" in the Chinese navy's inventory, it said.

The commission cited Israel as a supplier to Beijing of radar systems, optical and telecommunications equipment, drones and flight simulators.

Arms exports have not only played a crucial role in offsetting Israel's trade imbalance but have also performed a key role in furthering its diplomatic efforts. The sale of arms and technology has become one of the most effective techniques to furthering
Israeli goals overseas. The quiet ties with China and India and the growing alliance with Turkey in the 1980s and the 1990s are good examples of strong links based on such cooperation.

The J-10 is hardly the only result of Israeli-Chinese military cooperation. For example, the Chinese F-8, the same type of plane that collided with the US reconnaissance plane last year, is armed with Israeli Python-3 missiles. The Python, adapted from the US ALM-9L Sidewinder missile, has a high degree of US technology. Ironically for Israel, China apparently sold its version of Python-3, called the PL-8, to Iraq.

And, as was widely publicized, Israel was set to sell China the Phalcon, an airborne early-warning radar system, until it was forced by the United States to cancel the deal. The US Central Intelligence Agency also believed Israel was marketing its STAR cruise missile in China. The STAR incorporates sensitive US technology.

And former US officials report that both Israel and the Dutch company Delft made unauthorized sales of US thermal-imaging tank sights to, among others, China. The sights were installed on China's 69 MOD-2 tanks, some of which were sold to Iraq. The United States acquired physical evidence of this transfer after these tanks were used against US marines in the 1991 Gulf War.
http://atimes.com/atimes/China/DL04Ad01.html
Courtesy Manfred Stricker at Togethernet

Printer friendly version Email this article to a friend

Last updated 15/08/2004

Homepage


i would like netizens here to have good & insightfull disco plz

A very good article worth reading thanks

indianguy4u
25 Apr 05,, 11:46
also this one
http://www.air-attack.com/page.php?pid=42


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Chengdu J-10

China's fourth generation multi-role fighter aircraft

The Chengdu Aircraft Industry Co. (CAC) J-10, China's fourth generation multirole fighter aircraft, will be the most advanced fighter in the PLAAF's inventory once introduced to service. The J-10 programme (Project No.10) has been under way for over a decade. Six prototypes have been built by 2001 and these aircraft are reportedly undertaking extensive test flights at CAC's test site.



The first J-10 fighter model photo revealed by an internal press of the Chinese Aircraft Industry in the mid-1990s

The J-10 programme can trace its origins back to the J-9, a Mach 2.5 canard-delta fighter, which is a blend mixture of MiG-23 and Saab JA-37 Viggen. The J-9 project was transferred from Shenyang to Chengdu in 1969 and was later cancelled due to insufficient funds.

Work on the J-10 began in the 1980s as a counter to the Soviet Union?s fourth-generation fighters, the MiG-29 and Su-27. The original mission was air superiority, but the break-up of the Soviet Union and changing requirements shifted development towards a multirole fighter to replace the Shenyang J-6 (MiG-19) and Chengdu J-7 (MiG-21), which are backbone of China?s air force.



The Chinese President Jiang Zemin and the J-10 test pilot at CAC. In 1998, Jiang went to CAC to offer his congratulations to the successful test flight of the J-10

Originally based on the cancelled Israel Avation Industry (IAI) 'Lavi' lightweight fighter, the J-10's development has experienced some major re-design work due to the changes of requirements.
The development of J-10 has proven to be tortuous.
The prototype was rumored to have first flown in 1996, but the project suffered a serious setback in late 1997 when the 02 prototype lost control and crashed, as the result of certain system failure, presumably with either the FBW system or the engine.
After careful redesign and extensive ground test, the successful flight of the new prototype (J-10A?) took place on March 23, 1998, which put the project back on the track.
Initially 6 prototypes (serial numbers 1001-1006) were built undergoing various static and flight tests at CAC in Chengdu and at the CFTE in Yanliang. Subsequently 3 more prototypes were built (1007-1009) as the project is moving to the pre-production phase while PLAAF remains fully committed.
A carrier based version (J-10B?) was rumored but never confirmed. The earliest service date was expected to be 2005.


The latest news suggested that the test flight of J-10 is near completion and the full scale production will start in 2003 while 300 are planned. The first J-10 in production standard first flew on June 28, 2002.

