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neyzen
31 Dec 07,, 13:35
Townspeople of Constantinople meets with coffee assumingly late 16th century. Katip Çelebi has mentioned about abrupt reactions of ulema to drinking coffee. Ulema tend to compare coffee with fermented drinks which are prohibited by Islam.

According to İbrahim Peçevi, first coffeehouses appears in capital city presumably with approval of sultan in 1555. Apparently customers of coffeehouses were belonging to Kalemiyye class. Peçevi calls them “some enlightened gentlemen who are lively and addicted to amusement”.

“They could gather as groups of twenty or thirty in each coffeehouse. Some of them are reading books, discussing about rules of good manners as others were playing chess either backgammon. It had also seen that some of them were bringing their newest poems and discussing about art”

More the coffeehouses became widespread bring a heterogenic group of people together. According to Peçevi’s account we can consider coffeehouses as social platforms that bring people from different social classes without cultural obstacles and formal references. Peçevi continues: “Coffeehouses are fulfilled with kadıs, boarding teachers of medrese and by vagrants and there was no space neither to sit nor stand. People claim that there’s no match of coffeehouses for amusement” After second part of 16th century the endeavors of ulema to prohibit coffeehouses are increased.

Results of controversies focused on subject of coffee are indistinct in Ottoman Empire

Ebusuud’s fetvas are reliable sources for the early controversies about situation of coffee. Katip Çelebi on his account claimed that the first reactions of ulema was harsh. He’s mentioning about Ebusuud Efendi’s order to sink the ships that were transporting coffee to Constantinople and destroying the latest shipments. However there’s no such order or interpretation was found among fetvas of Ebusuud.

The reasons of harsh reaction of Ulema were caused by the production process of coffee ( parched seeds of coffee were considered as carbonized) and passing coffee cups from hand to hand by customers in coffeehouses (which is considered like usage of prohibited pleasure giving beverages). However coffee is also used by mystic orders as some kind of aid to keep believer awake and continue devotions. The attitude of ulema towards deciding coffee and coffeehouses’ situation in public norms was inconsistant. Coffeehouses soon became socially legitimate places of amusement in the eyes of society.

Prohibitions are open to interpret in a way to keep public morality in high level as the identity of Ottoman Empire was regenerated as protector of Sunni Islam. Coffeehouses apparently were broking the hierarchic bounds of the society and gaining popularity among every social class. Thus possible to be interpreted in a way that ulema perceived coffeehouses as implicit thread to public authority.

An important point for the origin of coffeehouses that they located near to mosques. People of ulema or dervishes from different orders had gathered and discussed about daily subjects before and after diversion in Arabic cities. ‘the mob’ could take those people’s behavior as references and later on the coffeehouse concept could be shaped by this affect.

That essence was the heritage of coffeehouse tradition which Constantinople imported in 16th century. The descriptions of 16th century’s coffeehouses were simple: located on neighborhoods in city centers, severe and providing cheap amusement services together with tobacco and coffee. Men are dominant in coffeehouses again as usual in a society which has certain lines between women and men that related to religious beliefs.

Socially legitimate: Coffeehouses are tending to be compared with meyhanes in every prohibition attempts. R. Hattox also considers coffeehouses as meyhanes without alcoholic beverages. Actually it’s discussible to consider coffeehouses as meyhanes but what certain are services of coffeehouses were limited with only tobacco and coffee. Coffeehouses could be positioned with more active role of socialization while meyhanes were marks of marginalization in Ottoman society.

Apparently the broader amount of people from different classes was to visit coffeehouses and it was more widespread than meyhanes. Meyhanes were located on certain neighborhoods with bad reputation like Galata and driking behavior and rituals of people were differentiating among social classes. Coffeehouses were to appear places where to gain or manipulate the masses. Thus we’re reaching to point that individual behaviors of people were gaining importance in coffeehouses.

HistoricalDavid
07 Jan 08,, 01:54
Did they have Starbucks every 100 feet?

Big K
07 Jan 08,, 13:17
Did they have Starbucks every 100 feet?

some kind of...yes :)

neyzen
07 Jan 08,, 15:18
Did they have Starbucks every 100 feet? You can't find mosque or school in every villages. But I guaranty you that you will find coffeehouses in every villages. I have to add that coffeehouses and cafes are not same thing. Starbucks is one of the most expensive cafe brand in Turkey. Starbucks exist only in malls and on rich streets of some big cities.

HistoricalDavid
07 Jan 08,, 16:28
I was being facetious. The latest state-of-the-art archaeological research suggests that Starbucks did not, in fact, exist in the 16th century.

dave lukins
07 Jan 08,, 18:01
Not forgetting that coffeehouses were the Chess and Backgammon clubs of the day. To a lesser degree they still are

Bulgaroctonus
07 Jan 08,, 18:36
Here in New Jersey there are many Turkish immigrants and I have had the distinct pleasure of having Turkish Coffee on many occasions. It is far superior to any standardized filth offered from a Starbucks. I wonder how that company makes any profit in Turkey.

Lord willing, I may study abroad in Istanbul next year, so I will make a point to sample the coffee.

You all may recall the importation of coffee to Europe, which according to legend began with the Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683. As the Christians raided the camp after driving away the Ottomans, they discovered vast stockpiles of coffee beans. The rest is tasty Viennese history.

neyzen
07 Jan 08,, 20:55
Some people used to prepare their Turkish Coffee with opium in early days of the republic. Turkish Coffee is not as much popular as regular coffee in Turkey. Mostly housewives drink it during their gossiping. Tea dominate to all. We drink tea in small glasses and I think we prepare tea/chay like rest of the Asia. We steep tea in a special teakettle. It becomes more dark. Brits don't like it, but Russians like it.

