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View Full Version : How could We Forget the History!——In Memory of Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945) 1.



Alastair
18 Apr 05,, 16:40
Most historians place the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War on the Battle of Lugou Bridge (Marco Polo Bridge Incident) on July 7, 1937. The Battle of Shanghai (August 13, 1937 - November 9, 1937) was a major engagement during the Sino-Japanese War.


The battle was significant in that it effectively destroyed Japan's goal of conquering China in three months, and signified the beginning of an all-out war, not just some "incidents," between the two countries. The battle lasted three months and involved over one million troops.It was the fiercest campaign since the battle of Verdun,1916.

It is divided into three stages. The first stage lasted from August 13 to September 11, during which the Kuomintang army defended the city against the Japanese who were landing at the shores of Shanghai; The second stage lasted from September 12 to November 4, during which the two armies involved in a bloody house-to-house battle in an attempt to gain control of the city; and the last stage, lasting from November 5 to end of the month, involved the retreat of the Chinese army by flanking Japanese. In the battle, approximately 200,000 died on both sides.

The Battle

On August 13, more than 10,000 Japanese troops pressed towards the Kongkew district of Shanghai and encountered the Chinese Peace Preservation Corps. The Japanese expected a swift victory to conquer Shanghai in three days and China in three months. However, they faced strong resistance.

On August 22, the Japanese 3rd, 8th, and 11th Divisions made an amphibious assault under naval bombardment and proceeded to land in at Chwansa, Shihtzelin, and Paoshan districts of Shanghai. The Chinese were unable to counterattack because of heavy enemy naval firepower. By September 17, the Chinese retreated to the North Railway Station further inland to set up a defensive line at Lotien-Shuangtsaoten section of the railway. During mid-September vicious house-to-house fighting erupted with 100,000 Japanese troops and the Japanese broke the Lotien line. The Chinese retreated further to the southern bank of Wentsaopang creek and took up defensive positions along the Kwangfu-Szesiangkungmiao-Liuho line. The Japanese further increased their men to 200,000 during October and launched an offensive on the Wentsaopang creek region. The Chinese also started their counter-offensive. This caused tremendous casualties on both sides.

On October 23, the Japanese broke through Chinese lines, forcing them to make an orderly retrograde operation further south in the hilltops of the Blue Dragon Ridge. The Chinese fought relentlessly to hold their higher ground. But with casualties of some thirty thousand, the Chinese retreated. With Chinese lines faltering throughout the city, the Japanese demanded a surrender on November 7th. However, the Chinese refused to surrender and bitter close-quarters battle continued, with Japanese planes straffing and bombing the city. The last Chinese troops evacuated from the city and retreated further south on November 12.

Aftermath and Appraisal

The Battle of Shanghai was a military defeat but a morale-boosting victory for the Chinese. It made clear to the world that the Chinese would no longer stand by and watch as Japanese forces "peacefully" conquered its territory piece by piece. It also demonstrated that the Chinese would not surrender under intense Japanese fire, something that Chiang wanted the Americans and the British to know for a long time. However, to prove his point, Chiang also had to send his German-trained Central Army into savage battles with the better-equipped and navally-supported Japanese army. The Central Army lost one-third of its men in the battle and it greatly reduced the Kuomintang's army manpower.

In addition, as General Li Tsung-jen pointed out in his memoir, Chiang knew the Chinese army had a slim chance of winning and Shanghai was likely to be lost. Li Tsung-jen proposed that the Central Army should preserve its strength and move further inland to capital Nanking to prepare for a more robust defense there.

Strategically speaking, Li believed that China was a vast country and it made no difference if a city could be held for a few months longer at the expense of huge casualties. However, Chiang believed that it was necessary to prove Chinese valor to the foreign powers in the city to bring them to China's side. In addition, the Chinese fought tenaciously so that the city would not fall in three days, and that China would not fall in three months as the Japanese had proclaimed. This proved to be extremely morale-boosting to the Chinese troops. However, the heavy casualties incurred by the Chinese and difficulties in conquering the city caused Japanese troops to carry out the Nanjing Massacre as a retributive action against Chinese resistance. All in all, although the price paid was astronomical, the battle was a proving ground for China's unwillingness to surrender and make any concessions to Japan and its determination to resist Japanese aggression.