DESIGN FEATURES
The J-10 has a rectangle belly air intake, with low-mounted delta wings, a pair of front canard wings, a large vertical fin, and two underfuselage fins. The design is aerodynamically unstable, to provide a high level of agility, low drag and enhanced lift. The pilot controls the aircraft through a computerised digital fly-by-wire system, which provides artificial stabilisation and gust elevation to give good control characteristics throughout the flight envelope.

COCKPIT
The J-10's cockpit is fitted with three flat-panel liquid crystal multifunction displays (MFDs), including one colour MFD, wide field-of-view head-up display (HUD), and possibly helmet-mounted sight (HMS). It is not know whether the HMS is the basic Ukrainian Arsenel HMS copied by China's Luoyang Avionics, or a new helmet display featured briefly at the 2000 Zhuhai air show.

The pilot manipulates the J-10 by the 'Iron Bird' flight-control system, a quadruple (four channels) digital fly-by-wire (FBW) based on the active control technology tested by the Shenyang J-8IIACT demonstrator aircraft. The pilot will also be aided by advanced autopilot and air data computer.



The first convincing photo of the J-10 prototype 01 anonymously published on Internet

RADAR:
Several options are available for the J-10 fighter. These include the Russian Phazotron Zhuk-10PD, a version of the system in later Su-27s, with 160 km search range and ability to track up to six targets. Israel has offered its Elta EL/M-2035 radar for competition. In addition, China has also developed its own design JL-10A, which might be assisted by Russian technology.

For low-level navigation and precision strike, a forward-looking infrared and laser designation pod is likely to be carried F-16-style on an inlet stores station. A Chinese designed pod similar to the Israeli Rafael Litening was revealed at the 1998 Zhuhai air show.

ENGINE:
The single-seat, single-engine J-10 is similar in size to the Lockheed Martin F-16C/D. The initial batch J-10s are going to be powered by 27,500 lb-thrust (120 kN) Russian Lyulka Saturn AL-31F turbofan, the same power plant also being used by Chinese air force Sukhoi Su-27s and Su-30s. Some report indicated that 100 AL-31F engines with features specially designed for the J-10 have already been delivered to China in early 2001.

China is also developing its own WS-10 turbofan power plant, and it could be fitted on the later versions of the J-10. According to the U.S. intelligence, the J-10 might be slightly more manoeuvrable than the F-18E/F, which is slated to become the U.S. Navy's next principal combat aircraft.

ARMARMENTS:
The fixed weapon of the J-10 is a 23 mm internal cannon.

The J-10 has 11 stores stations - six under the wing and five under the fuselage. The inner wing and centre fuselage stations are plumped to carry external fuel tanks. Fixed weapon is a 23-mm inner cannon hidden inside fuselage.



A J-10 prototype parking outside the hanger of the CAC test site

In addition to the PL-8 short-range infrared-guided air-to-air missile reportedly derived from Israeli Rafael Python-3 technology, the J-10 could also carry Russian Vympel R-73 (AA-11) short-range and R-77 (AA-12) medium-range missiles equipped by Chinese Flankers. It may also be fitted with indigenously developed PL-11 or PL-12 medium-range AAM for BVR combat.

For ground attack missions, the J-10 will carry laser-guided bombs, YJ-8K anti-ship missile, as well as various unguided bombs and rockets. Some missiles currently under development such as the YJ-9 ramjet-powered anti-radiation missile may also be carried by the J-10.

UPGRADE:
An all-aspect vectored-thrust version of the AL-31F was revealed for the first time at Zhuhai Air Show 1998, leading to speculation that this advanced engine may wind up on the J-10, potentially conferring phenomenal manoeuvrability. It also projects that a naval variant of the J-10, perhaps with twin-engines, may equip a possible Chinese aircraft carrier. China might also be considering upgrading the J-10 with more advanced phased-array radar to improve its combat capabilities.