@Bulgaroctonus are you Bulgar? What and where do you plan to study?

Ironduke
08 Jan 08,, 13:34
I was being facetious. The latest state-of-the-art archaeological research suggests that Starbucks did not, in fact, exist in the 16th century.
He understood what you meant... he was saying coffeehouses were and are as ubiquitous of the "Starbucks every 100 feet."

Bulgaroctonus
08 Jan 08,, 18:31
Some people used to prepare their Turkish Coffee with opium in early days of the republic. Turkish Coffee is not as much popular as regular coffee in Turkey. Mostly housewives drink it during their gossiping. Tea dominate to all. We drink tea in small glasses and I think we prepare tea/chay like rest of the Asia. We steep tea in a special teakettle. It becomes more dark. Brits don't like it, but Russians like it.

@Bulgaroctonus are you Bulgar? What and where do you plan to study?

I am American, studying history, cell biology and neuroscience. I am familiar with Bulgarian history and culture. However, my user name comes from the title of Byzantine Emperor Basil II (r. 976-1025), the Bulgar-Killer.

ArmchairGeneral
09 Jan 08,, 05:17
I am American, studying history, cell biology and neuroscience.

Hey, I didn't realize you were a bio major as well as a history major. :cool: I thought about doing a double major, or at least minoring in history, but between laziness and schedule constraints I just stuck with biology and chemistry.

Speedy
09 Jan 08,, 17:52
I am American, studying history, cell biology and neuroscience. I am familiar with Bulgarian history and culture. However, my user name comes from the title of Byzantine Emperor Basil II (r. 976-1025), the Bulgar-Killer.


It sounds better calling him Basil Bulgar Basher.

Big K
10 Jan 08,, 14:48
It sounds better calling him Basil Bulgar Basher.

why somebody wants to get a nickname called "Bulgar BAhser"??

Ucar
10 Jan 08,, 16:54
why somebody wants to get a nickname called "Bulgar BAhser"??

It happens from time to time in history. Remember Yavuz Sultan Selim. There are strong arguments that Yavuz is derived from "Yabız" meaning bad, evil, ruthless.

S2
10 Jan 08,, 17:19
How would a cup of really good turkish coffee be prepared in a funky ol' local place? When, why, and where is it best to take your coffee?

Ucar
11 Jan 08,, 08:31
How would a cup of really good turkish coffee be prepared in a funky ol' local place? When, why, and where is it best to take your coffee?

Actually Wikipedia has a rather neat article on Turkish Coffee. Here's my recipe :

You will need coffee or Arabica variety. After the seeds have been heat treated, they are ground into a powder like form. This is readily made, and we buy it is this way.

Add 1 full spoon (medium size, dessert spoon) of coffee per person, and 1 small cup (app.100 ml) of good quality drinking water. If you like it somewhat sweet, add 1 cube of sugar per person. Put them in a small "cezve" -a small heating cup with a handle- and stir until all coffee is in the water (you will notice it floats before the water warms a little. Once all the coffee is in the water, allow it to boil. It will create a significant foam and start to rise to the top of the "cezve". Pour half of the coffee in a small, cup, place the remaining portion back on heat again, and allow the foam to form again. Fill the remainder of the cup and enjoy :)

Turkish Coffee is usually consumed after meals, and in midday as a break.

S2
11 Jan 08,, 12:04
What I notice different from what I enjoy is primarily the absence of a filter in your method (or have I missed something?). In frame 7 of the process, could you suggest what I'm seeing piled next to the coffee-cup?

The process seems simple. Powdered grind (espresso grind) coffee is mixed with fresh, cold water and brought to a boil gently (over a five minute period) before pouring, dregs included. Sugar may be added during boiling or after. Foam seems a function of, exclusively, the boiling process.

Bulgaroctonus
12 Jan 08,, 01:24
Hey, I didn't realize you were a bio major as well as a history major. :cool: I thought about doing a double major, or at least minoring in history, but between laziness and schedule constraints I just stuck with biology and chemistry.

All I can say is, "It keeps me busy!"

ArmchairGeneral
12 Jan 08,, 05:39
My dad used to use a Turkish coffee pot. His pot is kind of hourglass shaped. I think that helps in the foaming process. He would bring it to a boil, causing it to foam up and take it off the heat before it boiled over. Repeat a couple of times, and it's ready. We'd always strain it, don't really have a taste for coffee grounds.

astralis
14 Jan 08,, 03:29
turkish coffee = so thick, you don't drink- you eat.

Bulgaroctonus
16 Jan 08,, 14:17
Gentlemen, just updating the field...

I had some great Turkish coffee last night.

It was triumphant.

Big K
16 Jan 08,, 15:12
Gentlemen, just updating the field...

I had some great Turkish coffee last night.

It was triumphant.


:)

coffee is from kahve(Turkish) is from keyfe(Arabic or Farsi) means "who gives pleasure"

:)

kahve have a very important role in the Turkish social life...

dave lukins
16 Jan 08,, 15:58
My dad used to use a Turkish coffee pot. His pot is kind of hourglass shaped. I think that helps in the foaming process. He would bring it to a boil, causing it to foam up and take it off the heat before it boiled over. Repeat a couple of times, and it's ready. We'd always strain it, don't really have a taste for coffee grounds.

If you use Turkish "style" coffee leave the grounds in. They are so heavy they remain on the bottom of the cup. "Turkish style" coffee is the only coffee I drink. I got a taste for it whilst stationed in Cyprus and I have two large tins of it in my fridge.