Alastair
18 Apr 05,, 16:48
http://www.liuzhong.xm.fj.cn/xkzyk/jxzyk/lishi/zhuanti/100n/picture/5/4/10.jpg

chinese people flee from calamity

Alastair
18 Apr 05,, 16:51
http://www.wst.net.cn/history/8.13/371_081313.jpg

burning city

http://www.informationwar.org/wars%20gallery/China-sino-japanesewar04.JPG

crying infant sitting on a broken station platform

Alastair
18 Apr 05,, 17:01
http://www.armysky.com/bbs/UploadFile/2004-9/200491922042978.jpg

http://211.86.84.99/sf2/upload/sf_20047710565.jpg

street battle

Alastair
18 Apr 05,, 17:14
http://www.armysky.com/bbs/UploadFile/2004-9/200491922228569.jpg


http://www.armysky.com/bbs/UploadFile/2004-9/200491922439107.jpg

japanese army

Alastair
18 Apr 05,, 18:01
http://www.informationwar.org/wars%20gallery/China-sino-japanesewar01.JPG

chinese soldier marched to Shanghai from backside

etsee
19 Apr 05,, 04:09
http://www.informationwar.org/wars%20gallery/China-sino-japanesewar01.JPG

chinese soldier marched to Shanghai from backside


http://buluo.163.com/userfile/235/-0IYQ/20050227212602.jpg

etsee
19 Apr 05,, 04:12
http://buluo.163.com/userfile/235/-0IYQ/20050227212527.jpg

etsee
19 Apr 05,, 04:14
this man was beheaded
http://buluo.163.com/userfile/235/-0IYQ/20050227212727.jpg

etsee
19 Apr 05,, 04:17
this photo published in American magazine in 1938
http://buluo.163.com/userfile/235/-0IYQ/20050227212842.jpg

Alastair
19 Apr 05,, 04:46
http://forum.xinhuanet.com/upfiles/00F842D6.002C

chinese resisted

etsee
19 Apr 05,, 04:56
http://forum.xinhuanet.com/upfiles/00F5A3B9.002C

dalem
19 Apr 05,, 05:04
Who says anyone has forgotten? Why pig it up with pics?

-dale

Alastair
19 Apr 05,, 05:07
Who says anyone has forgotten? -dale

some japanese ofcourse -alastair

dalem
19 Apr 05,, 05:30
some japanese ofcourse -alastair

Ah yes, but that's par for the course, and I haven't noticed a lot of Japanese posting here. :)

-dale

Enzo Ferrari
19 Apr 05,, 06:28
Most Japanese think they are beaten by the American and British, not the Chinese at WWII, LOL.

Officer of Engineers
19 Apr 05,, 06:39
Most Japanese don't think they were beaten. Just nuked.

Alastair
19 Apr 05,, 06:51
Most Japanese think they are beaten by the American and British, not the Chinese at WWII, LOL.

China contained the japanese troops in WWII as possible as she can,the fighting had reached a stalemate since 1940. As we know US play a critical role to defeat japan.

The Japanese recorded around 1.1 million military casualties, killed, wounded and missing in sino-japanese war

cooldw57
22 Apr 05,, 02:51
some japanese ofcourse -alastair

Agreed. It's pathetic the Japanese PM still visits the Yasukuni Shrine. History will never forget.

Just imagine Johannes Rau visits a shrine with Hitler's name on it, or imagine German elementary school textbooks claims the German Nazi's motivation was to "liberate Europe" and that Hollocaust never happened.

A little compare and contrast:

During his visit in Warsaw on December 17, 1970, Willy Brandt, then chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, presented wreath to the Warsaw Ghetto Memorial. Staring at the reliefs on the Jewish victims, Brandt kneeled down all of a sudden, praying for pardon by God and peace for the anguished souls.

http://www.facinghistorycampus.org/campus/tj/tj.nsf/kniefall.jpg

At the dedication of Willy Brandt Square in Warsaw on December 6, 2000, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder recalled Brandt’s heroic act of nearly thirty years before:
Here a German political leader, the head of government representing the Germans in the Federal Republic of Germany, had the sympathy and the courage to express something that words, no matter how carefully phrased, were unable to: we committed crimes and we confess to these crimes.

This image of Willy Brandt kneeling has become a symbol. A symbol of accepting the past and of understanding it as an obligation for reconciliation. As an obligation for a common future. Like so many Germans and Poles I will never forget this image. It has come to be a reminder and a political credo for entire generations.