Specifications
Primary Function: Multirole fighter

Builder: Chengdu Aircraft Industry Co. (CAC)

Power Plant: One Lyulka Saturn AL-31F turbofan
Thrust: 17,857 lb (79.43 kN) dry and 27,557 lb st (122.58 kN) with afterburning
Length: 14.57 m
Height: 4.78 m
Wingspan: 8.78 m

Wing Area: 33.1 m2
Speed: Mach 1.2 (sea-level) or Mach 2.0 (high altitude)
Ceiling: 18,000 m
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 18500 kg
Range: combat radius of 1,000 km
Armament: One 23 mm internal cannon, 4500 kg payload on 11 hardpoints
First Flight: 1996
Date Deployed: Around 2005



NOTE: Information and images from www.sinodefence.com



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



also this site
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/j-10.htm

indianguy4u
25 Apr 05,, 11:55
http://www.stormpages.com/jetfight/J-10_J-11_FC-1.htm

Message Board
J-10

J-10 (Project 10/Project 8810?) is a multi-role single-engine fighter being developed by Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) and 611 Institute. It has been selected by PLAAF as the next generation fighter to replace the obsolete J-7 fighter and Q-5 attack aircraft. Shown here is the 03 prototype approaching the runway at CAC/Factory 132 before landing, with its landing gears fully extended. The aircraft appears to have an Su-27 style nose and retangular air intake, an AL-31F type engine, twin nosewheels, and a distinct low-visibility camouflage color scheme. The aircraft also has a large vertical tail plus twin F-16 style ventral stablizers believed to provide greater stability at high AoA. Its fuselage looks considerably longer compared to Israeli Lavi. However its bubble canopy appears less elevated than that of F-16, suggesting the pilot has yet to possess a true 360 view. Unlike J-7E with double-delta wings, it appears to have a pair of inverted gull wings (i.e. the inner portion extends slightly downward, while the outer portion extends flat). Two red dummy PL-8 AAMs are regularly seen carried under the wing as well. The J-10 project was started in the mid-80s based on the experience (tailless delta wing and canard foreplanes) with J-9 which was cancelled earlier in favor of the less risky J-7C/MIG-21MF project. An early model of J-10 revealed a Mirage 2000 style intake with a center shock cone for better high speed performance and a Lavi style tail section, suggesting a possible connection with the cancelled Israeli fighter (however this was firmly denied by both parties). The change indicates that J-10 has gone through at least one major redesign in its 10-year development period from the initial conventional layout (as an air-superiority fighter) to the latest semi-stealthy design (as a multi-role fighter). This change may reflect a shift of its potential adversaries from former Soviet Mig-29/Su-27 to current American F-15/F-16 after end of the Cold War. The new design will certainly be fitted with advanced avionics including a "glass cockpit" (1 wide-angle HUD + 2 monochrome MFD + 1 color MFD), HMS, HOTAS, GPS/INS, air data computer, RWR, digital quadruplex FBW, digital fuel management system, 1553B databus, and a new PD fire-control radar (search distance 52~148km, track 4-8 targets simutaneously). The radar candidates include Israeli Elta EL/M 2035 (Type 1473?), Russian Phazotron Zhuk-M (Zhemchug), or the indigenous JL-10A from LETRI (with technical assistance from Phazotron?). A variety of newly developed air-to-air (e.g. PL-8 short-range IR-guided AAM and PL-11/PL-12/SD-10 medium-range radar-guided AAM) and air-to-surface weapons (e.g. C-701 TV-guided ASM & LGBs) are also expected to be carried under 11 hardpoints. Although it was believed to be powered initially by a 27,560lb/12,500kg thrust AL-31FN turbofan, a modified AL-31F which itself powers Su-27/J-11, Russia reportedly had denied China the license to produce the engine locally. As the result, an indigenous engine (WS-10A?) may be fitted later when the serial production starts. Some US military analysts believed that J-10 could pose a serious challenge to F/A-18E in terms of maneuverability. Some specifications of J-10 are (estimated): empty weight 9,750kg, max TO weight 19,277kg, internal fuel 4,500kg, external load 4,500kg, g load +9/-3, max speed Mach 2.0 (high altitude)/Mach 1.2 (sea level), TO distance <500m, combat radius 1,100km, ceiling 18,000m. The development of J-10 has proven to be tortuous. The first prototype (01?) was rumored to have flown in 1996, but the project suffered a serious setback in 1997 when the 02 prototype lost control and crashed, as the result of certain system failure, presumably with either the FBW system or the engine. After careful redesign and extensive ground test, the successful flight of the new prototype (1003/J-10A?) took place offically on March 23, 1998, which put the project back on the track. Initially 4 prototypes (serial numbers 1003-1006) were built undergoing various static and flight tests at CAC in Chengdu and at the CFTE in Yanliang. Subsequently 3 more prototypes were built (1007, 1008, & 1009) as the project is moving to the pre-production phase while PLAAF remains fully committed. The earliest service date was expected to be 2005. By early 2002 the flight test of J-10 was near completion and the full scale production will start in 2003 while 300 are planned. The first J-10A in production standard first flew on June 28, 2002. Currently the first batch of 50 (? 54 AL-31FN were imported in 2001) are being produced at CAC. 10 might have been delivered to the PLAAF Flight Test & Training Center for evaluation in summer 2002. The latest news suggested that a tandem seat trainer/attack version (J-10B?) has already been under development. Another advanced version with more stealth features (e.g. twin F-22 style vertical tailfins) was planned as well.

J-11 (Su-27SK) Flanker

The last of the Su-27 second batch is taxing on the runway before taking off. This batch of 24 Su-27s (18 Su-27SK and 6 Su-27UBK, S: serial, K: commercial) were acquired in 1996, following the first batch (20 SK & 6 UBK, $32m each) bought four years earlier. This heavy air-superiority fighter, combined with up to 10 AA-10 (R-27T/R, IR/SAR homing to 50km), AA-11 (R-73, IR homing to 15km) AAMs and Sorbtsiya ECM pods, gives PLAAF for the first time a truly offensive capability both in long-range BVR attack and short-range dog fight. Chinese Su-27s were also seen participating in attacking ground targets using unguided rockets and free-fall bombs. However this has raised controversy among some western observers over the soundness of risking such high value assets to perform the dangerous ground attack mission. Currently the first batch is operated by the 3rd Division based in Wuhu, Anhui Province, and were demonstrated extensively duing military exercises near the Taiwan Strait. Unfortunately, 5 Su-27s were seriously damaged during a typhoon in 1998 -- a shocking and bizarre accident. A few more are believed to have been lost during the years of service. They were later replaced by either imported Su-27s from Russia or locally assembled J-11s from Shenyang. The second batch is currently operated by the 2nd Division based in Shui Xi, Guangdong Province. More significantly, a $1.2 billion agreement to license-build 200 Su-27s (under the designation of J-11/Project 11, domestic use only, no exports) at Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC) was reached in late 1995 and finialized at the end of 1996. An upgraded Su-27SMK with in-flight refueling probe and Zhuk-27 radar was promoted to the Chinese, but it turned out that only the basic (or slightly imporved) SK model is included in the production. Nevertheless, this co-production plan would inevitably cost majority of the limited resource available to PLAAF and to Chinese aviation industry, thus may have made some negative impact on other indigenous figher projects, such as J-10. The first two J-11s rolled out by the end of 1998 using the kit supplied by Russian KnAAPO but were reported to have suffered quality problems. 14 were produced in 2000 and an annual production rate of 15-20 was projected. The use of demostically made parts will begin after the first 50 are assembled using Russian kits and eventually 60-70% of the parts will be manufactured in China (excluding AL-31F engine, which was denied by Russia for the license). It was also reported that Chinese are upgrading the aircraft with components designed locally or imported from western sources (dubbed J-11A or J-11B?), such as replacing some old analog instruments with new digital instruments and replacing AL-31F with the indigenous WS-10A. Initial batches of J-11s are believed to have entered the service with PLAAF 1st Division in Liaoning Province. A third batch of 28 Su-27UBKs ($35m each) were ordered in 1999 to speed up the training of qualified pilots as more J-11s are being rolled out of the assembly line. The first 4 (#51-54?) were delivered to China by IAPO on December 14, 2000 and they are equipped with improved fire-control radar (N-011M?) compatible with R-77/AA-12 AAM. Currently at least 18 Su-27UBKs are believed to be stationed at an airbase near Chongqing (33rd Division) in Southwest China facing India.

FC-1/Super-7/J-12

Revealed as the successor of the canceled Sino-US Super-7 project, FC-1 (Fighter Export-1, max TO weight 12,104kg, max speed 1.8M, ceiling 18,000m, max weapon load 3,900kg, ferry range 3,000km, max g load +8.5) is being developed by CAC/611 Institute (with some technical assistance from Russian Mikoyan OKB) as a "medium tech", light weight fighter/ground attack aircraft carrying a relatively cheap price tag (~$20m). Shown here is a full-scale mock-up constructed in early 2001. As a fighter designed for export, its main customer is expected to be Pakistan who also shares 50% of the total cost ($150m so far). Powered by a Russian RD-93 turbofan (an upgraded RD-33 which powers Mig-29), it is claimed to be 70-80% capable as F-16. It might also be powered by a domestically produced engine (Kunlun II or locally produced RD-93?) if it ever enters the service with PLAAF. The A-6 style "V" shaped air-intakes are believed to provide smooth air flow to the engine at high AoA. The aircraft may also be fitted with an inflight refueling probe and a deck arrester hook. Possible candidates of fire control radar for the export version include GEC-Marconi Blue Hawk, Thomson-CSF RDY, Phanzotron Kopyo and FIAR Grifo S7. A locally designed radar derived from LETRI JL-10 may be installed on domestic version. Other avionics include a 25 field of view HUD, two multi-functional displays and INS/GPS. But most of them have not been finalized. Weapon load includes both short (AIM-9P/PL-9/Magic 2) and medium-range AAMs (Aspide/PL-12/SD-10). LGBs and laser designatin pod can also be carried for precision strikes. Pakistan planed to acquire at least 150 Super-7s and demanded equal commitment from PLAAF as well (dubbed J-12?). The first prototype of FC-1 was set to fly in 1998, but the schedule was repeatedly postponed caused by various problems, such as limited funding, the reluctance of western countries to supply advanced avionics, as well as the revised specifications set by PAF to counter the threat from India's LCAs. These specifications include a new analog FBW system and a true BVR attack capability. In addition, FC-1's prospect in the domestic markte is not promising at all, as PLAAF has largely committed to the more advanced J-10 as its next generation fighter along with Su-27/J-11 and is reluctant to take any FC-1 due to its extensive western content and relatively low technology. The latest news indicated that the riveting of the first prototype formally started on September 16, 2002. Its first flightis currently set to be June 2003. Some of the FC-1 production may eventually be transferred from CAC to Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC).

XXJ/J-14

An F-22 style wind turrel model of XXJ was showned briefly in an AVIC I promotional video at the 2002 Zhuhai Airshow. First disclosed by US Office of Naval Intellegence (ONI) in 1997, XXJ (J-14 or Type D?) is a 4th generation fighter to enter the service around 2015. Both CAC/611 Institute and SAC/601 Institute are working their own designs for a large twin-engine multi-role fighter with enhanced stealth capability and maneuverability comparable to American F-22. It was speculated that 601 Institute has been working on designs based on conventional layout while 611 Institute has been working on designs based on canard/tailless delta wing plus belly air intake layout since early 90s. There was a third "triplane" layout which features canard foreplanes in addition to the conventional layout. However this configuration is believed to have been eliminated. Currently it appears that the 601/SAC have won the competition with their F-22 style configuration. However it is still unclear whether the aircraft will be able to fly in the next 5-7 years if everything goes smoothly. XXJ was initially planned to be powered by two 8,500kg/RD-33 class "medium thrust" turbofan engines with trust-vectoring nozzles to fullfill its high maneuverability requirement. A prototype of the trust-vectoring nozzle was displayed at Zhuhai Airshow by China Aeronautical Establishment/606 Institute in 2000. Consequently XXJ would have a 10t empty weight and a 15t normal TO weight. Now it appears that XXJ may be powered by more powerful 12,500kg/AL-31F class "high thrust" turbofan engines which results in a normal TO weight exceeding 20t, making it a true heavy weight fighter. The aircraft will incoporate an advanced FBW system based upon the Active Control Technology developed by 601 Institute and tested on its J-8IIACT technology demonstrator. Russian assistance in this project is expected too in terms of softwore support for calculating the RCS of various designs. The overall performance of XXJ is thought to be superior to EF-2000 and Rafale (stealth & agility) but still inferior to F-22 (electronics & supercruise).

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